We introduce a flexible and graphically intuitive framework that constructs complex quantum error correction codes from simple codes or states, generalizing code concatenation. More specifically, we represent the complex code constructions as tensor networks built from the tensors of simple codes or states in a modular fashion. Using a set of local moves known as operator pushing, one can derive properties of the more complex codes, such as transversal non-Clifford gates, by tracing the flow of operators in the network. The framework endows a network geometry to any code it builds and is valid for constructing stabilizer codes as well as non-stabilizer codes over qubits and qudits. For a contractible tensor network, the sequence of contractions also constructs a decoding/encoding circuit. To highlight the framework's range of capabilities and to provide a tutorial, we lay out some examples where we glue together simple stabilizer codes to construct non-trivial codes. These examples include the toric code and its variants, a holographic code with transversal non-Clifford operators, a 3d stabilizer code, and other stabilizer codes with interesting properties. Surprisingly, we find that the surface code is equivalent to the 2d Bacon-Shor code after "dualizing" its tensor network encoding map.

VL - 3 U4 - 020332 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2109.08158 CP - 2 U5 - https://journals.aps.org/prxquantum/pdf/10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.020332 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Approximate Bacon-Shor Code and Holography JF - Journal of High Energy Physics Y1 - 2021 A1 - ChunJun Cao A1 - Brad Lackey AB -We construct an explicit and solvable toy model for the AdS/CFT correspondence in the form of an approximate quantum error correction code with a non-trivial center in the code subalgebra. Specifically, we use the Bacon-Shor codes and perfect tensors to construct a gauge code (or a stabilizer code with gauge-fixing), which we call the holographic hybrid code. This code admits a local log-depth encoding/decoding circuit, and can be represented as a holographic tensor network which satisfies an analog of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and reproduces features of the sub-region duality. We then construct approximate versions of the holographic hybrid codes by "skewing" the code subspace, where the size of skewing is analogous to the size of the gravitational constant in holography. These approximate hybrid codes are not necessarily stabilizer codes, but they can be expressed as the superposition of holographic tensor networks that are stabilizer codes. For such constructions, different logical states, representing different bulk matter content, can "back-react" on the emergent geometry, resembling a key feature of gravity. The locality of the bulk degrees of freedom becomes subspace-dependent and approximate. Such subspace-dependence is manifest in the form of bulk operator reconstruction from the boundary. Exact complementary error correction breaks down for certain bipartition of the boundary degrees of freedom; however, a limited, state-dependent form is preserved for particular subspaces. We also construct an example where the connected two-point correlation functions can have a power-law decay. Coupled with known constraints from holography, a weakly back-reacting bulk also forces these skewed tensor network models to the "large N limit" where they are built by concatenating a large N number of copies.

VL - 2021 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.05960 U5 - https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2021)127 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Fully device-independent quantum key distribution using synchronous correlations Y1 - 2021 A1 - Rodrigues, Nishant A1 - Lackey, Brad KW - FOS: Physical sciences KW - Quantum Physics (quant-ph) AB -We derive a device-independent quantum key distribution protocol based on synchronous correlations and their Bell inequalities. This protocol offers several advantages over other device-independent schemes including symmetry between the two users and no need for preshared randomness. We close a "synchronicity" loophole by showing that an almost synchronous correlation inherits the self-testing property of the associated synchronous correlation. We also pose a new security assumption that closes the "locality" (or "causality") loophole: an unbounded adversary with even a small uncertainty about the users' choice of measurement bases cannot produce any almost synchronous correlation that approximately maximally violates a synchronous Bell inequality.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.14530 U5 - 10.48550/ARXIV.2110.14530 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Quantum Lattice Sieving Y1 - 2021 A1 - Nishant Rodrigues A1 - Brad Lackey AB -Lattices are very important objects in the effort to construct cryptographic primitives that are secure against quantum attacks. A central problem in the study of lattices is that of finding the shortest non-zero vector in the lattice. Asymptotically, sieving is the best known technique for solving the shortest vector problem, however, sieving requires memory exponential in the dimension of the lattice. As a consequence, enumeration algorithms are often used in place of sieving due to their linear memory complexity, despite their super-exponential runtime. In this work, we present a heuristic quantum sieving algorithm that has memory complexity polynomial in the size of the length of the sampled vectors at the initial step of the sieve. In other words, unlike most sieving algorithms, the memory complexity of our algorithm does not depend on the number of sampled vectors at the initial step of the sieve.