Candidate for a passively protected quantum memory in two dimensions

TitleCandidate for a passively protected quantum memory in two dimensions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsLieu, S, Liu, Y-J, Gorshkov, AV
Date Published3/2/2023

An interesting problem in the field of quantum error correction involves finding a physical system that hosts a ``passively protected quantum memory,'' defined as an encoded qubit coupled to an environment that naturally wants to correct errors. To date, a quantum memory stable against finite-temperature effects is only known in four spatial dimensions or higher. Here, we take a different approach to realize a stable quantum memory by relying on a driven-dissipative environment. We propose a new model, the photonic-Ising model, which appears to passively correct against both bit-flip and phase-flip errors in two dimensions: A square lattice composed of photonic ``cat qubits'' coupled via dissipative terms which tend to fix errors locally. Inspired by the presence of two distinct Z2-symmetry-broken phases, our scheme relies on Ising-like dissipators to protect against bit flips and on a driven-dissipative photonic environment to protect against phase flips. We also discuss possible ways to realize the photonic-Ising model.