There are myriad quantum computing approaches, each having its own set of challenges to understand and effectively control their operation. Electrons confined in arrays of semiconductor nanostructures, called quantum dots (QDs), is one such approach. The easy access to control parameters, fast measurements, long qubit lifetimes, and the potential for scalability make QDs especially attractive. However, as the size of the QD array grows, so does the number of parameters needed for control and thus the tuning complexity. The current practice of manually tuning the qubits is a relatively time-consuming procedure and is inherently impractical for scaling up and applications. In this work, we report on the in situ implementation of an auto-tuning protocol proposed by Kalantre et al. [arXiv:1712.04914]. In particular, we discuss how to establish a seamless communication protocol between a machine learning (ML)-based auto-tuner and the experimental apparatus. We then show that a ML algorithm trained exclusively on synthetic data coming from a physical model to quantitatively classify the state of the QD device, combined with an optimization routine, can be used to replace manual tuning of gate voltages in devices. A success rate of over 85 % is determined for tuning to a double quantum dot regime when at least one of the plunger gates is initiated sufficiently close to the desired state. Modifications to the training network, fitness function, and optimizer are discussed as a path towards further improvement in the success rate when starting both near and far detuned from the target double dot range.

%B Phys. Rev. Applied %V 13 %8 4/1/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.08030 %N 034075 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034075 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T Constructing Multipartite Bell inequalities from stabilizers %A Qi Zhao %A You Zhou %XBell inequality with self-testing property has played an important role in quantum information field with both fundamental and practical applications. However, it is generally challenging to find Bell inequalities with self-testing property for multipartite states and actually there are not many known candidates. In this work, we propose a systematical framework to construct Bell inequalities from stabilizers which are maximally violated by general stabilizer states, with two observables for each local party. We show that the constructed Bell inequalities can self-test any stabilizer state which is essentially device-independent, if and only if these stabilizers can uniquely determine the state in a device-dependent manner. This bridges the gap between device-independent and device-dependent verification methods. Our framework can provide plenty of Bell inequalities for self-testing stabilizer states. Among them, we give two families of Bell inequalities with different advantages: (1) a family of Bell inequalities with a constant ratio of quantum and classical bounds using 2N correlations, (2) Single pair inequalities improving on all previous robustness self-testing bounds using N+1 correlations, which are both efficient and suitable for realizations in multipartite systems. Our framework can not only inspire more fruitful multipartite Bell inequalities from conventional verification methods, but also pave the way for their practical applications.

%8 2/5/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.01843 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Research %D 2020 %T Efficient randomness certification by quantum probability estimation %A Yanbao Zhang %A Honghao Fu %A Emanuel Knill %XFor practical applications of quantum randomness generation, it is important to certify and further produce a fixed block of fresh random bits with as few trials as possible. Consequently, protocols with high finite-data efficiency are preferred. To yield such protocols with respect to quantum side information, we develop quantum probability estimation. Our approach is applicable to device-independent as well as device-dependent scenarios, and it generalizes techniques from previous works [Miller and Shi, SIAM J. Comput. 46, 1304 (2017); Arnon-Friedman et al., Nat. Commun. 9, 459 (2018)]. Quantum probability estimation can adapt to changing experimental conditions, allows stopping the experiment as soon as the prespecified randomness goal is achieved, and can tolerate imperfect knowledge of the input distribution. Moreover, the randomness rate achieved at constant error is asymptotically optimal. For the device-independent scenario, our approach certifies the amount of randomness available in experimental results without first searching for relations between randomness and violations of fixed Bell inequalities. We implement quantum probability estimation for device-independent randomness generation in the CHSH Bell-test configuration, and we show significant improvements in finite-data efficiency, particularly at small Bell violations which are typical in current photonic loophole-free Bell tests.

%B Phys. Rev. Research %V 2 %8 1/7/2020 %G eng %N 013016 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.013016 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2020 %T Experimental Low-Latency Device-Independent Quantum Randomness %A Yanbao Zhang %A Lynden K. Shalm %A Joshua C. Bienfang %A Martin J. Stevens %A Michael D. Mazurek %A Sae Woo Nam %A Carlos Abellán %A Waldimar Amaya %A Morgan W. Mitchell %A Honghao Fu %A Carl Miller %A Alan Mink %A Emanuel Knill %XApplications of randomness such as private key generation and public randomness beacons require small blocks of certified random bits on demand. Device-independent quantum random number generators can produce such random bits, but existing quantum-proof protocols and loophole-free implementations suffer from high latency, requiring many hours to produce any random bits. We demonstrate device-independent quantum randomness generation from a loophole-free Bell test with a more efficient quantum-proof protocol, obtaining multiple blocks of 512 bits with an average experiment time of less than 5 min per block and with certified error bounded by 2−64≈5.42×10−20.

%B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 124 %8 12/24/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.07786 %N 010505 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.010505 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T A note on blind contact tracing at scale with applications to the COVID-19 pandemic %A Jack K. Fitzsimons %A Atul Mantri %A Robert Pisarczyk %A Tom Rainforth %A Zhikuan Zhao %XThe current COVID-19 pandemic highlights the utility of contact tracing, when combined with case isolation and social distancing, as an important tool for mitigating the spread of a disease [1]. Contact tracing provides a mechanism of identifying individuals with a high likelihood of previous exposure to a contagious disease, allowing additional precautions to be put in place to prevent continued transmission. Here we consider a cryptographic approach to contact tracing based on secure two-party computation (2PC). We begin by considering the problem of comparing a set of location histories held by two parties to determine whether they have come within some threshold distance while at the same time maintaining the privacy of the location histories. We propose a solution to this problem using pre-shared keys, adapted from an equality testing protocol due to Ishai et al [2]. We discuss how this protocol can be used to maintain privacy within practical contact tracing scenarios, including both app-based approaches and approaches which leverage location history held by telecoms and internet service providers. We examine the efficiency of this approach and show that existing infrastructure is sufficient to support anonymised contact tracing at a national level.

%8 4/10/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.05116 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2020 %T The operator Lévy flight: light cones in chaotic long-range interacting systems %A Tianci Zhou %A Shenglong Xu %A Xiao Chen %A Andrew Guo %A Brian Swingle %XWe propose a generic light cone phase diagram for chaotic long-range r−α interacting systems, where a linear light cone appears for α≥d+1/2 in d dimension. Utilizing the dephasing nature of quantum chaos, we argue that the universal behavior of the squared commutator is described by a stochastic model, for which the exact phase diagram is known. We provide an interpretation in terms of the Lévy flights and show that this suffices to capture the scaling of the squared commutator. We verify these phenomena in numerical computation of a long-range spin chain with up to 200 sites.

%B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 124 %8 7/6/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.08646 %N 180601 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.180601 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T On the Principles of Differentiable Quantum Programming Languages %A Shaopeng Zhu %A Shih-Han Hung %A Shouvanik Chakrabarti %A Xiaodi Wu %XVariational Quantum Circuits (VQCs), or the so-called quantum neural-networks, are predicted to be one of the most important near-term quantum applications, not only because of their similar promises as classical neural-networks, but also because of their feasibility on near-term noisy intermediate-size quantum (NISQ) machines. The need for gradient information in the training procedure of VQC applications has stimulated the development of auto-differentiation techniques for quantum circuits. We propose the first formalization of this technique, not only in the context of quantum circuits but also for imperative quantum programs (e.g., with controls), inspired by the success of differentiable programming languages in classical machine learning. In particular, we overcome a few unique difficulties caused by exotic quantum features (such as quantum no-cloning) and provide a rigorous formulation of differentiation applied to bounded-loop imperative quantum programs, its code-transformation rules, as well as a sound logic to reason about their correctness. Moreover, we have implemented our code transformation in OCaml and demonstrated the resource-efficiency of our scheme both analytically and empirically. We also conduct a case study of training a VQC instance with controls, which shows the advantage of our scheme over existing auto-differentiation for quantum circuits without controls.