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.13352 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - A belief propagation algorithm based on domain decomposition Y1 - 2018 A1 - Brad Lackey AB -This note provides a detailed description and derivation of the domain decomposition algorithm that appears in previous works by the author. Given a large re-estimation problem, domain decomposition provides an iterative method for assembling Boltzmann distributions associated to small subproblems into an approximation of the Bayesian posterior of the whole problem. The algorithm is amenable to using Boltzmann sampling to approximate these Boltzmann distributions. In previous work, we have shown the capability of heuristic versions of this algorithm to solve LDPC decoding and circuit fault diagnosis problems too large to fit on quantum annealing hardware used for sampling. Here, we rigorously prove soundness of the method.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.10005 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Mathematical methods for resource-based type theories Y1 - 2018 A1 - Aarthi Sundaram A1 - Brad Lackey AB -With the wide range of quantum programming languages on offer now, efficient program verification and type checking for these languages presents a challenge -- especially when classical debugging techniques may affect the states in a quantum program. In this work, we make progress towards a program verification approach using the formalism of operational quantum mechanics and resource theories. We present a logical framework that captures two mathematical approaches to resource theory based on monoids (algebraic) and monoidal categories (categorical). We develop the syntax of this framework as an intuitionistic sequent calculus, and prove soundness and completeness of an algebraic and categorical semantics that recover these approaches. We also provide a cut-elimination theorem, normal form, and analogue of Lambek's lifting theorem for polynomial systems over the logics. Using these approaches along with the Curry-Howard-Lambek correspondence for programs, proofs and categories, this work lays the mathematical groundwork for a type checker for some resource theory based frameworks, with the possibility of extending it other quantum programming languages.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.08726 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Morphisms in categories of nonlocal games Y1 - 2018 A1 - Brad Lackey A1 - Nishant Rodrigues AB -Synchronous correlations provide a class of nonlocal games that behave like functions between finite sets. In this work we examine categories whose morphisms are games with synchronous classical, quantum, or general nonsignaling correlations. In particular, we characterize when morphisms in these categories are monic, epic, sections, or retractions.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.10074 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Quantum adiabatic optimization without heuristics Y1 - 2018 A1 - Michael Jarret A1 - Brad Lackey A1 - Aike Liu A1 - Kianna Wan AB -Quantum adiabatic optimization (QAO) is performed using a time-dependent Hamiltonian H(s) with spectral gap γ(s). Assuming the existence of an oracle Γ such that γ(s)=Θ(Γ(s)), we provide an algorithm that reliably performs QAO in time Oγ−1minlog(γ−1min) with Olog(γ−1min) oracle queries, where γmin=minsγ(s). Our strategy is not heuristic and does not require guessing time parameters or annealing paths. Rather, our algorithm naturally produces an annealing path such that dH/ds≈γ(s) and chooses its own runtime T to be as close as possible to optimal while promising convergence to the ground state. We then demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in practice by explicitly constructing a gap oracle Γ for the problem of finding a vertex m=argminuW(u) of the cost function W:V⟶[0,1], restricting ourselves to computational basis measurements and driving Hamiltonian H(0)=I−V−1∑u,v∈V|u⟩⟨v|, with V=|V|. Requiring only that W have a constant lower bound on its spectral gap and upper bound κ on its spectral ratio, our QAO algorithm returns m using Γ with probability (1−ε)(1−e−1/ε) in time O˜(ε−1[V−−√+(κ−1)2/3V2/3]). This achieves a quantum advantage for all κ, and when κ≈1, recovers Grover scaling up to logarithmic factors. We implement the algorithm as a subroutine in an optimization procedure that produces m with exponentially small failure probability and expected runtime O˜(ε−1[V−−√+(κ−1)2/3V2/3]), even when κ is not known beforehand.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.04686 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant JF - Physical Review D Y1 - 2017 A1 - Ning Bao A1 - Raphael Bousso A1 - Stephen P. Jordan A1 - Brad Lackey AB -Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of an NP-hard problem. The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10−120 in a randomly generated 109 -dimensional ADK landscape.

