We consider the classical complexity of approximately simulating time evolution under spatially local quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians for time

Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of non-perturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is in good agreement with experimental data. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

1 aZeuthen, Emil1 aGullans, Michael1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1608.0606801217nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006400041210006200105260001500167300001100182490000800193520070900201100001900910700002300929700003300952700002500985856003701010 2017 eng d00a{E}ntanglement area laws for long-range interacting systems0 aE ntanglement area laws for longrange interacting systems c2017/07/31 a0505010 v1193 aWe prove that the entanglement entropy of any state evolved under an arbitrary 1/rα long-range-interacting D-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonian cannot change faster than a rate proportional to the boundary area for any α > D + 1. We also prove that for any α > 2D + 2, the ground state of such a Hamiltonian satisfies the entanglement area law if it can be transformed along a gapped adiabatic path into a ground state known to satisfy the area law. These results significantly generalize their existing counterparts for short-range interacting systems, and are useful for identifying dynamical phase transitions and quantum phase transitions in the presence of long-range interactions.

1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aBrandão, Fernando, G. S. L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1702.0536802145nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005800041210005700099260001500156300001100171490000700182520152100189100002301710700002101733700002201754700002101776700002501797700002101822700002701843856006901870 2017 eng d00aEmergent equilibrium in many-body optical bistability0 aEmergent equilibrium in manybody optical bistability c2017/04/17 a0438260 v953 aMany-body systems constructed of quantum-optical building blocks can now be realized in experimental platforms ranging from exciton-polariton fluids to ultracold gases of Rydberg atoms, establishing a fascinating interface between traditional many-body physics and the driven-dissipative, non-equilibrium setting of cavity-QED. At this interface, the standard techniques and intuitions of both fields are called into question, obscuring issues as fundamental as the role of fluctuations, dimensionality, and symmetry on the nature of collective behavior and phase transitions. Here, we study the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model, a minimal description of numerous atomic, optical, and solid-state systems in which particle loss is countered by coherent driving. Despite being a lattice version of optical bistability---a foundational and patently non-equilibrium model of cavity-QED---the steady state possesses an emergent equilibrium description in terms of a classical Ising model. We establish this picture by identifying a limit in which the quantum dynamics is asymptotically equivalent to non-equilibrium Langevin equations, which support a phase transition described by model A of the Hohenberg-Halperin classification. Numerical simulations of the Langevin equations corroborate this picture, producing results consistent with the behavior of a finite-temperature Ising model.

1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aNiroula, Pradeep1 aYoung, Jeremy, T.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWilson, Ryan, M.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F. uhttps://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.04382602985nas a2200157 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090260001500139300001100154490000700165520255000172100002002722700002302742700002502765856003702790 2017 eng d00aExact sampling hardness of Ising spin models0 aExact sampling hardness of Ising spin models c2017/09/14 a0323240 v963 aWe study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of *exact* classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in *Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)*, Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl–Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

We investigate the topological degeneracy that can be realized in Abelian fractional quantum spin Hall states with multiply connected gapped boundaries. Such a topological degeneracy (also dubbed as "boundary degeneracy") does not require superconducting proximity effect and can be created by simply applying a depletion gate to the quantum spin Hall material and using a generic spin-mixing term (e.g., due to backscattering) to gap out the edge modes. We construct an exactly soluble microscopic model manifesting this topological degeneracy and solve it using the recently developed technique [S. Ganeshan and M. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 93, 075118 (2016)]. The corresponding string operators spanning this degeneracy are explicitly calculated. It is argued that the proposed scheme is experimentally reasonable.