%8 4/2/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.01122 %R https://doi.org/10.1145/3385412.3386011 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T Probing many-body localization on a noisy quantum computer %A D. Zhu %A S. Johri %A N. H. Nguyen %A C. Huerta Alderete %A K. A. Landsman %A N. M. Linke %A C. Monroe %A A. Y. Matsuura %XA disordered system of interacting particles exhibits localized behavior when the disorder is large compared to the interaction strength. Studying this phenomenon on a quantum computer without error correction is challenging because even weak coupling to a thermal environment destroys most signatures of localization. Fortunately, spectral functions of local operators are known to contain features that can survive the presence of noise. In these spectra, discrete peaks and a soft gap at low frequencies compared to the thermal phase indicate localization. Here, we present the computation of spectral functions on a trapped-ion quantum computer for a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with disorder. Further, we design an error-mitigation technique which is effective at removing the noise from the measurement allowing clear signatures of localization to emerge as the disorder increases. Thus, we show that spectral functions can serve as a robust and scalable diagnostic of many-body localization on the current generation of quantum computers.

%8 6/22/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.12355 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T Quantum Algorithms for Escaping from Saddle Points %A Chenyi Zhang %A Jiaqi Leng %A Tongyang Li %XWe initiate the study of quantum algorithms for escaping from saddle points with provable guarantee. Given a function f:Rn→R, our quantum algorithm outputs an ϵ-approximate second-order stationary point using O~(log2n/ϵ1.75) queries to the quantum evaluation oracle (i.e., the zeroth-order oracle). Compared to the classical state-of-the-art algorithm by Jin et al. with O~(log6n/ϵ1.75) queries to the gradient oracle (i.e., the first-order oracle), our quantum algorithm is polynomially better in terms of n and matches its complexity in terms of 1/ϵ. Our quantum algorithm is built upon two techniques: First, we replace the classical perturbations in gradient descent methods by simulating quantum wave equations, which constitutes the polynomial speedup in n for escaping from saddle points. Second, we show how to use a quantum gradient computation algorithm due to Jordan to replace the classical gradient queries by quantum evaluation queries with the same complexity. Finally, we also perform numerical experiments that support our quantum speedup.

%8 7/20/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.10253 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T Quantum simulation with hybrid tensor networks %A Xiao Yuan %A Jinzhao Sun %A Junyu Liu %A Qi Zhao %A You Zhou %XTensor network theory and quantum simulation are respectively the key classical and quantum methods in understanding many-body quantum physics. Here we show hybridization of these two seemingly independent methods, inheriting both their distinct advantageous features of efficient representations of many-body wave functions. We introduce the framework of hybrid tensor networks with building blocks consisting of measurable quantum states and classically contractable tensors. As an example, we demonstrate efficient quantum simulation with hybrid tree tensor networks that use quantum hardware whose size is significantly smaller than the one of the target system. We numerically test our method for finding the ground state of 1D and 2D spin systems of up to 8×8 and 4×3 qubits with operations only acting on 8+1 and 4+1 qubits, respectively. Our approach paves the way to the near-term quantum simulation of large practical problems with intermediate size quantum hardware, with potential applications in quantum chemistry, quantum many-body physics, quantum field theory, and quantum gravity thought experiments.

%8 7/2/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.00958 %0 Journal Article %D 2020 %T Quantum walks and Dirac cellular automata on a programmable trapped-ion quantum computer %A C. Huerta Alderete %A Shivani Singh %A Nhung H. Nguyen %A Daiwei Zhu %A Radhakrishnan Balu %A Christopher Monroe %A C. M. Chandrashekar %A Norbert M. Linke %XThe quantum walk formalism is a widely used and highly successful framework for modeling quantum systems, such as simulations of the Dirac equation, different dynamics in both the low and high energy regime, and for developing a wide range of quantum algorithms. Here we present the circuit-based implementation of a discrete-time quantum walk in position space on a five-qubit trapped-ion quantum processor. We encode the space of walker positions in particular multi-qubit states and program the system to operate with different quantum walk parameters, experimentally realizing a Dirac cellular automaton with tunable mass parameter. The quantum walk circuits and position state mapping scale favorably to a larger model and physical systems, allowing the implementation of any algorithm based on discrete-time quantum walks algorithm and the dynamics associated with the discretized version of the Dirac equation.

%8 2/6/2020 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.02537 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2019 %T Confined Dynamics in Long-Range Interacting Quantum Spin Chains %A Fangli Liu %A Rex Lundgren %A Paraj Titum %A Guido Pagano %A Jiehang Zhang %A Christopher Monroe %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XWe study the quasiparticle excitation and quench dynamics of the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with power-law (1/rα) interactions. We find that long-range interactions give rise to a confining potential, which couples pairs of domain walls (kinks) into bound quasiparticles, analogous to mesonic bound states in high-energy physics. We show that these bound states have dramatic consequences for the non-equilibrium dynamics following a global quantum quench, such as suppressed spreading of quantum information and oscillations of order parameters. The masses of these bound states can be read out from the Fourier spectrum of these oscillating order parameters. We then use a two-kink model to qualitatively explain the phenomenon of long-range-interaction-induced confinement. The masses of the bound states predicted by this model are in good quantitative agreement with exact diagonalization results. Moreover, we illustrate that these bound states lead to weak thermalization of local observables for initial states with energy near the bottom of the many-body energy spectrum. Our work is readily applicable to current trapped-ion experiments.

%B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 122 %8 04/17/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.02365 %N 150601 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.150601 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Device-independent Randomness Expansion with Entangled Photons %A Lynden K. Shalm %A Yanbao Zhang %A Joshua C. Bienfang %A Collin Schlager %A Martin J. Stevens %A Michael D. Mazurek %A Carlos Abellán %A Waldimar Amaya %A Morgan W. Mitchell %A Mohammad A. Alhejji %A Honghao Fu %A Joel Ornstein %A Richard P. Mirin %A Sae Woo Nam %A Emanuel Knill %XWith the growing availability of experimental loophole-free Bell tests, it has become possible to implement a new class of device-independent random number generators whose output can be certified to be uniformly random without requiring a detailed model of the quantum devices used. However, all of these experiments require many input bits in order to certify a small number of output bits, and it is an outstanding challenge to develop a system that generates more randomness than is used. Here, we devise a device-independent spot-checking protocol which uses only uniform bits as input. Implemented with a photonic loophole-free Bell test, we can produce 24% more certified output bits (1,181,264,237) than consumed input bits (953,301,640), which is 5 orders of magnitude more efficient than our previous work [arXiv:1812.07786]. The experiment ran for 91.0 hours, creating randomness at an average rate of 3606 bits/s with a soundness error bounded by 5.7×10−7 in the presence of classical side information. Our system will allow for greater trust in public sources of randomness, such as randomness beacons, and the protocols may one day enable high-quality sources of private randomness as the device footprint shrinks.

%8 12/24/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.11158 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Entanglement Bounds on the Performance of Quantum Computing Architectures %A Zachary Eldredge %A Leo Zhou %A Aniruddha Bapat %A James R. Garrison %A Abhinav Deshpande %A Frederic T. Chong %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XThere are many possible architectures for future quantum computers that designers will need to choose between. However, the process of evaluating a particular connectivity graph's performance as a quantum architecture can be difficult. In this paper, we establish a connection between a quantity known as the isoperimetric number and a lower bound on the time required to create highly entangled states. The metric we propose counts resources based on the use of two-qubit unitary operations, while allowing for arbitrarily fast measurements and classical feedback. We describe how these results can be applied to the evaluation of the hierarchical architecture proposed in Phys. Rev. A 98, 062328 (2018). We also show that the time-complexity bound we place on the creation of highly-entangled states can be saturated up to a multiplicative factor logarithmic in the number of qubits.

