Qubit-Oscillator Concatenated Codes: Decoding Formalism and Code Comparison

TitleQubit-Oscillator Concatenated Codes: Decoding Formalism and Code Comparison
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsXu, Y, Wang, Y, Kuo, E-J, Albert, VV
JournalPRX Quantum
Date Published6/14/2023

Concatenating bosonic error-correcting codes with qubit codes can substantially boost the error-correcting power of the original qubit codes. It is not clear how to concatenate optimally, given that there are several bosonic codes and concatenation schemes to choose from, including the recently discovered Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) – stabilizer codes [Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 080503 (2020)] that allow protection of a logical bosonic mode from fluctuations of the conjugate variables of the mode. We develop efficient maximum-likelihood decoders for and analyze the performance of three different concatenations of codes taken from the following set: qubit stabilizer codes, analog or Gaussian stabilizer codes, GKP codes, and GKP-stabilizer codes. We benchmark decoder performance against additive Gaussian white noise, corroborating our numerics with analytical calculations. We observe that the concatenation involving GKP-stabilizer codes outperforms the more conventional concatenation of a qubit stabilizer code with a GKP code in some cases. We also propose a GKP-stabilizer code that suppresses fluctuations in both conjugate variables without extra quadrature squeezing and formulate qudit versions of GKP-stabilizer codes.