1 aGaneshan, Sriram1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aGurarie, Victor1 aGalitski, Victor, M. uhttp://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.04530927528nas a2200181 45000080041000002450087000412100069001282600015001973000011002124900008002235202696300231100002227194700001927216700002627235700002327261700002527284856003727309 2017 eng d00aFast State Transfer and Entanglement Renormalization Using Long-Range Interactions0 aFast State Transfer and Entanglement Renormalization Using LongR c2017/10/25 a1705030 v1193 aIn short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speed-up possible is an open question. In this paper, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance

Lieb and Robinson provided bounds on how fast bipartite connected correlations can arise in systems with only short-range interactions. We generalize Lieb-Robinson bounds on bipartite connected correlators to multipartite connected correlators. The bounds imply that an

We analyze theoretically the many-body dynamics of a dissipative Ising model in a transverse field using a variational approach. We find that the steady state phase diagram is substantially modified compared to its equilibrium counterpart, including the appearance of a multicritical point belonging to a different universality class. Building on our variational analysis, we establish a field-theoretical treatment corresponding to a dissipative variant of a Ginzburg-Landau theory, which allows us to compute the upper critical dimension of the system. Finally, we present a possible experimental realization of the dissipative Ising model using ultracold Rydberg gases.

1 aOverbeck, Vincent, R.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aWeimer, Hendrik uhttps://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.04213301571nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005700041210005400098260001500152520117000167100002101337700002501358700001701383856003701400 2017 eng d00aOut-of-time-order correlators in finite open systems0 aOutoftimeorder correlators in finite open systems c2017/04/273 aWe study out-of-time order correlators (OTOCs) of the form hAˆ(t)Bˆ(0)Cˆ(t)Dˆ(0)i for a quantum system weakly coupled to a dissipative environment. Such an open system may serve as a model of, e.g., a small region in a disordered interacting medium coupled to the rest of this medium considered as an environment. We demonstrate that for a system with discrete energy levels the OTOC saturates exponentially ∝ Paie −t/τi + const to a constant value at t → ∞, in contrast with quantum-chaotic systems which exhibit exponential growth of OTOCs. Focussing on the case of a two-level system, we calculate microscopically the decay times τi and the value of the saturation constant. Because some OTOCs are immune to dephasing processes and some are not, such correlators may decay on two sets of parametrically different time scales related to inelastic transitions between the system levels and to pure dephasing processes, respectively. In the case of a classical environment, the evolution of the OTOC can be mapped onto the evolution of the density matrix of two systems coupled to the same dissipative environment.

1 aSyzranov, S., V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGalitski, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1704.0844201534nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006200041210005800103260001500161490000800176520102300184100002301207700002201230700002301252700002501275700002701300856003701327 2017 eng d00aA solvable family of driven-dissipative many-body systems0 asolvable family of drivendissipative manybody systems c2017/11/100 v1193 aExactly solvable models have played an important role in establishing the sophisticated modern understanding of equilibrium many-body physics. And conversely, the relative scarcity of solutions for non-equilibrium models greatly limits our understanding of systems away from thermal equilibrium. We study a family of nonequilibrium models, some of which can be viewed as dissipative analogues of the transverse-field Ising model, in that an effectively classical Hamiltonian is frustrated by dissipative processes that drive the system toward states that do not commute with the Hamiltonian. Surprisingly, a broad and experimentally relevant subset of these models can be solved efficiently in any number of spatial dimensions. We leverage these solutions to prove a no-go theorem on steady-state phase transitions in a many-body model that can be realized naturally with Rydberg atoms or trapped ions, and to compute the effects of decoherence on a canonical trapped-ion-based quantum computation architecture.