%8 8/23/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1908.04802 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. %D 2019 %T Interacting Qubit-Photon Bound States with Superconducting Circuits %A Neereja M. Sundaresan %A Rex Lundgren %A Guanyu Zhu %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Andrew A. Houck %XQubits strongly coupled to a photonic crystal give rise to many exotic physical scenarios, beginning with single and multi-excitation qubit-photon dressed bound states comprising induced spatially localized photonic modes, centered around the qubits, and the qubits themselves. The localization of these states changes with qubit detuning from the band-edge, offering an avenue of in situ control of bound state interaction. Here, we present experimental results from a device with two qubits coupled to a superconducting microwave photonic crystal and realize tunable on-site and inter-bound state interactions. We observe a fourth-order two photon virtual process between bound states indicating strong coupling between the photonic crystal and qubits. Due to their localization-dependent interaction, these states offer the ability to create one-dimensional chains of bound states with tunable and potentially long-range interactions that preserve the qubits' spatial organization, a key criterion for realization of certain quantum many-body models. The widely tunable, strong and robust interactions demonstrated with this system are promising benchmarks towards realizing larger, more complex systems of bound states.

%B Phys. Rev. %V X 9 %8 2018/01/30 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1801.10167 %N 011021 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.9.011021 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Nondestructive cooling of an atomic quantum register via state-insensitive Rydberg interactions %A Ron Belyansky %A Jeremy T. Young %A Przemyslaw Bienias %A Zachary Eldredge %A Adam M. Kaufman %A Peter Zoller %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XWe propose a protocol for sympathetically cooling neutral atoms without destroying the quantum information stored in their internal states. This is achieved by designing state-insensitive Rydberg interactions between the data-carrying atoms and cold auxiliary atoms. The resulting interactions give rise to an effective phonon coupling, which leads to the transfer of heat from the data atoms to the auxiliary atoms, where the latter can be cooled by conventional methods. This can be used to extend the lifetime of quantum storage based on neutral atoms and can have applications for long quantum computations. The protocol can also be modified to realize state-insensitive interactions between the data and the auxiliary atoms but tunable and non-trivial interactions among the data atoms, allowing one to simultaneously cool and simulate a quantum spin-model.

%8 7/28/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.11156 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Opportunities for Nuclear Physics & Quantum Information Science %A I. C. Cloët %A Matthew R. Dietrich %A John Arrington %A Alexei Bazavov %A Michael Bishof %A Adam Freese %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Anna Grassellino %A Kawtar Hafidi %A Zubin Jacob %A Michael McGuigan %A Yannick Meurice %A Zein-Eddine Meziani %A Peter Mueller %A Christine Muschik %A James Osborn %A Matthew Otten %A Peter Petreczky %A Tomas Polakovic %A Alan Poon %A Raphael Pooser %A Alessandro Roggero %A Mark Saffman %A Brent VanDevender %A Jiehang Zhang %A Erez Zohar %Xhis whitepaper is an outcome of the workshop Intersections between Nuclear Physics and Quantum Information held at Argonne National Laboratory on 28-30 March 2018 [www.phy.anl.gov/npqi2018/]. The workshop brought together 116 national and international experts in nuclear physics and quantum information science to explore opportunities for the two fields to collaborate on topics of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, and more broadly to U.S. society and industry. The workshop consisted of 22 invited and 10 contributed talks, as well as three panel discussion sessions. Topics discussed included quantum computation, quantum simulation, quantum sensing, nuclear physics detectors, nuclear many-body problem, entanglement at collider energies, and lattice gauge theories.

%8 03/13/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1903.05453 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Photon pair condensation by engineered dissipation %A Ze-Pei Cian %A Guanyu Zhu %A Su-Kuan Chu %A Alireza Seif %A Wade DeGottardi %A Liang Jiang %A Mohammad Hafezi %XDissipation can usually induce detrimental decoherence in a quantum system. However, engineered dissipation can be used to prepare and stabilize coherent quantum many-body states. Here, we show that by engineering dissipators containing photon pair operators, one can stabilize an exotic dark state, which is a condensate of photon pairs with a phase-nematic order. In this system, the usual superfluid order parameter, i.e. single-photon correlation, is absent, while the photon pair correlation exhibits long-range order. Although the dark state is not unique due to multiple parity sectors, we devise an additional type of dissipators to stabilize the dark state in a particular parity sector via a diffusive annihilation process which obeys Glauber dynamics in an Ising model. Furthermore, we propose an implementation of these photon-pair dissipators in circuit-QED architecture.

%8 04/02/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.00016 %0 Journal Article %J EPTCS %D 2019 %T ReQWIRE: Reasoning about Reversible Quantum Circuits %A Robert Rand %A Jennifer Paykin %A Dong-Ho Lee %A Steve Zdancewic %XCommon quantum algorithms make heavy use of ancillae: scratch qubits that are initialized at some state and later returned to that state and discarded. Existing quantum circuit languages let programmers assert that a qubit has been returned to the |0> state before it is discarded, allowing for a range of optimizations. However, existing languages do not provide the tools to verify these assertions, introducing a potential source of errors. In this paper we present methods for verifying that ancillae are discarded in the desired state, and use these methods to implement a verified compiler from classical functions to quantum oracles.

%B EPTCS %V 287 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1901.10118 %9 In Proceedings QPL 2018, arXiv:1901.09476 %& 299-312 %R https://doi.org/10.4204/EPTCS.287.17 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett %D 2019 %T Scale-Invariant Continuous Entanglement Renormalization of a Chern Insulator %A Su-Kuan Chu %A Guanyu Zhu %A James R. Garrison %A Zachary Eldredge %A Ana Valdés Curiel %A Przemyslaw Bienias %A I. B. Spielman %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XThe multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) postulates the existence of quantum circuits that renormalize entanglement in real space at different length scales. Chern insulators, however, cannot have scale-invariant discrete MERA circuits with finite bond dimension. In this Letter, we show that the continuous MERA (cMERA), a modified version of MERA adapted for field theories, possesses a fixed point wavefunction with nonzero Chern number. Additionally, it is well known that reversed MERA circuits can be used to prepare quantum states efficiently in time that scales logarithmically with the size of the system. However, state preparation via MERA typically requires the advent of a full-fledged universal quantum computer. In this Letter, we demonstrate that our cMERA circuit can potentially be realized in existing analog quantum computers, i.e., an ultracold atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice with light-induced spin-orbit coupling.

%B Phys. Rev. Lett %V 122 %8 03/27/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.11486 %N 120502 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.120502 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T A Theory of Trotter Error %A Andrew M. Childs %A Yuan Su %A Minh C. Tran %A Nathan Wiebe %A Shuchen Zhu %XThe Lie-Trotter formula, together with its higher-order generalizations, provides a direct approach to decomposing the exponential of a sum of operators. Despite significant effort, the error scaling of such product formulas remains poorly understood. We develop a theory of Trotter error that overcomes the limitations of prior approaches based on truncating the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion. Our analysis directly exploits the commutativity of operator summands, producing tighter error bounds for both real- and imaginary-time evolutions. Whereas previous work achieves similar goals for systems with geometric locality or Lie-algebraic structure, our approach holds in general. We give a host of improved algorithms for digital quantum simulation and quantum Monte Carlo methods, including simulations of second-quantized plane-wave electronic structure, k-local Hamiltonians, rapidly decaying power-law interactions, clustered Hamiltonians, the transverse field Ising model, and quantum ferromagnets, nearly matching or even outperforming the best previous results. We obtain further speedups using the fact that product formulas can preserve the locality of the simulated system. Specifically, we show that local observables can be simulated with complexity independent of the system size for power-law interacting systems, which implies a Lieb-Robinson bound as a byproduct. Our analysis reproduces known tight bounds for first- and second-order formulas. Our higher-order bound overestimates the complexity of simulating a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with an even-odd ordering of terms by only a factor of 5, and is close to tight for power-law interactions and other orderings of terms. This suggests that our theory can accurately characterize Trotter error in terms of both asymptotic scaling and constant prefactor.

