Topology and entanglement of molecular phase space

TitleTopology and entanglement of molecular phase space
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsAlbert, VV, Kubischta, E, Lemeshko, M, Liu, LR
Date Published3/7/2024

We formulate a quantum phase space for molecular rotational and nuclear-spin states. Taking in molecular geometry and nuclear-spin data, our framework yields admissible position and momentum states, inter-convertible via a generalized Fourier transform. We classify molecules into three types -- asymmetric, rotationally symmetric, and perrotationally symmetric -- with the last type having no macroscopic analogue due to nuclear-spin statistics constraints. We identify two features in perrotationally symmetric state spaces that are Hamiltonian-independent and induced solely by symmetry and spin statistics. First, many molecular species are intrinsically rotation-spin entangled in a way that cannot be broken without transitioning to another species or breaking symmetry. Second, each molecular position state houses an internal pseudo-spin or "fiber" degree of freedom, and the fiber's Berry phase or matrix after adiabatic changes in position yields naturally robust operations, akin to braiding anyonic quasiparticles or realizing fault-tolerant quantum gates. We outline scenarios where these features can be experimentally probed.