1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aYoung, Jeremy, T.1 aAlbert, Victor, V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1703.0462601556nas a2200217 4500008004100000245006300041210006300104260001500167300001100182490000800193520094300201100002401144700001601168700001801184700001901202700001801221700002501239700002001264700001801284856003601302 2016 eng d00aAnomalous broadening in driven dissipative Rydberg systems0 aAnomalous broadening in driven dissipative Rydberg systems c2016/03/16 a1130010 v1163 aWe observe interaction-induced broadening of the two-photon 5s-18s transition in 87Rb atoms trapped in a 3D optical lattice. The measured linewidth increases by nearly two orders of magnitude with increasing atomic density and excitation strength, with corresponding suppression of resonant scattering and enhancement of off-resonant scattering. We attribute the increased linewidth to resonant dipole-dipole interactions of 18s atoms with spontaneously created populations of nearby np states. Over a range of initial atomic densities and excitation strengths, the transition width is described by a single function of the steady-state density of Rydberg atoms, and the observed resonant excitation rate corresponds to that of a two-level system with the measured, rather than natural, linewidth. The broadening mechanism observed here is likely to have negative implications for many proposals with coherently interacting Rydberg atoms.1 aGoldschmidt, E., A.1 aBoulier, T.1 aBrown, R., C.1 aKoller, S., B.1 aYoung, J., T.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRolston, S., L.1 aPorto, J., V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0871000514nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001500174300001100189490000700200100002700207700001900234700002300253700002500276856005500301 2016 eng d00aCausality and quantum criticality in long-range lattice models0 aCausality and quantum criticality in longrange lattice models c2016/03/17 a1251280 v931 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.12512801582nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001500174300001100189490000700200520107500207100002701282700001901309700002301328700002501351856003601376 2016 eng d00aCausality and quantum criticality with long-range interactions0 aCausality and quantum criticality with longrange interactions c2016/03/17 a1251280 v923 a Quantum lattice systems with long-range interactions often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model and a fermionic model with long-range interactions, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of long-range interactions, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1508.0090601676nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001500163300001100178490000700189520113200196100002101328700002101349700001301370700001901383700002101402700002301423856003601446 2016 eng d00aCollective phases of strongly interacting cavity photons0 aCollective phases of strongly interacting cavity photons c2016/09/01 a0338010 v943 aWe study a coupled array of coherently driven photonic cavities, which maps onto a driven-dissipative XY spin-12 model with ferromagnetic couplings in the limit of strong optical nonlinearities. Using a site-decoupled mean-field approximation, we identify steady state phases with canted antiferromagnetic order, in addition to limit cycle phases, where oscillatory dynamics persist indefinitely. We also identify collective bistable phases, where the system supports two steady states among spatially uniform, antiferromagnetic, and limit cycle phases. We compare these mean-field results to exact quantum trajectories simulations for finite one-dimensional arrays. The exact results exhibit short-range antiferromagnetic order for parameters that have significant overlap with the mean-field phase diagram. In the mean-field bistable regime, the exact quantum dynamics exhibits real-time collective switching between macroscopically distinguishable states. We present a clear physical picture for this dynamics, and establish a simple relationship between the switching times and properties of the quantum Liouvillian.

1 aWilson, Ryan, M.1 aMahmud, Khan, W.1 aHu, Anzi1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aFoss-Feig, Michael uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1601.0685701274nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005000041210005000091260001500141300001100156490000800167520073000175100002100905700002100926700001300947700001900960700001600979700001800995700001901013856003601032 2016 eng d00aEffective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons0 aEffective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons c2016/09/09 a1136010 v1173 aWe study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and determine the photon number at which the EFT description breaks down. We find good agreement throughout between the predictions of EFT and numerical simulations of the exact two and three photon wavefunction transmission.

1 aGullans, Michael1 aThompson, J., D.1 aWang, Y.1 aLiang, Q., -Y.1 aVuletic, V.1 aLukin, M., D.1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1605.0565101507nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113260001500182520103700197100002301234700001901257700002501276700002301301856003701324 2016 eng d00aEntanglement and spin-squeezing without infinite-range interactions0 aEntanglement and spinsqueezing without infiniterange interaction c2016/12/223 aInfinite-range interactions are known to facilitate the production of highly entangled states with applications in quantum information and metrology. However, many experimental systems have interactions that decay with distance, and the achievable benefits in this context are much less clear. Combining recent exact solutions with a controlled expansion in the system size, we analyze quench dynamics in Ising models with power-law (1/r α ) interactions in D dimensions, thereby expanding the understanding of spin squeezing into a broad and experimentally relevant context. In spatially homogeneous systems, we show that for small α the scaling of squeezing with system size is identical to the infinite-range (α = 0) case. This indifference to the interaction range persists up to a critical value α = 2D/3, above which squeezing degrades continuously. Boundaryinduced inhomogeneities present in most experimental systems modify this picture, but it nevertheless remains qualitatively correct for finite-sized systems.