%8 2019/12/18 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.08854 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Toward convergence of effective field theory simulations on digital quantum computers %A Omar Shehab %A Kevin A. Landsman %A Yunseong Nam %A Daiwei Zhu %A Norbert M. Linke %A Matthew J. Keesan %A Raphael C. Pooser %A Christopher R. Monroe %XWe report results for simulating an effective field theory to compute the binding energy of the deuteron nucleus using a hybrid algorithm on a trapped-ion quantum computer. Two increasingly complex unitary coupled-cluster ansaetze have been used to compute the binding energy to within a few percent for successively more complex Hamiltonians. By increasing the complexity of the Hamiltonian, allowing more terms in the effective field theory expansion and calculating their expectation values, we present a benchmark for quantum computers based on their ability to scalably calculate the effective field theory with increasing accuracy. Our result of E4=−2.220±0.179MeV may be compared with the exact Deuteron ground-state energy −2.224MeV. We also demonstrate an error mitigation technique using Richardson extrapolation on ion traps for the first time. The error mitigation circuit represents a record for deepest quantum circuit on a trapped-ion quantum computer.

%8 04/18/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.04338 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Two-qubit entangling gates within arbitrarily long chains of trapped ions %A Kevin A. Landsman %A Yukai Wu %A Pak Hong Leung %A Daiwei Zhu %A Norbert M. Linke %A Kenneth R. Brown %A Luming Duan %A Christopher R. Monroe %XIon trap systems are a leading platform for large scale quantum computers. Trapped ion qubit crystals are fully-connected and reconfigurable, owing to their long range Coulomb interaction that can be modulated with external optical forces. However, the spectral crowding of collective motional modes could pose a challenge to the control of such interactions for large numbers of qubits. Here, we show that high-fidelity quantum gate operations are still possible with very large trapped ion crystals, simplifying the scaling of ion trap quantum computers. To this end, we present analytical work that determines how parallel entangling gates produce a crosstalk error that falls off as the inverse cube of the distance between the pairs. We also show experimental work demonstrating entangling gates on a fully-connected chain of seventeen 171Yb+ ions with fidelities as high as 97(1)%.

%8 05/28/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.10421 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Ultralight dark matter detection with mechanical quantum sensors %A Daniel Carney %A Anson Hook %A Zhen Liu %A Jacob M. Taylor %A Yue Zhao %XWe consider the use of quantum-limited mechanical force sensors to detect ultralight (sub-meV) dark matter candidates which are weakly coupled to the standard model. We emphasize the scalable nature of an array of sensors, which can be used to reject many backgrounds, and leads to sensitivities scaling at least as fast as Ndet−−−−√. We show that for some ultralight dark matter candidates, a pair of milligram-scale, mechanical sensors operating at the standard quantum limit already has detection reach competitive with other quantum acceleration sensors.

%8 8/13/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1908.04797 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2018 %T A Coherent Spin-Photon Interface in Silicon %A X. Mi %A M. Benito %A S. Putz %A D. M. Zajac %A J. M. Taylor %A Guido Burkard %A J. R. Petta %XElectron spins in silicon quantum dots are attractive systems for quantum computing due to their long coherence times and the promise of rapid scaling using semiconductor fabrication techniques. While nearest neighbor exchange coupling of two spins has been demonstrated, the interaction of spins via microwave frequency photons could enable long distance spin-spin coupling and "all-to-all" qubit connectivity. Here we demonstrate strong-coupling between a single spin in silicon and a microwave frequency photon with spin-photon coupling rates g_s/(2π) > 10 MHz. The mechanism enabling coherent spin-photon interactions is based on spin-charge hybridization in the presence of a magnetic field gradient. In addition to spin-photon coupling, we demonstrate coherent control of a single spin in the device and quantum non-demolition spin state readout using cavity photons. These results open a direct path toward entangling single spins using microwave frequency photons.

%B Nature %V 555 %P 599-603 %8 2018/03/29 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.03265 %R https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25769 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2018 %T A coherent spin–photon interface in silicon %A X. Mi %A M. Benito %A S. Putz %A D. M. Zajac %A J. M. Taylor %A Guido Burkard %A J. R. Petta %XElectron spins in silicon quantum dots are attractive systems for quantum computing owing to their long coherence times and the promise of rapid scaling of the number of dots in a system using semiconductor fabrication techniques. Although nearest-neighbour exchange coupling of two spins has been demonstrated, the interaction of spins via microwave-frequency photons could enable long-distance spin–spin coupling and connections between arbitrary pairs of qubits (‘all-to-all’ connectivity) in a spin-based quantum processor. Realizing coherent spin–photon coupling is challenging because of the small magnetic-dipole moment of a single spin, which limits magnetic-dipole coupling rates to less than 1 kilohertz. Here we demonstrate strong coupling between a single spin in silicon and a single microwave-frequency photon, with spin–photon coupling rates of more than 10 megahertz. The mechanism that enables the coherent spin–photon interactions is based on spin–charge hybridization in the presence of a magnetic-field gradient. In addition to spin–photon coupling, we demonstrate coherent control and dispersive readout of a single spin. These results open up a direct path to entangling single spins using microwave-frequency photons.

%B Nature %8 2018/02/14 %G eng %U https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25769#author-information %R 10.1038/nature25769 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Cryogenic Trapped-Ion System for Large Scale Quantum Simulation %A G. Pagano %A P. W. Hess %A H. B. Kaplan %A W. L. Tan %A P. Richerme %A P. Becker %A A. Kyprianidis %A J. Zhang %A E. Birckelbaw %A M. R. Hernandez %A Y. Wu %A C. Monroe %XWe present a cryogenic ion trapping system designed for large scale quantum simulation of spin models. Our apparatus is based on a segmented-blade ion trap enclosed in a 4 K cryostat, which enables us to routinely trap over 100 171Yb+ ions in a linear configuration for hours due to a low background gas pressure from differential cryo-pumping. We characterize the cryogenic vacuum by using trapped ion crystals as a pressure gauge, measuring both inelastic and elastic collision rates with the molecular background gas. We demonstrate nearly equidistant ion spacing for chains of up to 44 ions using anharmonic axial potentials. This reliable production and lifetime enhancement of large linear ion chains will enable quantum simulation of spin models that are intractable with classical computer modelling.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.03118 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2018 %T Dark state optical lattice with sub-wavelength spatial structure %A Yang Wang %A Sarthak Subhankar %A Przemyslaw Bienias %A Mateusz Lacki %A Tsz-Chun Tsui %A Mikhail A. Baranov %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Peter Zoller %A James V. Porto %A Steven L. Rolston %XWe report on the experimental realization of a conservative optical lattice for cold atoms with a subwavelength spatial structure. The potential is based on the nonlinear optical response of three-level atoms in laser-dressed dark states, which is not constrained by the diffraction limit of the light generating the potential. The lattice consists of a one-dimensional array of ultranarrow barriers with widths less than 10 nm, well below the wavelength of the lattice light, physically realizing a Kronig-Penney potential. We study the band structure and dissipation of this lattice and find good agreement with theoretical predictions. Even on resonance, the observed lifetimes of atoms trapped in the lattice are as long as 44 ms, nearly 105times the excited state lifetime, and could be further improved with more laser intensity. The potential is readily generalizable to higher dimensions and different geometries, allowing, for example, nearly perfect box traps, narrow tunnel junctions for atomtronics applications, and dynamically generated lattices with subwavelength spacings.

