Circuit quantum electrodynamics is one of the most promising platforms for efficient quantum simulation and computation. In recent groundbreaking experiments, the immense flexibility of superconducting microwave resonators was utilized to realize hyperbolic lattices that emulate quantum physics in negatively curved space. Here we investigate experimentally feasible settings in which a few superconducting qubits are coupled to a bath of photons evolving on the hyperbolic lattice. We compare our numerical results for finite lattices with analytical results for continuous hyperbolic space on the Poincaré disk. We find good agreement between the two descriptions in the long-wavelength regime. We show that photon-qubit bound states have a curvature-limited size. We propose to use a qubit as a local probe of the hyperbolic bath, for example by measuring the relaxation dynamics of the qubit. We find that, although the boundary effects strongly impact the photonic density of states, the spectral density is well described by the continuum theory. We show that interactions between qubits are mediated by photons propagating along geodesics. We demonstrate that the photonic bath can give rise to geometrically-frustrated hyperbolic quantum spin models with finite-range or exponentially-decaying interaction.

1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aBoettcher, Igor1 aBelyansky, Ron1 aKollár, Alicia, J.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2105.0649002085nas a2200169 4500008004100000245004300041210004300084260001300127520161100140100002001751700002501771700002401796700002101820700001801841700001901859856003701878 2021 eng d00aCrystallography of Hyperbolic Lattices0 aCrystallography of Hyperbolic Lattices c5/3/20213 aHyperbolic lattices are a revolutionary platform for tabletop simulations of holography and quantum physics in curved space and facilitate efficient quantum error correcting codes. Their underlying geometry is non-Euclidean, and the absence of Bloch's theorem precludes a simple understanding of their band structure. Motivated by recent insights into hyperbolic band theory, we initiate a crystallography of hyperbolic lattices. We show that many hyperbolic lattices feature a hidden crystal structure characterized by unit cells, hyperbolic Bravais lattices, and associated symmetry groups. Using the mathematical framework of higher-genus Riemann surfaces and Fuchsian groups, we derive, for the first time, a list of example hyperbolic {p,q} lattices and their hyperbolic Bravais lattices, including five infinite families and several graphs relevant for experiments in circuit quantum electrodynamics and topolectrical circuits. Our results find application for both finite and infinite hyperbolic lattices. We describe a method to efficiently generate finite hyperbolic lattices of arbitrary size and explain why the present crystallography is the first step towards a complete band theory of hyperbolic lattices and apply it to construct Bloch wave Hamiltonians. This work lays the foundation for generalizing some of the most powerful concepts of solid state physics, such as crystal momentum and Brillouin zone, to the emerging field of hyperbolic lattices and tabletop simulations of gravitational theories, and reveals the connections to concepts from topology and algebraic geometry.

1 aBoettcher, Igor1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKollár, Alicia, J.1 aMaciejko, Joseph1 aRayan, Steven1 aThomale, Ronny uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2105.0108701932nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001300155520138000168100002501548700002001573700002201593700002701615700002301642700002501665700002301690856003701713 2020 eng d00aCritical Theory for the Breakdown of Photon Blockade0 aCritical Theory for the Breakdown of Photon Blockade c6/9/20203 aPhoton blockade is the result of the interplay between the quantized nature of light and strong optical nonlinearities, whereby strong photon-photon repulsion prevents a quantum optical system from absorbing multiple photons. We theoretically study a single atom coupled to the light field, described by the resonantly driven Jaynes--Cummings model, in which case the photon blockade breaks down in a second order phase transition at a critical drive strength. We show that this transition is associated to the spontaneous breaking of an anti-unitary PT-symmetry. Within a semiclassical approximation we calculate the expectation values of observables in the steady state. We then move beyond the semiclassical approximation and approach the critical point from the disordered (blockaded) phase by reducing the Lindblad quantum master equation to a classical rate equation that we solve. The width of the steady-state distribution in Fock space is found to diverge as we approach the critical point with a simple power-law, allowing us to calculate the critical scaling of steady state observables without invoking mean-field theory. We propose a simple physical toy model for biased diffusion in the space of occupation numbers, which captures the universal properties of the steady state. We list several experimental platforms where this phenomenon may be observed.

1 aCurtis, Jonathan, B.1 aBoettcher, Igor1 aYoung, Jeremy, T.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aCarmichael, Howard1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aFoss-Feig, Michael uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2006.0559301302nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001400183520080100197100001800998700002201016700002001038700002401058700002501082856003701107 2020 eng d00aOptimal Measurement of Field Properties with Quantum Sensor Networks0 aOptimal Measurement of Field Properties with Quantum Sensor Netw c11/2/20203 aWe consider a quantum sensor network of qubit sensors coupled to a field f(x⃗ ;θ⃗ ) analytically parameterized by the vector of parameters θ⃗ . The qubit sensors are fixed at positions x⃗ 1,…,x⃗ d. While the functional form of f(x⃗ ;θ⃗ ) is known, the parameters θ⃗ are not. We derive saturable bounds on the precision of measuring an arbitrary analytic function q(θ⃗ ) of these parameters and construct the optimal protocols that achieve these bounds. Our results are obtained from a combination of techniques from quantum information theory and duality theorems for linear programming. They can be applied to many problems, including optimal placement of quantum sensors, field interpolation, and the measurement of functionals of parametrized fields.

1 aQian, Timothy1 aBringewatt, Jacob1 aBoettcher, Igor1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2011.0125901783nas a2200169 4500008004100000245010500041210006900146260001400215490000800229520122700237100002001464700002401484700001901508700002401527700002501551856003701576 2020 eng d00aQuantum Simulation of Hyperbolic Space with Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics: From Graphs to Geometry0 aQuantum Simulation of Hyperbolic Space with Circuit Quantum Elec c9/11/20200 v1023 aWe show how quantum many-body systems on hyperbolic lattices with nearest-neighbor hopping and local interactions can be mapped onto quantum field theories in continuous negatively curved space. The underlying lattices have recently been realized experimentally with superconducting resonators and therefore allow for a table-top quantum simulation of quantum physics in curved background. Our mapping provides a computational tool to determine observables of the discrete system even for large lattices, where exact diagonalization fails. As an application and proof of principle we quantitatively reproduce the ground state energy, spectral gap, and correlation functions of the noninteracting lattice system by means of analytic formulas on the Poincaré disk, and show how conformal symmetry emerges for large lattices. This sets the stage for studying interactions and disorder on hyperbolic graphs in the future. Our analysis also reveals in which sense discrete hyperbolic lattices emulate the continuous geometry of negatively curved space and thus can be used to resolve fundamental open problems at the interface of interacting many-body systems, quantum field theory in curved space, and quantum gravity.

1 aBoettcher, Igor1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aBelyansky, Ron1 aKollár, Alicia, J.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1910.12318