1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aClark, Charles, W. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1612.0780501808nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007600041210006900117260001500186300001100201490000700212520120100219100001901420700002701439700001301466700002301479700002101502700002401523700001901547856003601566 2016 eng d00aKaleidoscope of quantum phases in a long-range interacting spin-1 chain0 aKaleidoscope of quantum phases in a longrange interacting spin1 c2016/05/11 a2051150 v933 aMotivated by recent trapped-ion quantum simulation experiments, we carry out a comprehensive study of the phase diagram of a spin-1 chain with XXZ-type interactions that decay as 1/rα, using a combination of finite and infinite-size DMRG calculations, spin-wave analysis, and field theory. In the absence of long-range interactions, varying the spin-coupling anisotropy leads to four distinct phases: a ferromagnetic Ising phase, a disordered XY phase, a topological Haldane phase, and an antiferromagnetic Ising phase. If long-range interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus frustrated, we find primarily a quantitative change of the phase boundaries. On the other hand, ferromagnetic (non-frustrated) long-range interactions qualitatively impact the entire phase diagram. Importantly, for α≲3, long-range interactions destroy the Haldane phase, break the conformal symmetry of the XY phase, give rise to a new phase that spontaneously breaks a U(1) continuous symmetry, and introduce an exotic tricritical point with no direct parallel in short-range interacting spin chains. We show that the main signatures of all five phases found could be observed experimentally in the near future. 1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aHu, Anzi1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aRicherme, Philip1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0210801553nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126260001500195300001100210490000700221520104000228100002301268700001901291700001701310856006801327 2016 eng d00aMany-body decoherence dynamics and optimised operation of a single-photon switch0 aManybody decoherence dynamics and optimised operation of a singl c2016/09/13 a0920010 v183 aWe develop a theoretical framework to characterize the decoherence dynamics due to multi-photon scattering in an all-optical switch based on Rydberg atom induced nonlinearities. By incorporating the knowledge of this decoherence process into optimal photon storage and retrieval strategies, we establish optimised switching protocols for experimentally relevant conditions, and evaluate the corresponding limits in the achievable fidelities. Based on these results we work out a simplified description that reproduces recent experiments [arXiv:1511.09445] and provides a new interpretation in terms of many-body decoherence involving multiple incident photons and multiple gate excitations forming the switch. Aside from offering insights into the operational capacity of realistic photon switching capabilities, our work provides a complete description of spin wave decoherence in a Rydberg quantum optics setting, and has immediate relevance to a number of further applications employing photon storage in Rydberg media.

1 aMurray, Callum, R.1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aPohl, Thomas uhttp://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/18/9/09200101599nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006500041210006400106260001500170300001100185490000700196520116200203100002701365700002501392856003601417 2016 eng d00aNonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism0 aNonequilibrium manybody steady states via Keldysh formalism c2016/01/27 a0143070 v933 a Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean field theory, the validity of the mean field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1507.0193902050nas a2200205 4500008004100000245008900041210006900130260001500199520143900214100001801653700001401671700001601685700001401701700001701715700001701732700001801749700002501767700001501792856003701807 2016 eng d00a{O}bservation of {P}rethermalization in {L}ong-{R}ange {I}nteracting {S}pin {C}hains0 aO bservation of P rethermalization in L ong R ange I nteracting c2016/08/023 aStatistical mechanics can predict thermal equilibrium states for most classical systems, but for an isolated quantum system there is no general understanding on how equilibrium states dynamically emerge from the microscopic Hamiltonian. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale and, instead, relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics when approximately conserved quantities are appropriately included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). Here we experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-ranged interactions the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. In this case, the prethermal state cannot be described by a GGE, but rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a significantly broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions.

1 aNeyenhuis, B.1 aSmith, J.1 aLee, A., C.1 aZhang, J.1 aRicherme, P.1 aHess, P., W.1 aGong, Z., -X.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMonroe, C. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1608.0068101159nas a2200133 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114520071800183100002200901700002300923700002400946700001900970856003600989 2016 eng d00aOptimal and Secure Measurement Protocols for Quantum Sensor Networks0 aOptimal and Secure Measurement Protocols for Quantum Sensor Netw3 aStudies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared to product states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the quantity to be measured is a linear function of parameters coupled to each qubit individually. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of non-local observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multi-parameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose a protocol that can make use of GHZ states or spin-squeezed states, and show that in the case of GHZ states the procedure is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound.

