A (2+1)-dimensional gapped quantum many-body system can have a topologically protected energy current at its edge. The magnitude of this current is determined entirely by the temperature and the chiral central charge, a quantity associated with the effective field theory of the edge. We derive a formula for the chiral central charge that, akin to the topological entanglement entropy, is completely determined by the many-body ground state wave function in the bulk. According to our formula, nonzero chiral central charge gives rise to a topological obstruction that prevents the ground state wave function from being real-valued in any local product basis.

VL - 128 U4 - 176402 UR - https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.06932 CP - 17 U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.176402 ER -