VL - 96 U4 - 103512 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.08503 CP - 10 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.103512 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Nonlocal games, synchronous correlations, and Bell inequalities Y1 - 2017 A1 - Brad Lackey A1 - Nishant Rodrigues AB -A nonlocal game with a synchronous correlation is a natural generalization of a function between two finite sets, and has recently appeared in the context of quantum graph homomorphisms. In this work we examine analogues of Bell's inequalities for synchronous correlations. We show that, unlike general correlations and the CHSH inequality, there can be no quantum Bell violation among synchronous correlations with two measurement settings. However we exhibit explicit analogues of Bell's inequalities for synchronous correlations with three measurement settings and two outputs, provide an analogue of Tsirl'son's bound in this setting, and give explicit quantum correlations that saturate this bound.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.06200 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Penalty models for bitstrings of constant Hamming weight Y1 - 2017 A1 - Brad Lackey AB -To program a quantum annealer, one must construct objective functions whose minima encode hard constraints imposed by the underlying problem. For such "penalty models," one desires the additional property that the gap in the objective value between such minima and states that fail the constraints is maximized amongst the allowable objective functions. In this short note, we prove the standard penalty model for the constraint that a bitstring has given Hamming weight is optimal with respect to objective value gap.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.07290 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - On the readiness of quantum optimization machines for industrial applications Y1 - 2017 A1 - Alejandro Perdomo-Ortiz A1 - Alexander Feldman A1 - Asier Ozaeta A1 - Sergei V. Isakov A1 - Zheng Zhu A1 - Bryan O'Gorman A1 - Helmut G. Katzgraber A1 - Alexander Diedrich A1 - Hartmut Neven A1 - Johan de Kleer A1 - Brad Lackey A1 - Rupak Biswas AB -There have been multiple attempts to demonstrate that quantum annealing and, in particular, quantum annealing on quantum annealing machines, has the potential to outperform current classical optimization algorithms implemented on CMOS technologies. The benchmarking of these devices has been controversial. Initially, random spin-glass problems were used, however, these were quickly shown to be not well suited to detect any quantum speedup. Subsequently, benchmarking shifted to carefully crafted synthetic problems designed to highlight the quantum nature of the hardware while (often) ensuring that classical optimization techniques do not perform well on them. Even worse, to date a true sign of improved scaling with the number problem variables remains elusive when compared to classical optimization techniques. Here, we analyze the readiness of quantum annealing machines for real-world application problems. These are typically not random and have an underlying structure that is hard to capture in synthetic benchmarks, thus posing unexpected challenges for optimization techniques, both classical and quantum alike. We present a comprehensive computational scaling analysis of fault diagnosis in digital circuits, considering architectures beyond D-wave quantum annealers. We find that the instances generated from real data in multiplier circuits are harder than other representative random spin-glass benchmarks with a comparable number of variables. Although our results show that transverse-field quantum annealing is outperformed by state-of-the-art classical optimization algorithms, these benchmark instances are hard and small in the size of the input, therefore representing the first industrial application ideally suited for near-term quantum annealers.

UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.09780 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Substochastic Monte Carlo Algorithms Y1 - 2017 A1 - Michael Jarret A1 - Brad Lackey AB -In this paper we introduce and formalize Substochastic Monte Carlo (SSMC) algorithms. These algorithms, originally intended to be a better classical foil to quantum annealing than simulated annealing, prove to be worthy optimization algorithms in their own right. In SSMC, a population of walkers is initialized according to a known distribution on an arbitrary search space and varied into the solution of some optimization problem of interest. The first argument of this paper shows how an existing classical algorithm, "Go-With-The-Winners" (GWW), is a limiting case of SSMC when restricted to binary search and particular driving dynamics.

Although limiting to GWW, SSMC is more general. We show that (1) GWW can be efficiently simulated within the SSMC framework, (2) SSMC can be exponentially faster than GWW, (3) by naturally incorporating structural information, SSMC can exponentially outperform the quantum algorithm that first inspired it, and (4) SSMC exhibits desirable search features in general spaces. Our approach combines ideas from genetic algorithms (GWW), theoretical probability (Fleming-Viot processes), and quantum computing. Not only do we demonstrate that SSMC is often more efficient than competing algorithms, but we also hope that our results connecting these disciplines will impact each independently. An implemented version of SSMC has previously enjoyed some success as a competitive optimization algorithm for Max-

Most experimental and theoretical studies of adiabatic optimization use stoquastic Hamiltonians, whose ground states are expressible using only real nonnegative amplitudes. This raises a question as to whether classical Monte Carlo methods can simulate stoquastic adiabatic algorithms with polynomial overhead. Here, we analyze diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. We argue that, based on differences between L1 and L2 normalized states, these algorithms suffer from certain obstructions preventing them from efficiently simulating stoquastic adiabatic evolution in generality. In practice however, we obtain good performance by introducing a method that we call Substochastic Monte Carlo. In fact, our simulations are good classical optimization algorithms in their own right, competitive with the best previously known heuristic solvers for MAX-k-SAT at k=2,3,4.