1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aRolston, Steven, L.1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1607.0464601353nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006400041210006200105260001500167490000700182520077900189100002700968700001900995700002401014700002301038700001701061700002501078856006801103 2016 eng d00aRealizing Exactly Solvable SU(N) Magnets with Thermal Atoms0 aRealizing Exactly Solvable SUN Magnets with Thermal Atoms c2016/05/060 v933 aWe show that n thermal fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in a flat-bottom trap allow one to robustly implement a spin model displaying two symmetries: the Sn symmetry that permutes atoms occupying different vibrational levels of the trap and the SU(N) symmetry associated with N nuclear spin states. The symmetries make the model exactly solvable, which, in turn, enables the analytic study of dynamical processes such as spin diffusion in this SU(N) system. We also show how to use this system to generate entangled states that allow for Heisenberg-limited metrology. This highly symmetric spin model should be experimentally realizable even when the vibrational levels are occupied according to a high-temperature thermal or an arbitrary nonthermal distribution.

1 aBeverland, Michael, E.1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aMartin, Michael, J.1 aKoller, Andrew, P.1 aRey, Ana, M.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.05160101438nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006100041210006000102260001500162300001100177490000700188520092700195100002201122700001801144700001901162700001901181856006801200 2016 eng d00aSelf-organization of atoms coupled to a chiral reservoir0 aSelforganization of atoms coupled to a chiral reservoir c2016/11/29 a0538550 v943 aTightly confined modes of light, as in optical nanofibers or photonic crystal waveguides, can lead to large optical coupling in atomic systems, which mediates long-range interactions between atoms. These one-dimensional systems can naturally possess couplings that are asymmetric between modes propagating in different directions. Strong long-range interaction among atoms via these modes can drive them to a self-organized periodic distribution. In this paper, we examine the self-organizing behavior of atoms in one dimension coupled to a chiral reservoir. We determine the solution to the equations of motion in different parameter regimes, relative to both the detuning of the pump laser that initializes the atomic dipole-dipole interactions and the degree of reservoir chirality. In addition, we calculate possible experimental signatures such as reflectivity from self-organized atoms and motional sidebands.

1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aSolano, Pablo1 aChang, Darrick1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttp://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.05385501151nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007100041210006900112520064500181100002700826700001900853700001900872700002700891700002000918700001900938856003600957 2016 eng d00aSpectrum estimation of density operators with alkaline-earth atoms0 aSpectrum estimation of density operators with alkalineearth atom3 aWe show that Ramsey spectroscopy of fermionic alkaline-earth atoms in a square-well trap provides an efficient and accurate estimate for the eigenspectrum of a density matrix whose *n *copies are stored in the nuclear spins of *n *such atoms. This spectrum estimation is enabled by the high symmetry of the interaction Hamiltonian, dictated, in turn, by the decoupling of the nuclear spin from the electrons and by the shape of the square-well trap. Practical performance of this procedure and its potential applications to quantum computing, quantum simulation, and time-keeping with alkalineearth atoms are discussed.

A steady-state superradiant laser can be used to generate ultranarrow-linewidth light, and thus has important applications in the fields of quantum information and precision metrology. However, the light produced by such a laser is still essentially classical. Here, we show that the introduction of a Rydberg medium into a cavity containing atoms with a narrow optical transition can lead to the steady-state superradiant emission of ultranarrow-linewidth

We propose a method for creating far-field optical barrier potentials for ultracold atoms with widths that are narrower than the diffraction limit and can approach tens of nanometers. The reduced widths stem from the nonlinear atomic response to control fields that create spatially varying dark resonances. The subwavelength barrier is the result of the geometric scalar potential experienced by an atom prepared in such a spatially varying dark state. The performance of this technique, as well as its applications to the study of many-body physics and to the implementation of quantum-information protocols with ultracold atoms, are discussed, with a focus on the implementation of tunnel junctions.