%B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 120 %P 083601 %8 2018/02/20 %G eng %U https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.083601 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.083601 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Electro-optomechanical equivalent circuits for quantum transduction %A Emil Zeuthen %A Albert Schliesser %A Jacob M. Taylor %A Anders S. Sørensen %XUsing the techniques of optomechanics, a high-Q mechanical oscillator may serve as a link between electromagnetic modes of vastly different frequencies. This approach has successfully been exploited for the frequency conversion of classical signals and has the potential of performing quantum state transfer between superconducting circuitry and a traveling optical signal. Such transducers are often operated in a linear regime, where the hybrid system can be described using linear response theory based on the Heisenberg-Langevin equations. While mathematically straightforward to solve, this approach yields little intuition about the dynamics of the hybrid system to aid the optimization of the transducer. As an analysis and design tool for such electro-optomechanical transducers, we introduce an equivalent circuit formalism, where the entire transducer is represented by an electrical circuit. Thereby we integrate the transduction functionality of optomechanical (OM) systems into the toolbox of electrical engineering allowing the use of its well-established design techniques. This unifying impedance description can be applied both for static (DC) and harmonically varying (AC) drive fields, accommodates arbitrary linear circuits, and is not restricted to the resolved-sideband regime. Furthermore, by establishing the quantized input/output formalism for the equivalent circuit, we obtain the scattering matrix for linear transducers using circuit analysis, and thereby have a complete quantum mechanical characterization of the transducer. Hence, this mapping of the entire transducer to the language of electrical engineering both sheds light on how the transducer performs and can at the same time be used to optimize its performance by aiding the design of a suitable electrical circuit.

%8 2018/10/15 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.10136 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.044036 %0 Journal Article %J Journal of High Energy Physics %D 2018 %T Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography %A Phuc Nguyen %A Trithep Devakul %A Matthew G. Halbasch %A Michael P. Zaletel %A Brian Swingle %XPurification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

%B Journal of High Energy Physics %P 98 %8 2018/01/22 %G eng %U https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP01%282018%29098#citeas %R 10.1007/JHEP01(2018)098 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2018 %T Experimentally Generated Randomness Certified by the Impossibility of Superluminal Signals %A Peter Bierhorst %A Emanuel Knill %A Scott Glancy %A Yanbao Zhang %A Alan Mink %A Stephen Jordan %A Andrea Rommal %A Yi-Kai Liu %A Bradley Christensen %A Sae Woo Nam %A Martin J. Stevens %A Lynden K. Shalm %XFrom dice to modern complex circuits, there have been many attempts to build increasingly better devices to generate random numbers. Today, randomness is fundamental to security and cryptographic systems, as well as safeguarding privacy. A key challenge with random number generators is that it is hard to ensure that their outputs are unpredictable. For a random number generator based on a physical process, such as a noisy classical system or an elementary quantum measurement, a detailed model describing the underlying physics is required to assert unpredictability. Such a model must make a number of assumptions that may not be valid, thereby compromising the integrity of the device. However, it is possible to exploit the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality with a loophole-free Bell test to build a random number generator that can produce output that is unpredictable to any adversary limited only by general physical principles. With recent technological developments, it is now possible to carry out such a loophole-free Bell test. Here we present certified randomness obtained from a photonic Bell experiment and extract 1024 random bits uniform to within 10−12. These random bits could not have been predicted within any physical theory that prohibits superluminal signaling and allows one to make independent measurement choices. To certify and quantify the randomness, we describe a new protocol that is optimized for apparatuses characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities. We thus enlisted an experimental result that fundamentally challenges the notion of determinism to build a system that can increase trust in random sources. In the future, random number generators based on loophole-free Bell tests may play a role in increasing the security and trust of our cryptographic systems and infrastructure.

%B Nature %V 556 %P 223-226 %8 2018/04/11 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.06219 %R https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0019-0 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2018 %T High-fidelity quantum gates in Si/SiGe double quantum dots %A Maximilian Russ %A D. M. Zajac %A A. J. Sigillito %A F. Borjans %A J. M. Taylor %A J. R. Petta %A Guido Burkard %XMotivated by recent experiments of Zajac *et al.* [Science 359, 439 (2018)], we theoretically describe high-fidelity two-qubit gates using the exchange interaction between the spins in neighboring quantum dots subject to a magnetic field gradient. We use a combination of analytical calculations and numerical simulations to provide the optimal pulse sequences and parameter settings for the gate operation. We present a synchronization method which avoids detrimental spin flips during the gate operation and provide details about phase mismatches accumulated during the two-qubit gates which occur due to residual exchange interaction, nonadiabatic pulses, and off-resonant driving. By adjusting the gate times, synchronizing the resonant and off-resonant transitions, and compensating these phase mismatches by phase control, the overall gate fidelity can be increased significantly.

The circuit model of a quantum computer consists of sequences of gate operations between quantum bits (qubits), drawn from a universal family of discrete operations. The ability to execute parallel entangling quantum gates offers clear efficiency gains in numerous quantum circuits as well as for entire algorithms such as Shor's factoring algorithm and quantum simulations. In cases such as full adders and multiple-control Toffoli gates, parallelism can provide an exponential improvement in overall execution time. More importantly, quantum gate parallelism is essential for the practical fault-tolerant error correction of qubits that suffer from idle errors. The implementation of parallel quantum gates is complicated by potential crosstalk, especially between qubits fully connected by a common-mode bus, such as in Coulomb-coupled trapped atomic ions or cavity-coupled superconducting transmons. Here, we present the first experimental results for parallel 2-qubit entangling gates in an array of fully-connected trapped ion qubits. We demonstrate an application of this capability by performing a 1-bit full addition operation on a quantum computer using a depth-4 quantum circuit. These results exploit the power of highly connected qubit systems through classical control techniques, and provide an advance toward speeding up quantum circuits and achieving fault tolerance with trapped ion quantum computers.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.11948 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Photon propagation through dissipative Rydberg media at large input rates %A Przemyslaw Bienias %A James Douglas %A Asaf Paris-Mandoki %A Paraj Titum %A Ivan Mirgorodskiy %A Christoph Tresp %A Emil Zeuthen %A Michael J. Gullans %A Marco Manzoni %A Sebastian Hofferberth %A Darrick Chang %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XWe study the dissipative propagation of quantized light in interacting Rydberg media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. The regime of high incoming photon flux constitutes a challenging many-body dissipative problem. We experimentally study in detail for the first time the pulse shapes and the second-order correlation function of the outgoing field and compare our data with simulations based on two novel theoretical approaches well-suited to treat this many-photon limit. At low incoming flux, we report good agreement between both theories and the experiment. For higher input flux, the intensity of the outgoing light is lower than that obtained from theoretical predictions. We explain this discrepancy using a simple phenomenological model taking into account pollutants, which are nearly-stationary Rydberg excitations coming from the reabsorption of scattered probe photons. At high incoming photon rates, the blockade physics results in unconventional shapes of measured correlation functions.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.07586 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Practitioner's guide to social network analysis: Examining physics anxiety in an active-learning setting %A Remy Dou %A Justyna P. Zwolak %XThe application of social network analysis (SNA) has recently grown prevalent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education research. Research on classroom networks has led to greater understandings of student persistence in physics majors, changes in their career-related beliefs (e.g., physics interest), and their academic success. In this paper, we aim to provide a practitioner's guide to carrying out research using SNA, including how to develop data collection instruments, set up protocols for gathering data, as well as identify network methodologies relevant to a wide range of research questions beyond what one might find in a typical primer. We illustrate these techniques using student anxiety data from active-learning physics classrooms. We explore the relationship between students' physics anxiety and the social networks they participate in throughout the course of a semester. We find that students' with greater numbers of outgoing interactions are more likely to experience negative anxiety shifts even while we control for {\it pre} anxiety, gender, and final course grade. We also explore the evolution of student networks and find that the second half of the semester is a critical period for participating in interactions associated with decreased physics anxiety. Our study further supports the benefits of dynamic group formation strategies that give students an opportunity to interact with as many peers as possible throughout a semester. To complement our guide to SNA in education research, we also provide a set of tools for letting other researchers use this approach in their work -- the {\it SNA toolbox} -- that can be accessed on GitHub.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.00337 %0 Journal Article %J PLOS ONE %D 2018 %T QFlow lite dataset: A machine-learning approach to the charge states in quantum dot experiments %A Justyna P. Zwolak %A Sandesh S. Kalantre %A Xingyao Wu %A Stephen Ragole %A Jacob M. Taylor %XOver the past decade, machine learning techniques have revolutionized how research is done, from designing new materials and predicting their properties to assisting drug discovery to advancing cybersecurity. Recently, we added to this list by showing how a machine learning algorithm (a so-called learner) combined with an optimization routine can assist experimental efforts in the realm of tuning semiconductor quantum dot (QD) devices. Among other applications, semiconductor QDs are a candidate system for building quantum computers. The present-day tuning techniques for bringing the QD devices into a desirable configuration suitable for quantum computing that rely on heuristics do not scale with the increasing size of the quantum dot arrays required for even near-term quantum computing demonstrations. Establishing a reliable protocol for tuning that does not rely on the gross-scale heuristics developed by experimentalists is thus of great importance. To implement the machine learning-based approach, we constructed a dataset of simulated QD device characteristics, such as the conductance and the charge sensor response versus the applied electrostatic gate voltages. Here, we describe the methodology for generating the dataset, as well as its validation in training convolutional neural networks. We show that the learner's accuracy in recognizing the state of a device is ~96.5 % in both current- and charge-sensor-based training. We also introduce a tool that enables other researchers to use this approach for further research: QFlow lite - a Python-based mini-software suite that uses the dataset to train neural networks to recognize the state of a device and differentiate between states in experimental data. This work gives the definitive reference for the new dataset that will help enable researchers to use it in their experiments or to develop new machine learning approaches and concepts

