The Second Moment of Hafnians in Gaussian Boson Sampling

TitleThe Second Moment of Hafnians in Gaussian Boson Sampling
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsEhrenberg, A, Iosue, JT, Deshpande, A, Hangleiter, D, Gorshkov, AV
Date Published3/20/2024

Gaussian Boson Sampling is a popular method for experimental demonstrations of quantum advantage, but many subtleties remain in fully understanding its theoretical underpinnings. An important component in the theoretical arguments for approximate average-case hardness of sampling is anticoncentration, which is a second-moment property of the output probabilities. In Gaussian Boson Sampling these are given by hafnians of generalized circular orthogonal ensemble matrices. In a companion work [arXiv:2312.08433], we develop a graph-theoretic method to study these moments and use it to identify a transition in anticoncentration. In this work, we find a recursive expression for the second moment using these graph-theoretic techniques. While we have not been able to solve this recursion by hand, we are able to solve it numerically exactly, which we do up to Fock sector 2n=80. We further derive new analytical results about the second moment. These results allow us to pinpoint the transition in anticoncentration and furthermore yield the expected linear cross-entropy benchmarking score for an ideal (error-free) device.