Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of non-perturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is in good agreement with experimental data. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

VL - 119 U4 - 043602 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.06068 CP - 4 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.043602 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - High-Order Multipole Radiation from Quantum Hall States in Dirac Materials JF - Physical Review B Y1 - 2017 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - Jacob M. Taylor A1 - Atac Imamoglu A1 - Pouyan Ghaemi A1 - Mohammad Hafezi AB -Topological states can exhibit electronic coherence on macroscopic length scales. When the coherence length exceeds the wavelength of light, one can expect new phenomena to occur in the optical response of these states. We theoretically characterize this limit for integer quantum Hall states in two-dimensional Dirac materials. We find that the radiation from the bulk is dominated by dipole emission, whose spectral properties vary with the local disorder potential. On the other hand, the radiation from the edge is characterized by large multipole moments in the far-field associated with the efficient transfer of angular momentum from the electrons into the scattered light. These results demonstrate that high-order multipole transitions are a necessary component for the optical spectroscopy and control of quantum Hall and related topological states in electronic systems.

VL - 95 U4 - 235439 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.03464 CP - 23 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.235439 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Valley Blockade in a Silicon Double Quantum Dot JF - Physical Review B Y1 - 2017 A1 - Justin K. Perron A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - Jacob M. Taylor A1 - M. D. Stewart, Jr. A1 - Neil M. Zimmerman AB -Electrical transport in double quantum dots (DQDs) illuminates many interesting features of the dots' carrier states. Recent advances in silicon quantum information technologies have renewed interest in the valley states of electrons confined in silicon. Here we show measurements of DC transport through a mesa-etched silicon double quantum dot. Comparing bias triangles (i.e., regions of allowed current in DQDs) at positive and negative bias voltages we find a systematic asymmetry in the size of the bias triangles at the two bias polarities. Asymmetries of this nature are associated with blocking of tunneling events due to the occupation of a metastable state. Several features of our data lead us to conclude that the states involved are not simple spin states. Rather, we develop a model based on selective filling of valley states in the DQD that is consistent with all of the qualitative features of our data.

VL - 96 U4 - 205302 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.06107 CP - 20 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.205302 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Double Quantum Dot Floquet Gain Medium JF - Physical Review X Y1 - 2016 A1 - J. Stehlik A1 - Y.-Y. Liu A1 - C. Eichler A1 - T. R. Hartke A1 - X. Mi A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. M. Taylor A1 - J. R. Petta AB -Strongly driving a two-level quantum system with light leads to a ladder of Floquet states separated by the photon energy. Nanoscale quantum devices allow the interplay of confined electrons, phonons, and photons to be studied under strong driving conditions. Here we show that a single electron in a periodically driven DQD functions as a "Floquet gain medium," where population imbalances in the DQD Floquet quasi-energy levels lead to an intricate pattern of gain and loss features in the cavity response. We further measure a large intra-cavity photon number n_c in the absence of a cavity drive field, due to equilibration in the Floquet picture. Our device operates in the absence of a dc current -- one and the same electron is repeatedly driven to the excited state to generate population inversion. These results pave the way to future studies of non-classical light and thermalization of driven quantum systems.

VL - 6 U4 - 041027 UR - http://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041027 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041027 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2016 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. D. Thompson A1 - Y. Wang A1 - Q. -Y. Liang A1 - V. Vuletic A1 - M. D. Lukin A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov AB -We study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and determine the photon number at which the EFT description breaks down. We find good agreement throughout between the predictions of EFT and numerical simulations of the exact two and three photon wavefunction transmission.

VL - 117 U4 - 113601 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1605.05651 CP - 11 U5 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.113601 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Sisyphus Thermalization of Photons in a Cavity-Coupled Double Quantum Dot JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2016 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. Stehlik A1 - Y. -Y. Liu A1 - J. R. Petta A1 - J. M. Taylor AB -A strongly driven quantum system, coupled to a thermalizing bath, generically evolves into a highly non-thermal state as the external drive competes with the equilibrating force of the bath. We demonstrate a notable exception to this picture for a microwave resonator interacting with a periodically driven double quantum dot (DQD). In the limit of strong driving and long times, we show that the resonator field can be driven into a thermal state with a chemical potential given by a harmonic of the drive frequency. Such tunable chemical potentials are achievable with current devices and would have broad utility for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics. As an example, we show how several DQDs embedded in an array of microwave resonators can induce a phase transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate of light.