%B PLOS ONE %V 13 %P e0205844 %8 2018 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.10018 %N 10 %9 2018/10/17 %R https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205844 %0 Journal Article %J Proc. ACM Program. Lang. %D 2018 %T Quantitative Robustness Analysis of Quantum Programs (Extended Version) %A Shih-Han Hung %A Kesha Hietala %A Shaopeng Zhu %A Mingsheng Ying %A Michael Hicks %A Xiaodi Wu %XQuantum computation is a topic of significant recent interest, with practical advances coming from both research and industry. A major challenge in quantum programming is dealing with errors (quantum noise) during execution. Because quantum resources (e.g., qubits) are scarce, classical error correction techniques applied at the level of the architecture are currently cost-prohibitive. But while this reality means that quantum programs are almost certain to have errors, there as yet exists no principled means to reason about erroneous behavior. This paper attempts to fill this gap by developing a semantics for erroneous quantum while-programs, as well as a logic for reasoning about them. This logic permits proving a property we have identified, called ε-robustness, which characterizes possible "distance" between an ideal program and an erroneous one. We have proved the logic sound, and showed its utility on several case studies, notably: (1) analyzing the robustness of noisy versions of the quantum Bernoulli factory (QBF) and quantum walk (QW); (2) demonstrating the (in)effectiveness of different error correction schemes on single-qubit errors; and (3) analyzing the robustness of a fault-tolerant version of QBF.

%B Proc. ACM Program. Lang. %V 3 %P Article 31 %8 2018/12/1 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.03585 %N POPL %R https://doi.org/10.1145/3290344 %0 Journal Article %J Science %D 2018 %T Resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins %A D. M. Zajac %A A. J. Sigillito %A M. Russ %A F. Borjans %A J. M. Taylor %A Guido Burkard %A J. R. Petta %XSingle-qubit rotations and two-qubit CNOT operations are crucial ingredients for universal quantum computing. Although high-fidelity single-qubit operations have been achieved using the electron spin degree of freedom, realizing a robust CNOT gate has been challenging because of rapid nuclear spin dephasing and charge noise. We demonstrate an efficient resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins in silicon. Our platform achieves single-qubit rotations with fidelities greater than 99%, as verified by randomized benchmarking. Gate control of the exchange coupling allows a quantum CNOT gate to be implemented with resonant driving in ~200 nanoseconds. We used the CNOT gate to generate a Bell state with 78% fidelity (corrected for errors in state preparation and measurement). Our quantum dot device architecture enables multi-qubit algorithms in silicon.

%B Science %V 359 %P 439-442 %8 2018/01/26 %G eng %U http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6374/439 %N 6374 %R 10.1126/science.aao5965 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Studying community development: a network analytical approach %A C. A. Hass %A Florian Genz %A Mary Bridget Kustusch %A Pierre-P. A. Ouime %A Katarzyna Pomian %A Eleanor C. Sayre %A Justyna P. Zwolak %XResearch shows that community plays a central role in learning, and strong community engages students and aids in student persistence. Thus, understanding the function and structure of communities in learning environments is essential to education. We use social network analysis to explore the community dynamics of students in a pre-matriculation, two-week summer program. Unlike previous network analysis studies in PER, we build our networks from classroom video that has been coded for student interactions using labeled, directed ties. We define 3 types of interaction: on task interactions (regarding the assigned task), on topic interactions (having to do with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)), and off topic interactions (unrelated to the assignment or STEM). To study the development of community in this program, we analyze the shift in conversation topicality over the course of the program. Conversations are more on-task toward the end of the program and we propose that this conversational shift represents a change in student membership within their forming community.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.08193 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2017 %T Correlated Photon Dynamics in Dissipative Rydberg Media %A Emil Zeuthen %A Michael Gullans %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XRydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of non-perturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is in good agreement with experimental data. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 119 %P 043602 %8 2017/07/26 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.06068 %N 4 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.043602 %0 Journal Article %J Cognitive Neurodynamics %D 2017 %T Extreme learning machines for regression based on V-matrix method %A Yang, Zhiyong %A Zhang, Taohong %A Lu, Jingcheng %A Yuan Su %A Zhang, Dezheng %A Duan, Yaowu %XThis paper studies the joint effect of V-matrix, a recently proposed framework for statistical inferences, and extreme learning machine (ELM) on regression problems. First of all, a novel algorithm is proposed to efficiently evaluate the V-matrix. Secondly, a novel weighted ELM algorithm called V-ELM is proposed based on the explicit kernel mapping of ELM and the V-matrix method. Though V-matrix method could capture the geometrical structure of training data, it tends to assign a higher weight to instance with smaller input value. In order to avoid this bias, a novel method called VI-ELM is proposed by minimizing both the regression error and the V-matrix weighted error simultaneously. Finally, experiment results on 12 real world benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

%B Cognitive Neurodynamics %8 2017/06/10 %G eng %U http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-017-9444-2 %R 10.1007/s11571-017-9444-2 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2017 %T Genuine N -partite entanglement without N -partite correlation functions %A Minh C. Tran %A Margherita Zuppardo %A Anna de Rosier %A Lukas Knips %A Wieslaw Laskowski %A Tomasz Paterek %A Harald Weinfurter %XA genuinely N-partite entangled state may display vanishing N-partite correlations measured for arbitrary local observables. In such states the genuine entanglement is noticeable solely in correlations between subsets of particles. A straightforward way to obtain such states for odd N is to design an “antistate” in which all correlations between an odd number of observers are exactly opposite. Evenly mixing a state with its antistate then produces a mixed state with no N-partite correlations, with many of them genuinely multiparty entangled. Intriguingly, all known examples of “entanglement without correlations” involve an *odd* number of particles. Here we further develop the idea of antistates, thereby shedding light on the different properties of even and odd particle systems. We conjecture that there is no antistate to any pure even-N-party entangled state making the simple construction scheme unfeasible. However, as we prove by construction, higher-rank examples of entanglement without correlations for arbitrary even N indeed exist. These classes of states exhibit genuine entanglement and even violate an N-partite Bell inequality, clearly demonstrating the nonclassical features of these states as well as showing their applicability for quantum information processing.

