We use complexity theory to rigorously investigate the difficulty of classically simulating evolution under many-body localized (MBL) Hamiltonians. Using the defining feature that MBL systems have a complete set of quasilocal integrals of motion (LIOMs), we demonstrate a transition in the classical complexity of simulating such systems as a function of evolution time. On one side, we construct a quasipolynomial-time tensor-network-inspired algorithm for strong simulation of 1D MBL systems (i.e., calculating the expectation value of arbitrary products of local observables) evolved for any time polynomial in the system size. On the other side, we prove that even weak simulation, i.e. sampling, becomes formally hard after an exponentially long evolution time, assuming widely believed conjectures in complexity theory. Finally, using the consequences of our classical simulation results, we also show that the quantum circuit complexity for MBL systems is sublinear in evolution time. This result is a counterpart to a recent proof that the complexity of random quantum circuits grows linearly in time.

1 aEhrenberg, Adam1 aDeshpande, Abhinav1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aAbanin, Dmitry, A.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2205.1296702034nas a2200217 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090260001300139520129000152653006101442653002701503653004201530653004701572653005201619100001901671700002001690700002901710700002101739700001901760856003701779 2022 eng d00aSpectral Form Factor of a Quantum Spin Glass0 aSpectral Form Factor of a Quantum Spin Glass c4/4/20223 aIt is widely expected that systems which fully thermalize are chaotic in the sense of exhibiting random-matrix statistics of their energy level spacings, whereas integrable systems exhibit Poissonian statistics. In this paper, we investigate a third class: spin glasses. These systems are partially chaotic but do not achieve full thermalization due to large free energy barriers. We examine the level spacing statistics of a canonical infinite-range quantum spin glass, the quantum p-spherical model, using an analytic path integral approach. We find statistics consistent with a direct sum of independent random matrices, and show that the number of such matrices is equal to the number of distinct metastable configurations -- the exponential of the spin glass "complexity" as obtained from the quantum Thouless-Anderson-Palmer equations. We also consider the statistical properties of the complexity itself and identify a set of contributions to the path integral which suggest a Poissonian distribution for the number of metastable configurations. Our results show that level spacing statistics can probe the ergodicity-breaking in quantum spin glasses and provide a way to generalize the notion of spin glass complexity beyond models with a semi-classical limit.

10aDisordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn)10aFOS: Physical sciences10aHigh Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)10aStatistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)10aStrongly Correlated Electrons (cond-mat.str-el)1 aWiner, Michael1 aBarney, Richard1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aGalitski, Victor1 aSwingle, Brian uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2203.1275301198nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006000041210005400101260001400155520069100169100001900860700002000879700002900899700002000928700002500948700001800973856003700991 2021 eng d00aThe Lieb-Robinson light cone for power-law interactions0 aLiebRobinson light cone for powerlaw interactions c3/29/20213 aThe Lieb-Robinson theorem states that information propagates with a finite velocity in quantum systems on a lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions. What are the speed limits on information propagation in quantum systems with power-law interactions, which decay as 1/rα at distance r? Here, we present a definitive answer to this question for all exponents α>2d and all spatial dimensions d. Schematically, information takes time at least rmin{1,α−2d} to propagate a distance~r. As recent state transfer protocols saturate this bound, our work closes a decades-long hunt for optimal Lieb-Robinson bounds on quantum information dynamics with power-law interactions.