VL - 117 U4 - 056801 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.01248 CP - 5 U5 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.056801 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2015 A1 - Mohammad F. Maghrebi A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - P. Bienias A1 - S. Choi A1 - I. Martin A1 - O. Firstenberg A1 - M. D. Lukin A1 - H. P. Büchler A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov AB - We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. VL - 115 U4 - 123601 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03859v1 CP - 12 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.123601 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Injection Locking of a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Micromaser JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2015 A1 - Y. -Y. Liu A1 - J. Stehlik A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. M. Taylor A1 - J. R. Petta AB - Emission linewidth is an important figure of merit for masers and lasers. We recently demonstrated a semiconductor double quantum dot (DQD) micromaser where photons are generated through single electron tunneling events. Charge noise directly couples to the DQD energy levels, resulting in a maser linewidth that is more than 100 times larger than the Schawlow-Townes prediction. Here we demonstrate a linewidth narrowing of more than a factor 10 by locking the DQD emission to a coherent tone that is injected to the input port of the cavity. We measure the injection locking range as a function of cavity input power and show that it is in agreement with the Adler equation. The position and amplitude of distortion sidebands that appear outside of the injection locking range are quantitatively examined. Our results show that this unconventional maser, which is impacted by strong charge noise and electron-phonon coupling, is well described by standard laser models. VL - 92 U4 - 053802 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.04147 CP - 5 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.053802 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Optical Control of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon JF - Physical Review B Y1 - 2015 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. M. Taylor AB - We show how to achieve optical, spin-selective transitions from the ground state to excited orbital states of group-V donors (P, As, Sb, Bi) in silicon. We consider two approaches based on either resonant, far-infrared (IR) transitions of the neutral donor or resonant, near-IR excitonic transitions. For far-IR light, we calculate the dipole matrix elements between the valley-orbit and spin-orbit split states for all the goup-V donors using effective mass theory. We then calculate the maximum rate and amount of electron-nuclear spin-polarization achievable through optical pumping with circularly polarized light. We find this approach is most promising for Bi donors due to their large spin-orbit and valley-orbit interactions. Using near-IR light, spin-selective excitation is possible for all the donors by driving a two-photon $\Lambda$-transition from the ground state to higher orbitals with even parity. We show that externally applied electric fields or strain allow similar, spin-selective $\Lambda$-transition to odd-parity excited states. We anticipate these results will be useful for future spectroscopic investigations of donors, quantum control and state preparation of donor spin qubits, and for developing a coherent interface between donor spin qubits and single photons. VL - 92 U4 - 195411 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.07929 CP - 19 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.195411 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Phonon-Assisted Gain in a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Maser JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2015 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - Y. -Y. Liu A1 - J. Stehlik A1 - J. R. Petta A1 - J. M. Taylor AB - We develop a microscopic model for the recently demonstrated double quantum dot (DQD) maser. In characterizing the gain of this device we find that, in addition to the direct stimulated emission of photons, there is a large contribution from the simultaneous emission of a photon and a phonon, i.e., the phonon sideband. We show that this phonon-assisted gain typically dominates the overall gain which leads to masing. Recent experimental data are well fit with our model. VL - 114 U4 - 196802 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.03499v3 CP - 19 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.196802 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Quantum Nonlinear Optics Near Optomechanical Instabilities JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2015 A1 - Xunnong Xu A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. M. Taylor AB - Optomechanical systems provide a unique platform for observing quantum behavior of macroscopic objects. However, efforts towards realizing nonlinear behavior at the single photon level have been inhibited by the small size of the radiation pressure interaction. Here we show that it is not necessary to reach the single-photon strong-coupling regime in order to realize significant optomechanical nonlinearities. Instead, nonlinearities at the few quanta level can be achieved, even with weak-coupling, in a two-mode optomechanical system driven near instability. In this limit, we establish a new figure of merit for realizing strong nonlinearity which scales with the single-photon optomechanical coupling and the sideband resolution of the mechanical mode with respect to the cavity linewidth. We find that current devices based on optomechanical crystals, thought to be in the weak-coupling regime, can still achieve strong quantum nonlinearity; enabling deterministic interactions between single photons. VL - 91 U4 - 013818 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.3726v2 CP - 1 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.013818 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser JF - Science Y1 - 2015 A1 - Y. -Y. Liu A1 - J. Stehlik A1 - C. Eichler A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. M. Taylor A1 - J. R. Petta AB - The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from THz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside of a high quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. VL - 347 U4 - 285 - 287 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.06359v1 CP - 6219 J1 - Science U5 - 10.1126/science.aaa2501 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - A Quantum Network of Silicon Qubits using Mid-Infrared Graphene Plasmons Y1 - 2014 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. M. Taylor AB - We consider a quantum network of mid-infrared, graphene plasmons coupled to the hydrogen-like excited states of group-V donors in silicon. First, we show how to use plasmon-enhanced light-matter interactions to achieve single-shot spin readout of the donor qubits via optical excitation and electrical detection of the emitted plasmons. We then show how plasmons in high mobility graphene nanoribbons can be used to achieve high-fidelity, two-qubit gates and entanglement of distant Si donor qubits. The proposed device is readily compatible with existing technology and fabrication methods. UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7035v1 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2014 A1 - P. Bienias A1 - S. Choi A1 - O. Firstenberg A1 - Mohammad F. Maghrebi A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - M. D. Lukin