VL - 94 U4 - 042318 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.03389 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Mapping constrained optimization problems to quantum annealing with application to fault diagnosis Y1 - 2016 A1 - Bian, Zhengbing A1 - Chudak, Fabian A1 - Israel, Robert A1 - Lackey, Brad A1 - Macready, William G A1 - Roy, Aidan AB - Current quantum annealing (QA) hardware suffers from practical limitations such as finite temperature, sparse connectivity, small qubit numbers, and control error. We propose new algorithms for mapping boolean constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) onto QA hardware mitigating these limitations. In particular we develop a new embedding algorithm for mapping a CSP onto a hardware Ising model with a fixed sparse set of interactions, and propose two new decomposition algorithms for solving problems too large to map directly into hardware. The mapping technique is locally-structured, as hardware compatible Ising models are generated for each problem constraint, and variables appearing in different constraints are chained together using ferromagnetic couplings. In contrast, global embedding techniques generate a hardware independent Ising model for all the constraints, and then use a minor-embedding algorithm to generate a hardware compatible Ising model. We give an example of a class of CSPs for which the scaling performance of D-Wave's QA hardware using the local mapping technique is significantly better than global embedding. We validate the approach by applying D-Wave's hardware to circuit-based fault-diagnosis. For circuits that embed directly, we find that the hardware is typically able to find all solutions from a min-fault diagnosis set of size N using 1000N samples, using an annealing rate that is 25 times faster than a leading SAT-based sampling method. Further, we apply decomposition algorithms to find min-cardinality faults for circuits that are up to 5 times larger than can be solved directly on current hardware. UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.03111 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Mapping contrained optimization problems to quantum annealing with application to fault diagnosis JF - Frontiers in ICT Y1 - 2016 A1 - Bian, Zhengbing A1 - Chudak, Fabian A1 - Robert Brian Israel A1 - Brad Lackey A1 - Macready, William G A1 - Aiden Roy AB -Current quantum annealing (QA) hardware suffers from practical limitations such as finite temperature, sparse connectivity, small qubit numbers, and control error. We propose new algorithms for mapping Boolean constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) onto QA hardware mitigating these limitations. In particular, we develop a new embedding algorithm for mapping a CSP onto a hardware Ising model with a fixed sparse set of interactions and propose two new decomposition algorithms for solving problems too large to map directly into hardware. The mapping technique is locally structured, as hardware compatible Ising models are generated for each problem constraint, and variables appearing in different constraints are chained together using ferromagnetic couplings. By contrast, global embedding techniques generate a hardware-independent Ising model for all the constraints, and then use a minor-embedding algorithm to generate a hardware compatible Ising model. We give an example of a class of CSPs for which the scaling performance of the D-Wave hardware using the local mapping technique is significantly better than global embedding. We validate the approach by applying D- Wave’s QA hardware to circuit-based fault diagnosis. For circuits that embed directly, we find that the hardware is typically able to find all solutions from a min-fault diagnosis set of size N using 1000 N samples, using an annealing rate that is 25 times faster than a leading SAT-based sampling method. Furthermore, we apply decomposition algorithms to find min-cardinality faults for circuits that are up to 5 times larger than can be solved directly on current hardware.