1 aTran, Minh, C.1 aGuo, Andrew, Y.1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aEhrenberg, Adam1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aLucas, Andrew uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2103.1582801834nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007600041210006900117260001400186520133100200100002901531700001601560700002501576700002101601700001701622856003701639 2021 eng d00aSingularities in nearly-uniform 1D condensates due to quantum diffusion0 aSingularities in nearlyuniform 1D condensates due to quantum dif c3/10/20213 aDissipative systems can often exhibit wavelength-dependent loss rates. One prominent example is Rydberg polaritons formed by electromagnetically-induced transparency, which have long been a leading candidate for studying the physics of interacting photons and also hold promise as a platform for quantum information. In this system, dissipation is in the form of quantum diffusion, i.e., proportional to k2 (k being the wavevector) and vanishing at long wavelengths as k→0. Here, we show that one-dimensional condensates subject to this type of loss are unstable to long-wavelength density fluctuations in an unusual manner: after a prolonged period in which the condensate appears to relax to a uniform state, local depleted regions quickly form and spread ballistically throughout the system. We connect this behavior to the leading-order equation for the nearly-uniform condensate -- a dispersive analogue to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation -- which develops singularities in finite time. Furthermore, we show that the wavefronts of the depleted regions are described by purely dissipative solitons within a pair of hydrodynamic equations, with no counterpart in lossless condensates. We close by discussing conditions under which such singularities and the resulting solitons can be physically realized.

1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aBienias, P.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGullans, Michael1 aMaghrebi, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2103.0629301603nas a2200145 4500008004100000245010500041210006900146260001400215520111300229100002901342700001501371700001901386700001501405856003701420 2020 eng d00aDistinct Critical Behaviors from the Same State in Quantum Spin and Population Dynamics Perspectives0 aDistinct Critical Behaviors from the Same State in Quantum Spin c9/10/20203 aThere is a deep connection between the ground states of transverse-field spin systems and the late-time distributions of evolving viral populations -- within simple models, both are obtained from the principal eigenvector of the same matrix. However, that vector is the wavefunction amplitude in the quantum spin model, whereas it is the probability itself in the population model. We show that this seemingly minor difference has significant consequences: phase transitions which are discontinuous in the spin system become continuous when viewed through the population perspective, and transitions which are continuous become governed by new critical exponents. We introduce a more general class of models which encompasses both cases, and that can be solved exactly in a mean-field limit. Numerical results are also presented for a number of one-dimensional chains with power-law interactions. We see that well-worn spin models of quantum statistical mechanics can contain unexpected new physics and insights when treated as population-dynamical models and beyond, motivating further studies.

1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aShivam, S.1 aSondhi, S., L.1 aKardar, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2009.0506401409nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001400163520091900177100002101096700002901117700002101146700002201167700002501189856003701214 2020 eng d00aOptimal Protocols in Quantum Annealing and QAOA Problems0 aOptimal Protocols in Quantum Annealing and QAOA Problems c3/19/20203 aQuantum Annealing (QA) and the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) are two special cases of the following control problem: apply a combination of two Hamiltonians to minimize the energy of a quantum state. Which is more effective has remained unclear. Here we apply the framework of optimal control theory to show that generically, given a fixed amount of time, the optimal procedure has the pulsed (or "bang-bang") structure of QAOA at the beginning and end but can have a smooth annealing structure in between. This is in contrast to previous works which have suggested that bang-bang (i.e., QAOA) protocols are ideal. Through simulations of various transverse field Ising models, we demonstrate that bang-anneal-bang protocols are more common. The general features identified here provide guideposts for the nascent experimental implementations of quantum optimization algorithms.

1 aBrady, Lucas, T.1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aBapat, Aniruddha1 aKharkov, Yaroslav1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2003.0895201597nas a2200145 4500008004100000245003200041210003100073260001400104520121600118100001901334700002901353700001501382700001701397856003701414 2020 eng d00aSpin-Mediated Mott Excitons0 aSpinMediated Mott Excitons c4/22/20203 aMotivated by recent experiments on Mott insulators, in both iridates and ultracold atoms, we theoretically study the effects of magnetic order on the Mott-Hubbard excitons. In particular, we focus on spin-mediated doublon-holon pairing in Hubbard materials. We use several complementary theoretical techniques: mean-field theory to describe the spin degrees of freedom, the self-consistent Born approximation to characterize individual charge excitations across the Hubbard gap, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to identify bound states of doublons and holons. The binding energy of the Hubbard exciton is found to increase with increasing the N{é}el order parameter, while the exciton mass decreases. We observe that these trends rely significantly on the retardation of the effective interaction, and require consideration of multiple effects from changing the magnetic order. Our results are consistent with the key qualitative trends observed in recent experiments on iridates. Moreover, the findings could have direct implications on ultracold atom Mott insulators, where the Hubbard model is the exact description of the system and the microscopic degrees of freedom can be directly accessed.

