The search for meaningful structure in biological data has relied on cutting-edge advances in computational technology and data science methods. However, challenges arise as we push the limits of scale and complexity in biological problems. Innovation in massively parallel, classical computing hardware and algorithms continues to address many of these challenges, but there is a need to simultaneously consider new paradigms to circumvent current barriers to processing speed. Accordingly, we articulate a view towards quantum computation and quantum information science, where algorithms have demonstrated potential polynomial and exponential computational speedups in certain applications, such as machine learning. The maturation of the field of quantum computing, in hardware and algorithm development, also coincides with the growth of several collaborative efforts to address questions across length and time scales, and scientific disciplines. We use this coincidence to explore the potential for quantum computing to aid in one such endeavor: the merging of insights from genetics, genomics, neuroimaging and behavioral phenotyping. By examining joint opportunities for computational innovation across fields, we highlight the need for a common language between biological data analysis and quantum computing. Ultimately, we consider current and future prospects for the employment of quantum computing algorithms in the biological sciences.

1 aEmani, Prashant, S.1 aWarrell, Jonathan1 aAnticevic, Alan1 aBekiranov, Stefan1 aGandal, Michael1 aMcConnell, Michael, J.1 aSapiro, Guillermo1 aAspuru-Guzik, Alán1 aBaker, Justin1 aBastiani, Matteo1 aMcClure, Patrick1 aMurray, John1 aSotiropoulos, Stamatios, N1 aTaylor, J., M.1 aSenthil, Geetha1 aLehner, Thomas1 aGerstein, Mark, B.1 aHarrow, Aram, W. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1911.07127