Recent progress in building large-scale quantum devices for exploring quantum computing and simulation paradigms has relied upon effective tools for achieving and maintaining good experimental parameters, i.e. tuning up devices. In many cases, including in quantum-dot based architectures, the parameter space grows substantially with the number of qubits, and may become a limit to scalability. Fortunately, machine learning techniques for pattern recognition and image classification using so-called deep neural networks have shown surprising successes for computer-aided understanding of complex systems. In this work, we use deep and convolutional neural networks to characterize states and charge configurations of semiconductor quantum dot arrays when one can only measure a current-voltage characteristic of transport (here conductance) through such a device. For simplicity, we model a semiconductor nanowire connected to leads and capacitively coupled to depletion gates using the Thomas-Fermi approximation and Coulomb blockade physics. We then generate labeled training data for the neural networks, and find at least 90 % accuracy for charge and state identification for single and double dots purely from the dependence of the nanowire’s conductance upon gate voltages. Using these characterization networks, we can then optimize the parameter space to achieve a desired configuration of the array, a technique we call ‘auto-tuning’. Finally, we show how such techniques can be implemented in an experimental setting by applying our approach to an experimental data set, and outline further problems in this domain, from using charge sensing data to extensions to full one and two-dimensional arrays, that can be tackled with machine learning.

%8 2017/12/13 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.04914 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2017 %T Observation of a Many-Body Dynamical Phase Transition with a 53-Qubit Quantum Simulator %A J. Zhang %A G. Pagano %A P. W. Hess %A A. Kyprianidis %A P. Becker %A H. Kaplan %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Z. -X. Gong %A C. Monroe %XA quantum simulator is a restricted class of quantum computer that controls the interactions between quantum bits in a way that can be mapped to certain difficult quantum many-body problems. As more control is exerted over larger numbers of qubits, the simulator can tackle a wider range of problems, with the ultimate limit being a universal quantum computer that can solve general classes of hard problems. We use a quantum simulator composed of up to 53 qubits to study a non-equilibrium phase transition in the transverse field Ising model of magnetism, in a regime where conventional statistical mechanics does not apply. The qubits are represented by trapped ion spins that can be prepared in a variety of initial pure states. We apply a global long-range Ising interaction with controllable strength and range, and measure each individual qubit with near 99% efficiency. This allows the single-shot measurement of arbitrary many-body correlations for the direct probing of the dynamical phase transition and the uncovering of computationally intractable features that rely on the long-range interactions and high connectivity between the qubits.

%B Nature %V 551 %P 601-604 %8 2017/11/29 %G eng %U https://www.nature.com/articles/nature24654 %R 10.1038/nature24654 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2017 %T Quantum state tomography via reduced density matrices %A Tao Xin %A Dawei Lu %A Joel Klassen %A Nengkun Yu %A Zhengfeng Ji %A Jianxin Chen %A Xian Ma %A Guilu Long %A Bei Zeng %A Raymond Laflamme %XQuantum state tomography via local measurements is an efficient tool for characterizing quantum states. However it requires that the original global state be uniquely determined (UD) by its local reduced density matrices (RDMs). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a class of states that are UD by their RDMs under the assumption that the global state is pure, but fail to be UD in the absence of that assumption. This discovery allows us to classify quantum states according to their UD properties, with the requirement that each class be treated distinctly in the practice of simplifying quantum state tomography. Additionally we experimentally test the feasibility and stability of performing quantum state tomography via the measurement of local RDMs for each class. These theoretical and experimental results advance the project of performing efficient and accurate quantum state tomography in practice.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 118 %P 020401 %8 2017/01/09 %G eng %U http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.020401 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.020401 %0 Journal Article %D 2017 %T On the readiness of quantum optimization machines for industrial applications %A Alejandro Perdomo-Ortiz %A Alexander Feldman %A Asier Ozaeta %A Sergei V. Isakov %A Zheng Zhu %A Bryan O'Gorman %A Helmut G. Katzgraber %A Alexander Diedrich %A Hartmut Neven %A Johan de Kleer %A Brad Lackey %A Rupak Biswas %XThere have been multiple attempts to demonstrate that quantum annealing and, in particular, quantum annealing on quantum annealing machines, has the potential to outperform current classical optimization algorithms implemented on CMOS technologies. The benchmarking of these devices has been controversial. Initially, random spin-glass problems were used, however, these were quickly shown to be not well suited to detect any quantum speedup. Subsequently, benchmarking shifted to carefully crafted synthetic problems designed to highlight the quantum nature of the hardware while (often) ensuring that classical optimization techniques do not perform well on them. Even worse, to date a true sign of improved scaling with the number problem variables remains elusive when compared to classical optimization techniques. Here, we analyze the readiness of quantum annealing machines for real-world application problems. These are typically not random and have an underlying structure that is hard to capture in synthetic benchmarks, thus posing unexpected challenges for optimization techniques, both classical and quantum alike. We present a comprehensive computational scaling analysis of fault diagnosis in digital circuits, considering architectures beyond D-wave quantum annealers. We find that the instances generated from real data in multiplier circuits are harder than other representative random spin-glass benchmarks with a comparable number of variables. Although our results show that transverse-field quantum annealing is outperformed by state-of-the-art classical optimization algorithms, these benchmark instances are hard and small in the size of the input, therefore representing the first industrial application ideally suited for near-term quantum annealers.

%8 2017/08/31 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.09780 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2017 %T Valley Blockade in a Silicon Double Quantum Dot %A Justin K. Perron %A Michael Gullans %A Jacob M. Taylor %A M. D. Stewart, Jr. %A Neil M. Zimmerman %XElectrical transport in double quantum dots (DQDs) illuminates many interesting features of the dots' carrier states. Recent advances in silicon quantum information technologies have renewed interest in the valley states of electrons confined in silicon. Here we show measurements of DC transport through a mesa-etched silicon double quantum dot. Comparing bias triangles (i.e., regions of allowed current in DQDs) at positive and negative bias voltages we find a systematic asymmetry in the size of the bias triangles at the two bias polarities. Asymmetries of this nature are associated with blocking of tunneling events due to the occupation of a metastable state. Several features of our data lead us to conclude that the states involved are not simple spin states. Rather, we develop a model based on selective filling of valley states in the DQD that is consistent with all of the qualitative features of our data.

%B Physical Review B %V 96 %P 205302 %8 2017/11/13 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.06107 %N 20 %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.205302 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2016 %T Detecting Consistency of Overlapping Quantum Marginals by Separability %A Jianxin Chen %A Zhengfeng Ji %A Nengkun Yu %A Bei Zeng %X The quantum marginal problem asks whether a set of given density matrices are consistent, i.e., whether they can be the reduced density matrices of a global quantum state. Not many non-trivial analytic necessary (or sufficient) conditions are known for the problem in general. We propose a method to detect consistency of overlapping quantum marginals by considering the separability of some derived states. Our method works well for the $k$-symmetric extension problem in general, and for the general overlapping marginal problems in some cases. Our work is, in some sense, the converse to the well-known $k$-symmetric extension criterion for separability. %B Physical Review A %V 93 %P 032105 %8 2016/03/03 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.06591 %N 3 %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032105 %0 Journal Article %D 2016 %T Figures of merit for quantum transducers %A Emil Zeuthen %A Albert Schliesser %A Anders S. Sørensen %A Jacob M. Taylor %XRecent technical advances have sparked renewed interest in physical systems that couple simultaneously to different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus enabling transduction of signals between vastly different frequencies at the level of single photons. Such hybrid systems have demonstrated frequency conversion of classical signals and have the potential of enabling quantum state transfer, e.g., between superconducting circuits and traveling optical signals. This Letter describes a simple approach for the theoretical characterization of performance for quantum transducers. Given that, in practice, one cannot attain ideal one-to-one quantum conversion, we will explore how well the transducer performs in various scenarios ranging from classical signal detection to applications for quantum information processing. While the performance of the transducer depends on the particular application in which it enters, we show that the performance can be characterized by defining two simple parameters: the signal transfer efficiency

Entanglement, and, in particular the entanglement spectrum, plays a major role in characterizing many-body quantum systems. While there has been a surge of theoretical works on the subject, no experimental measurement has been performed to date because of the lack of an implementable measurement scheme. Here, we propose a measurement protocol to access the entanglement spectrum of many-body states in experiments with cold atoms in optical lattices. Our scheme effectively performs a Ramsey spectroscopy of the entanglement Hamiltonian and is based on the ability to produce several copies of the state under investigation together with the possibility to perform a global swap gate between two copies conditioned on the state of an auxiliary qubit. We show how the required conditional swap gate can be implemented with cold atoms, either by using Rydberg interactions or coupling the atoms to a cavity mode. We illustrate these ideas on a simple (extended) Bose-Hubbard model where such a measurement protocol reveals topological features of the Haldane phase.