1 aHuang, T., -S.1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aHafezi, M.1 aGalitski, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2004.1082501030nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006700041210006700108260001400175520054300189100001900732700002900751700001700780700001900797700001900816856003700835 2020 eng d00aStudying viral populations with tools from quantum spin chains0 aStudying viral populations with tools from quantum spin chains c3/24/20203 aWe study Eigen's model of quasi-species, characterized by sequences that replicate with a specified fitness and mutate independently at single sites. The evolution of the population vector in time is then closely related to that of quantum spins in imaginary time. We employ multiple perspectives and tools from interacting quantum systems to examine growth and collapse of realistic viral populations, specifically certain HIV proteins. All approaches used, including the simplest perturbation theory, give consistent results.

1 aShivam, Saumya1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aBarton, John1 aKardar, Mehran1 aSondhi, S., L. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2003.1066801764nas a2200289 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001500184520095900199100001501158700001401173700001501187700002001202700001101222700001701233700001901250700002001269700001601289700002901305700001801334700001801352700001201370700001501382700002501397700001501422856003701437 2019 eng d00aQuantum Approximate Optimization with a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator0 aQuantum Approximate Optimization with a TrappedIon Quantum Simul c06/06/20193 aQuantum computers and simulators may offer significant advantages over their classical counterparts, providing insights into quantum many-body systems and possibly solving exponentially hard problems, such as optimization and satisfiability. Here we report the first implementation of a shallow-depth Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) using an analog quantum simulator to estimate the ground state energy of the transverse field Ising model with tunable long-range interactions. First, we exhaustively search the variational control parameters to approximate the ground state energy with up to 40 trapped-ion qubits. We then interface the quantum simulator with a classical algorithm to more efficiently find the optimal set of parameters that minimizes the resulting energy of the system. We finally sample from the full probability distribution of the QAOA output with single-shot and efficient measurements of every qubit.

1 aPagano, G.1 aBapat, A.1 aBecker, P.1 aCollins, K., S.1 aDe, A.1 aHess, P., W.1 aKaplan, H., B.1 aKyprianidis, A.1 aTan, W., L.1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aBrady, L., T.1 aDeshpande, A.1 aLiu, F.1 aJordan, S.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMonroe, C. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1906.0270001495nas a2200121 4500008004100000245005200041210005100093260001500144520112900159100002901288700001901317856003701336 2019 eng d00aQuenched vs Annealed: Glassiness from SK to SYK0 aQuenched vs Annealed Glassiness from SK to SYK c11/26/20193 aWe show that any SYK-like model with finite-body interactions among \textit{local} degrees of freedom, e.g., bosons or spins, has a fundamental difference from the standard fermionic model: the former fails to be described by an annealed free energy at low temperature. In this respect, such models more closely resemble spin glasses. We demonstrate this by two means: first, a general theorem proving that the annealed free energy is divergent at low temperature in any model with a tensor product Hilbert space; and second, a replica treatment of two prominent examples which exhibit phase transitions from an "annealed" phase to a "non-annealed" phase as a function of temperature. We further show that this effect appears only at O(N)'th order in a 1/N expansion, even though lower-order terms misleadingly seem to converge. Our results prove that the non-bosonic nature of the particles in SYK is an essential ingredient for its physics, highlight connections between local models and spin glasses, and raise important questions as to the role of fermions and/or glassiness in holography.

1 aBaldwin, Christopher, L.1 aSwingle, Brian uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1911.11865