Tensor network theory and quantum simulation are respectively the key classical and quantum computing methods in understanding quantum many-body physics. Here, we introduce the framework of hybrid tensor networks with building blocks consisting of measurable quantum states and classically contractable tensors, inheriting both their distinct features in efficient representation of many-body wave functions. With the example of hybrid tree tensor networks, we demonstrate efficient quantum simulation using a quantum computer whose size is significantly smaller than the one of the target system. We numerically benchmark our method for finding the ground state of 1D and 2D spin systems of up to 8×8 and 9×8 qubits with operations only acting on 8+1 and 9+1 qubits,~respectively. Our approach sheds light on simulation of large practical problems with intermediate-scale quantum computers, with potential applications in chemistry, quantum many-body physics, quantum field theory, and quantum gravity thought experiments.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 127 %8 8/31/2021 %G eng %U http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.040501 %R 10.1103/physrevlett.127.040501