A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - H. P. Büchler AB - We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. We use a diagrammatic method to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments. VL - 90 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.7333v1 CP - 5 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.053804 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - All-Optical Switch and Transistor Gated by One Stored Photon JF - Science Y1 - 2013 A1 - Wenlan Chen A1 - Kristin M. Beck A1 - Robert Bücker A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Haruka Tanji-Suzuki A1 - Vladan Vuletic AB - The realization of an all-optical transistor where one 'gate' photon controls a 'source' light beam, is a long-standing goal in optics. By stopping a light pulse in an atomic ensemble contained inside an optical resonator, we realize a device in which one stored gate photon controls the resonator transmission of subsequently applied source photons. A weak gate pulse induces bimodal transmission distribution, corresponding to zero and one gate photons. One stored gate photon produces fivefold source attenuation, and can be retrieved from the atomic ensemble after switching more than one source photon. Without retrieval, one stored gate photon can switch several hundred source photons. With improved storage and retrieval efficiency, our work may enable various new applications, including photonic quantum gates, and deterministic multiphoton entanglement. VL - 341 U4 - 768 - 770 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.3194v1 CP - 6147 J1 - Science U5 - 10.1126/science.1238169 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Preparation of Non-equilibrium Nuclear Spin States in Double Quantum Dots JF - Physical Review B Y1 - 2013 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. J. Krich A1 - J. M. Taylor A1 - B. I. Halperin A1 - M. D. Lukin AB - We theoretically study the dynamic polarization of lattice nuclear spins in GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. In our prior work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 226807 (2010)] we identified three regimes of long-term dynamics, including the build up of a large difference in the Overhauser fields across the dots, the saturation of the nuclear polarization process associated with formation of so-called "dark states," and the elimination of the difference field. In particular, when the dots are different sizes we found that the Overhauser field becomes larger in the smaller dot. Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of these problems including a model of the polarization dynamics and the development of a new numerical method to efficiently simulate semiclassical central-spin problems. When nuclear spin noise is included, the results agree with our prior work indicating that large difference fields and dark states are stable configurations, while the elimination of the difference field is unstable; however, in the absence of noise we find all three steady states are achieved depending on parameters. These results are in good agreement with dynamic nuclear polarization experiments in double quantum dots. VL - 88 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6953v3 CP - 3 J1 - Phys. Rev. B U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.035309 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Single-photon nonlinear optics with graphene plasmons JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2013 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - D. E. Chang A1 - F. H. L. Koppens A1 - F. J. García de Abajo A1 - M. D. Lukin AB - We show that it is possible to realize significant nonlinear optical interactions at the few photon level in graphene nanostructures. Our approach takes advantage of the electric field enhancement associated with the strong confinement of graphene plasmons and the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene. Such a system could provide a powerful platform for quantum nonlinear optical control of light. As an example, we consider an integrated optical device that exploits this large nonlinearity to realize a single photon switch. VL - 111 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.2651v3 CP - 24 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247401 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Nanoplasmonic Lattices for Ultracold atoms JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2012 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - T. Tiecke A1 - D. E. Chang A1 - J. Feist A1 - J. D. Thompson A1 - J. I. Cirac A1 - P. Zoller A1 - M. D. Lukin AB - We propose to use sub-wavelength confinement of light associated with the near field of plasmonic systems to create nanoscale optical lattices for ultracold atoms. Our approach combines the unique coherence properties of isolated atoms with the sub-wavelength manipulation and strong light-matter interaction associated with nano-plasmonic systems. It allows one to considerably increase the energy scales in the realization of Hubbard models and to engineer effective long-range interactions in coherent and dissipative many-body dynamics. Realistic imperfections and potential applications are discussed. VL - 109 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.6293v3 CP - 23 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.235309 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Adiabatic preparation of many-body states in optical lattices JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2010 A1 - Anders S. Sorensen A1 - Ehud Altman A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. V. Porto A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Eugene Demler AB - We analyze a technique for the preparation of low entropy many body states of atoms in optical lattices based on adiabatic passage. In particular, we show that this method allows preparation of strongly correlated states as stable highest energy states of Hamiltonians that have trivial ground states. As an example, we analyze the generation of antiferromagnetically ordered states by adiabatic change of a staggered field acting on the spins of bosonic atoms with ferromagnetic interactions. VL - 81 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.2567v3 CP - 6 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.061603 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Double Quantum Dots JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2010 A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. J. Krich A1 - J. M. Taylor A1 - H. Bluhm A1 - B. I. Halperin A1 - C. M. Marcus A1 - M. Stopa A1 - A. Yacoby A1 - M. D. Lukin AB - We theoretically investigate the controlled dynamic polarization of lattice nuclear spins in GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. Three regimes of long-term dynamics are identified, including the build up of a large difference in the Overhauser fields across the dots, the saturation of the nuclear polarization process associated with formation of so-called "dark states," and the elimination of the difference field. We show that in the case of unequal dots, build up of difference fields generally accompanies the nuclear polarization process, whereas for nearly identical dots, build up of difference fields competes with polarization saturation in dark states. The elimination of the difference field does not, in general, correspond to a stable steady state of the polarization process. VL - 104 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4508v2 CP - 22 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.226807 ER -