The complexity of quantum states has become a key quantity of interest across various subfields of physics, from quantum computing to the theory of black holes. The evolution of generic quantum systems can be modelled by considering a collection of qubits subjected to sequences of random unitary gates. Here we investigate how the complexity of these random quantum circuits increases by considering how to construct a unitary operation from Haar-random two-qubit quantum gates. Implementing the unitary operation exactly requires a minimal number of gates—this is the operation’s exact circuit complexity. We prove a conjecture that this complexity grows linearly, before saturating when the number of applied gates reaches a threshold that grows exponentially with the number of qubits. Our proof overcomes difficulties in establishing lower bounds for the exact circuit complexity by combining differential topology and elementary algebraic geometry with an inductive construction of Clifford circuits.

U5 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-022-01539-6 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Resource theory of quantum uncomplexity JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2022 A1 - Nicole Yunger Halpern A1 - Naga B. T. Kothakonda A1 - Jonas Haferkamp A1 - Anthony Munson A1 - Jens Eisert A1 - Philippe Faist AB -Quantum complexity is emerging as a key property of many-body systems, including black holes, topological materials, and early quantum computers. A state's complexity quantifies the number of computational gates required to prepare the state from a simple tensor product. The greater a state's distance from maximal complexity, or "uncomplexity," the more useful the state is as input to a quantum computation. Separately, resource theories -- simple models for agents subject to constraints -- are burgeoning in quantum information theory. We unite the two domains, confirming Brown and Susskind's conjecture that a resource theory of uncomplexity can be defined. The allowed operations, fuzzy operations, are slightly random implementations of two-qubit gates chosen by an agent. We formalize two operational tasks, uncomplexity extraction and expenditure. Their optimal efficiencies depend on an entropy that we engineer to reflect complexity. We also present two monotones, uncomplexity measures that decline monotonically under fuzzy operations, in certain regimes. This work unleashes on many-body complexity the resource-theory toolkit from quantum information theory.

VL - 106 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.11371 U5 - 10.1103/physreva.106.062417 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Resource theory of quantum uncomplexity Y1 - 2021 A1 - Nicole Yunger Halpern A1 - Naga B. T. Kothakonda A1 - Jonas Haferkamp A1 - Anthony Munson A1 - Jens Eisert A1 - Philippe Faist AB -Quantum complexity is emerging as a key property of many-body systems, including black holes, topological materials, and early quantum computers. A state's complexity quantifies the number of computational gates required to prepare the state from a simple tensor product. The greater a state's distance from maximal complexity, or ``uncomplexity,'' the more useful the state is as input to a quantum computation. Separately, resource theories -- simple models for agents subject to constraints -- are burgeoning in quantum information theory. We unite the two domains, confirming Brown and Susskind's conjecture that a resource theory of uncomplexity can be defined. The allowed operations, fuzzy operations, are slightly random implementations of two-qubit gates chosen by an agent. We formalize two operational tasks, uncomplexity extraction and expenditure. Their optimal efficiencies depend on an entropy that we engineer to reflect complexity. We also present two monotones, uncomplexity measures that decline monotonically under fuzzy operations, in certain regimes. This work unleashes on many-body complexity the resource-theory toolkit from quantum information theory.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.11371 ER -