%B Phys. Rev. X %V 6(4) %8 2016/11/22 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.08624 %N 041033 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041033 %0 Journal Article %D 2016 %T Observation of Prethermalization in Long-Range Interacting Spin Chains %A B. Neyenhuis %A J. Smith %A A. C. Lee %A J. Zhang %A P. Richerme %A P. W. Hess %A Z. -X. Gong %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A C. Monroe %XStatistical mechanics can predict thermal equilibrium states for most classical systems, but for an isolated quantum system there is no general understanding on how equilibrium states dynamically emerge from the microscopic Hamiltonian. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale and, instead, relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics when approximately conserved quantities are appropriately included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). Here we experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-ranged interactions the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. In this case, the prethermal state cannot be described by a GGE, but rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a significantly broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions.

%8 2016/08/02 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.00681 %0 Journal Article %D 2016 %T Performance of QAOA on Typical Instances of Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Bounded Degree %A Cedric Yen-Yu Lin %A Yechao Zhu %X We consider constraint satisfaction problems of bounded degree, with a good notion of "typicality", e.g. the negation of the variables in each constraint is taken independently at random. Using the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA), we show that μ+Ω(1/D−−√) fraction of the constraints can be satisfied for typical instances, with the assignment efficiently produced by QAOA. We do so by showing that the averaged fraction of constraints being satisfied is μ+Ω(1/D−−√), with small variance. Here μ is the fraction that would be satisfied by a uniformly random assignment, and D is the number of constraints that each variable can appear. CSPs with typicality include Max-kXOR and Max-kSAT. We point out how it can be applied to determine the typical ground-state energy of some local Hamiltonians. We also give a similar result for instances with "no overlapping constraints", using the quantum algorithm. We sketch how the classical algorithm might achieve some partial result. %8 2016/01/08 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.01744 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2016 %T Pure-state tomography with the expectation value of Pauli operators %A Xian Ma %A Tyler Jackson %A Hui Zhou %A Jianxin Chen %A Dawei Lu %A Michael D. Mazurek %A Kent A.G. Fisher %A Xinhua Peng %A David Kribs %A Kevin J. Resch %A Zhengfeng Ji %A Bei Zeng %A Raymond Laflamme %XWe examine the problem of finding the minimum number of Pauli measurements needed to uniquely determine an arbitrary n-qubit pure state among all quantum states. We show that only 11 Pauli measurements are needed to determine an arbitrary two-qubit pure state compared to the full quantum state tomography with 16 measurements, and only 31 Pauli measurements are needed to determine an arbitrary three-qubit pure state compared to the full quantum state tomography with 64 measurements. We demonstrate that our protocol is robust under depolarizing error with simulated random pure states. We experimentally test the protocol on two- and three-qubit systems with nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. We show that the pure state tomography protocol saves us a number of measurements without considerable loss of fidelity. We compare our protocol with same-size sets of randomly selected Pauli operators and find that our selected set of Pauli measurements significantly outperforms those random sampling sets. As a direct application, our scheme can also be used to reduce the number of settings needed for pure-state tomography in quantum optical systems.

%B Physical Review A %V 93 %P 032140 %8 2016/03/31 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.05379 %N 3 %R http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.032140 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2016 %T Tomography is necessary for universal entanglement detection with single-copy observables %A Dawei Lu %A Tao Xin %A Nengkun Yu %A Zhengfeng Ji %A Jianxin Chen %A Guilu Long %A Jonathan Baugh %A Xinhua Peng %A Bei Zeng %A Raymond Laflamme %X Entanglement, one of the central mysteries of quantum mechanics, plays an essential role in numerous applications of quantum information theory. A natural question of both theoretical and experimental importance is whether universal entanglement detection is possible without full state tomography. In this work, we prove a no-go theorem that rules out this possibility for any non-adaptive schemes that employ single-copy measurements only. We also examine in detail a previously implemented experiment, which claimed to detect entanglement of two-qubit states via adaptive single-copy measurements without full state tomography. By performing the experiment and analyzing the data, we demonstrate that the information gathered is indeed sufficient to reconstruct the state. These results reveal a fundamental limit for single-copy measurements in entanglement detection, and provides a general framework to study the detection of other interesting properties of quantum states, such as the positivity of partial transpose and the k-symmetric extendibility. %B Physical Review Letters %V 116 %P 230501 %8 2016/06/07 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.00581 %N 23 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.230501 %0 Journal Article %J Quantum [Un]Speakables II: 50 Years of Bell’s Theorem %D 2016 %T Whose Information? Information About What? %A Jeffrey Bub %A Anton Zeilinger %A Reinhold Bertlmann %B Quantum [Un]Speakables II: 50 Years of Bell’s Theorem %8 2016/01/01 %G eng %0 Journal Article %J New Journal of Physics %D 2015 %T Discontinuity of Maximum Entropy Inference and Quantum Phase Transitions %A Jianxin Chen %A Zhengfeng Ji %A Chi-Kwong Li %A Yiu-Tung Poon %A Yi Shen %A Nengkun Yu %A Bei Zeng %A Duanlu Zhou %X In this paper, we discuss the connection between two genuinely quantum phenomena --- the discontinuity of quantum maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions at zero temperature. It is shown that the discontinuity of the maximum entropy inference of local observable measurements signals the non-local type of transitions, where local density matrices of the ground state change smoothly at the transition point. We then propose to use the quantum conditional mutual information of the ground state as an indicator to detect the discontinuity and the non-local type of quantum phase transitions in the thermodynamic limit. %B New Journal of Physics %V 17 %P 083019 %8 2015/08/10 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5046v2 %N 8 %! New J. Phys. %R 10.1088/1367-2630/17/8/083019 %0 Journal Article %J The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy %D 2015 %T Quantum Entanglement and Information %A Jeffrey Bub %A Edward N. Zalta %X Quantum entanglement is a physical resource, like energy, associated with the peculiar nonclassical correlations that are possible between separated quantum systems. Entanglement can be measured, transformed, and purified. A pair of quantum systems in an entangled state can be used as a quantum information channel to perform computational and cryptographic tasks that are impossible for classical systems. The general study of the information-processing capabilities of quantum systems is the subject of quantum information theory. %B The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy %8 02/07/2015 %G eng %U http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/qt-entangle/ %0 Journal Article %J Communications in Mathematical Physics %D 2015 %T Universal Subspaces for Local Unitary Groups of Fermionic Systems %A Lin Chen %A Jianxin Chen %A Dragomir Z. Djokovic %A Bei Zeng %X Let $\mathcal{V}=\wedge^N V$ be the $N$-fermion Hilbert space with $M$-dimensional single particle space $V$ and $2N\le M$. We refer to the unitary group $G$ of $V$ as the local unitary (LU) group. We fix an orthonormal (o.n.) basis $\ket{v_1},...,\ket{v_M}$ of $V$. Then the Slater determinants $e_{i_1,...,i_N}:= \ket{v_{i_1}\we v_{i_2}\we...\we v_{i_N}}$ with $i_1<...