VL - 3 U4 - 14 UR - http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fict.2016.00014/full ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Discrete optimization using quantum annealing on sparse Ising models JF - Frontiers in Physics Y1 - 2014 A1 - Bian, Zhengbing A1 - Chudak, Fabian A1 - Israel, Robert A1 - Brad Lackey A1 - Macready, William G A1 - Roy, Aidan AB - This paper discusses techniques for solving discrete optimization problems using quantum annealing. Practical issues likely to affect the computation include precision limitations, finite temperature, bounded energy range, sparse connectivity, and small numbers of qubits. To address these concerns we propose a way of finding energy representations with large classical gaps between ground and first excited states, efficient algorithms for mapping non-compatible Ising models into the hardware, and the use of decomposition methods for problems that are too large to fit in hardware. We validate the approach by describing experiments with D-Wave quantum hardware for low density parity check decoding with up to 1000 variables. PB - Frontiers VL - 2 U4 - 56 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - On Galilean connections and the first jet bundle JF - Central European Journal of Mathematics Y1 - 2012 A1 - Grant, James DE A1 - Brad Lackey AB - We see how the first jet bundle of curves into affine space can be realized as a homogeneous space of the Galilean group. Cartan connections with this model are precisely the geometric structure of second-order ordinary differential equations under time-preserving transformations — sometimes called KCC-theory. With certain regularity conditions, we show that any such Cartan connection induces “laboratory” coordinate systems, and the geodesic equations in this coordinates form a system of second-order ordinary differential equations. We then show the converse — the “fundamental theorem” — that given such a coordinate system, and a system of second order ordinary differential equations, there exists regular Cartan connections yielding these, and such connections are completely determined by their torsion. PB - Springer VL - 10 U4 - 1889–1895 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - On the Gauss–Bonnet Formula in Riemann–Finsler Geometry JF - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society Y1 - 2002 A1 - Brad Lackey AB - Using Chern's method of transgression, the Euler class of a compact orientable Riemann–Finsler space is represented by polynomials in the connection and curvature matrices of a torsion-free connection. When using the Chern connection (and hence the Christoffel–Levi–Civita connection in the Riemannian case), this result extends the Gauss–Bonnet formula of Bao and Chern to Finsler spaces whose indicatrices need not have constant volume. PB - Cambridge Univ Press VL - 34 U4 - 329–340 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Metric Equivalence of Path Spaces JF - Nonlinear Studies Y1 - 2000 A1 - Brad Lackey AB - Local equivalence and the invariants of systems of second order differential equations were studied in a series of papers by Kosambi, Cartan, and Chern. The resulting theory, deemed KCC-theory, is a rich geometric study which in many ways generalizes Riemannian and Finsler geometry. Yet, in many applications one requires a metric structure in addition to the systems of second order differential equations. We pose a geometry which is equipped with both of these structures, and solve the problem of local equivalence and thus determining a preferred connection and finding a generating set for all the invariants of the theory. VL - 7 CP - 2 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - On Galilean connections and the first jet bundle Y1 - 1999 A1 - James D. E. Grant A1 - Brad Lackey AB - We express the first jet bundle of curves in Euclidean space as homogeneous spaces associated to a Galilean-type group. Certain Cartan connections on a manifold with values in the Lie algebra of the Galilean group are characterized as geometries associated to systems of second order ordinary differential equations. We show these Cartan connections admit a form of normal coordinates, and that in these normal coordinates the geodesic equations of the connection are second order ordinary differential equations. We then classify such connections by some of their torsions, extending a classical theorem of Chern involving the geometry associated to a system of second order differential equations. UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/math/9909148v1 J1 - Central European Journal of Mathematics 10.5 (2012): 1889-1895 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - A model of trophodynamics JF - Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications Y1 - 1999 A1 - Brad Lackey PB - Pergamon VL - 35 U4 - 37–57 U5 - 10.1016/S0362-546X(98)00097-2 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Randers surfaces whose Laplacians have completely positive symbol JF - Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications Y1 - 1999 A1 - Bao, David A1 - Lackey, Brad VL - 38 U4 - 27–40 ER - TY - CHAP T1 - A Bochner Vanishing Theorem for Elliptic Complexes T2 - The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications Y1 - 1998 A1 - Lackey, Brad JA - The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications PB - Springer U4 - 199–226 ER - TY - CHAP T1 - A geometric inequality and a Weitzenboeck formula for Finsler surfaces T2 - The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications Y1 - 1998 A1 - Bao, David A1 - Lackey, Brad JA - The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications PB - Springer U4 - 245–275 ER - TY - CHAP T1 - A Lichnerowicz Vanishing Theorem for Finsler Spaces T2 - The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications Y1 - 1998 A1 - Lackey, Brad JA - The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications PB - Springer U4 - 227–243 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - A Hodge decomposition theorem for Finsler spaces JF - Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Série 1, Mathématique Y1 - 1996 A1 - Bao, David A1 - Brad Lackey AB - Soit (M,F) une vari\e'té finslérienne compacte sans bord. On donne une condition nécessaire et suffisante, portant sur le tenseur fondamental, afin q'une forme différentielle extérieure de M soit harmonique. On introduit aussi le laplacien sur M et on démontre l'analoque du théorème de Hodge dans le cas finslérien. PB - Elsevier VL - 323 U4 - 51–56 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Special eigenforms on the sphere bundle of a Finsler manifold JF - Contemporary Mathematics Y1 - 1996 A1 - Bao, David A1 - Lackey, Brad VL - 196 U4 - 67–78 ER -