1 aJendrzejewski, F.1 aEckel, S.1 aTiecke, T., G.1 aJuzeliūnas, G.1 aCampbell, G., K.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.06342201535nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005200041210005100093260001500144300001100159490000700170520099900177100001901176700002701195700001301222700002201235700002301257700002501280856003601305 2016 eng d00aTopological phases with long-range interactions0 aTopological phases with longrange interactions c2016/01/08 a0411020 v933 a Topological phases of matter are primarily studied in quantum many-body systems with short-range interactions. Whether various topological phases can survive in the presence of long-range interactions, however, is largely unknown. Here we show that a paradigmatic example of a symmetry-protected topological phase, the Haldane phase of an antiferromagnetic spin-1 chain, surprisingly remains intact in the presence of arbitrarily slowly decaying power-law interactions. The influence of long-range interactions on the topological order is largely quantitative, and we expect similar results for more general systems. Our conclusions are based on large-scale matrix-product-state simulations and two complementary effective-field-theory calculations. The striking agreement between the numerical and analytical results rules out finite-size effects. The topological phase considered here should be experimentally observable in a recently developed trapped-ion quantum simulator. 1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aHu, Anzi1 aWall, Michael, L.1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1505.0314601542nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010700041210006900148260001500217520099200232100001801224700001601242700001901258700001701277700001601294856007401310 2015 eng d00aAtom induced cavities and tunable long-range interactions between atoms trapped near photonic crystals0 aAtom induced cavities and tunable longrange interactions between c2015/03/033 aUsing cold atoms to simulate strongly interacting quantum systems represents an exciting frontier of physics. However, achieving tunable, coherent long-range interactions between atoms is an outstanding challenge, which currently leaves a large class of models inaccessible to quantum simulation. Here, we propose a solution exploiting the powerful new platform of cold atoms trapped near nano-photonic systems. We show that the dielectric contrast of an atom trapped near a photonic crystal can seed a localized cavity mode around the atomic position. In a dynamic form of “all-atomic” cavity QED, the length of these cavity modes can be tuned, and atoms separated by the order of the e↵ective cavity length can interact coherently with each other. Considering realistic conditions such as fabrication disorder and photon losses, coherent long-range potentials or spin interactions can be dominant in the system over length scales up to hundreds of wavelengths.

