Various realizations of Kitaev's surface code perform surprisingly well for biased Pauli noise. Attracted by these potential gains, we study the performance of Clifford-deformed surface codes (CDSCs) obtained from the surface code by the application of single-qubit Clifford operators. We first analyze CDSCs on the 3×3 square lattice and find that depending on the noise bias, their logical error rates can differ by orders of magnitude. To explain the observed behavior, we introduce the effective distance d′, which reduces to the standard distance for unbiased noise. To study CDSC performance in the thermodynamic limit, we focus on random CDSCs. Using the statistical mechanical mapping for quantum codes, we uncover a phase diagram that describes random CDSCs with 50% threshold at infinite bias. In the high-threshold region, we further demonstrate that typical code realizations at finite bias outperform the thresholds and subthreshold logical error rates of the best known translationally invariant codes.

10aDisordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn)10aFOS: Physical sciences10aMesoscale and Nanoscale Physics (cond-mat.mes-hall)10aQuantum Physics (quant-ph)10aStatistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)1 aDua, Arpit1 aKubica, Aleksander1 aJiang, Liang1 aFlammia, Steven, T.1 aGullans, Michael uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2201.0780201959nas a2200217 4500008004100000245010400041210006900145260001400214520119900228653002701427653003501454653003101489653005201520100002001572700001601592700001501608700002301623700003001646700002801676856003701704 2022 eng d00aThree-dimensional quantum cellular automata from chiral semion surface topological order and beyond0 aThreedimensional quantum cellular automata from chiral semion su c2/10/20223 aWe construct a novel three-dimensional quantum cellular automaton (QCA) based on a system with short-range entangled bulk and chiral semion boundary topological order. We argue that either the QCA is nontrivial, i.e. not a finite-depth circuit of local quantum gates, or there exists a two-dimensional commuting projector Hamiltonian realizing the chiral semion topological order (characterized by U(1)2 Chern-Simons theory). Our QCA is obtained by first constructing the Walker-Wang Hamiltonian of a certain premodular tensor category of order four, then condensing the deconfined bulk boson at the level of lattice operators. We show that the resulting Hamiltonian hosts chiral semion surface topological order in the presence of a boundary and can be realized as a non-Pauli stabilizer code on qubits, from which the QCA is defined. The construction is then generalized to a class of QCAs defined by non-Pauli stabilizer codes on 2n-dimensional qudits that feature surface anyons described by U(1)2n Chern-Simons theory. Our results support the conjecture that the group of nontrivial three-dimensional QCAs is isomorphic to the Witt group of non-degenerate braided fusion categories.

10aFOS: Physical sciences10aMathematical Physics (math-ph)10aQuantum Physics (quant-ph)10aStrongly Correlated Electrons (cond-mat.str-el)1 aShirley, Wilbur1 aChen, Yu-An1 aDua, Arpit1 aEllison, Tyler, D.1 aTantivasadakarn, Nathanan1 aWilliamson, Dominic, J. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2202.05442