We construct product formulas for exponentials of commutators and explore their applications. First, we directly construct a third-order product formula with six exponentials by solving polynomial equations obtained using the operator differential method. We then derive higher-order product formulas recursively from the third-order formula. We improve over previous recursive constructions, reducing the number of gates required to achieve the same accuracy. In addition, we demonstrate that the constituent linear terms in the commutator can be included at no extra cost. As an application, we show how to use the product formulas in a digital protocol for counterdiabatic driving, which increases the fidelity for quantum state preparation. We also discuss applications to quantum simulation of one-dimensional fermion chains with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping terms, and two-dimensional fractional quantum Hall phases.

1 aChen, Yu-An1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aJiang, Zhang1 aKim, Hwanmun1 aXu, Yijia uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2111.1217701576nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010800041210006900149260001400218490000600232520106400238100001701302700001601319700002701335700001901362856003701381 2020 eng d00aOptimal fermion-to-qubit mapping via ternary trees with applications to reduced quantum states learning0 aOptimal fermiontoqubit mapping via ternary trees with applicatio c5/26/20200 v43 aWe introduce a fermion-to-qubit mapping defined on ternary trees, where any single Majorana operator on an n-mode fermionic system is mapped to a multi-qubit Pauli operator acting nontrivially on ⌈log3(2n+1)⌉ qubits. The mapping has a simple structure and is optimal in the sense that it is impossible to construct Pauli operators in any fermion-to-qubit mapping acting nontrivially on less than log3(2n) qubits on average. We apply it to the problem of learning k-fermion reduced density matrix (RDM), a problem relevant in various quantum simulation applications. We show that using the ternary-tree mapping one can determine the elements of all k-fermion RDMs, to precision ϵ, by repeating a single quantum circuit for ≲(2n+1)kϵ−2 times. This result is based on a method we develop here that allows one to determine the elements of all k-qubit RDMs, to precision ϵ, by repeating a single quantum circuit for ≲3kϵ−2 times, independent of the system size. This improves over existing schemes for determining qubit RDMs.

1 aJiang, Zhang1 aKalev, Amir1 aMruczkiewicz, Wojciech1 aNeven, Hartmut uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1910.10746