1 aDouglas, J, S1 aHabibian, H1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aKimble, H, J1 aChang, D, E uhttp://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v9/n5/full/nphoton.2015.57.html01527nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006900041210006900110260001500179300001100194490000700205520098100212100002001193700002401213700002301237700002201260700002501282856003801307 2015 eng d00aBilayer fractional quantum Hall states with ultracold dysprosium0 aBilayer fractional quantum Hall states with ultracold dysprosium c2015/09/10 a0336090 v923 a We show how dipolar interactions between dysprosium atoms in an optical lattice can be used to obtain fractional quantum Hall states. In our approach, dysprosium atoms are trapped one atom per site in a deep optical lattice with negligible tunneling. Microwave and spatially dependent optical dressing fields are used to define an effective spin-1/2 or spin-1 degree of freedom in each atom. Thinking of spin-1/2 particles as hardcore bosons, dipole-dipole interactions give rise to boson hopping, topological flat bands with Chern number 1, and the \nu = 1/2 Laughlin state. Thinking of spin-1 particles as two-component hardcore bosons, dipole-dipole interactions again give rise to boson hopping, topological flat bands with Chern number 2, and the bilayer Halperin (2,2,1) state. By adjusting the optical fields, we find a phase diagram, in which the (2,2,1) state competes with superfluidity. Generalizations to solid-state magnetic dipoles are discussed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aLev, Benjamin, L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03099v101570nas a2200133 4500008004100000245010700041210006900148260001500217520110300232100002701335700001901362700001901381856003601400 2015 eng d00aContinuous symmetry breaking and a new universality class in 1D long-range interacting quantum systems0 aContinuous symmetry breaking and a new universality class in 1D c2015/10/053 aContinuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U(1) symmetry and power-law interactions V(r)∼1/rα, directly relevant to ion-trap experiments. Using bosonization and renormalization group theory, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent αc(≤3) depending on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless XY phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal symmetry due to long-range interactions, and is described by a new universality class akin to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Our analytical findings are in good agreement with a numerical calculation. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0132501507nas a2200229 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001500155300001100170490000800181520087400189100002701063700002101090700001601111700001301127700001501140700002001155700001801175700002101193700002501214856003801239 2015 eng d00aCoulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons0 aCoulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons c2015/09/16 a1236010 v1153 a We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGullans, Michael1 aBienias, P.1 aChoi, S.1 aMartin, I.1 aFirstenberg, O.1 aLukin, M., D.1 aBüchler, H., P.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03859v101270nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001500155300001100170490000700181520071900188100002700907700002000934700002100954700001700975700002200992700002501014856003701039 2015 eng d00aFractional Quantum Hall States of Rydberg Polaritons0 aFractional Quantum Hall States of Rydberg Polaritons c2015/03/31 a0338380 v913 a We propose a scheme for realizing fractional quantum Hall states of light. In our scheme, photons of two polarizations are coupled to different atomic Rydberg states to form two flavors of Rydberg polaritons that behave as an effective spin. An array of optical cavity modes overlapping with the atomic cloud enables the realization of an effective spin-1/2 lattice. We show that the dipolar interaction between such polaritons, inherited from the Rydberg states, can be exploited to create a flat, topological band for a single spin-flip excitation. At half filling, this gives rise to a photonic (or polaritonic) fractional Chern insulator -- a lattice-based, fractional quantum Hall state of light. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aPohl, Thomas1 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1411.6624v101522nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113260001500182300001100197490000800208520100900216100002301225700001901248700002301267700002501290856003701315 2015 eng d00aNearly-linear light cones in long-range interacting quantum systems0 aNearlylinear light cones in longrange interacting quantum system c2015/04/13 a1572010 v1143 a In non-relativistic quantum theories with short-range Hamiltonians, a velocity $v$ can be chosen such that the influence of any local perturbation is approximately confined to within a distance $r$ until a time $t \sim r/v$, thereby defining a linear light cone and giving rise to an emergent notion of locality. In systems with power-law ($1/r^{\alpha}$) interactions, when $\alpha$ exceeds the dimension $D$, an analogous bound confines influences to within a distance $r$ only until a time $t\sim(\alpha/v)\log r$, suggesting that the velocity, as calculated from the slope of the light cone, may grow exponentially in time. We rule out this possibility; light cones of power-law interacting systems are algebraic for $\alpha>2D$, becoming linear as $\alpha\rightarrow\infty$. Our results impose strong new constraints on the growth of correlations and the production of entangled states in a variety of rapidly emerging, long-range interacting atomic, molecular, and optical systems. 1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aClark, Charles, W.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1410.3466v101362nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005800041210005800099260001500157300001100172490000800183520083900191100002701030700002101057700002201078700002501100700001701125856003801142 2015 eng d00aParafermionic zero modes in ultracold bosonic systems0 aParafermionic zero modes in ultracold bosonic systems c2015/08/06 a0653010 v1153 a Exotic topologically protected zero modes with parafermionic statistics (also called fractionalized Majorana modes) have been proposed to emerge in devices fabricated from a fractional quantum Hall system and a superconductor. The fractionalized statistics of these modes takes them an important step beyond the simplest non-Abelian anyons, Majorana fermions. Building on recent advances towards the realization of fractional quantum Hall states of bosonic ultracold atoms, we propose a realization of parafermions in a system consisting of Bose-Einstein-condensate trenches within a bosonic fractional quantum Hall state. We show that parafermionic zero modes emerge at the endpoints of the trenches and give rise to a topologically protected degeneracy. We also discuss methods for preparing and detecting these modes. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGaneshan, Sriram1 aClarke, David, J.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aSau, Jay, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1504.04012v200602nas a2200193 4500008004100000022001400041245007400055210006900129260001500198300001400213490000600227100002000233700001700253700001600270700002500286700001900311700001800330856006000348 2015 eng d a1749-488500aQuantum many-body models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals0 aQuantum manybody models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crys c2015/04/04 a326 - 3310 v91 aDouglas, J., S.1 aHabibian, H.1 aHung, C.-L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKimble, H., J.1 aChang, D., E. uhttp://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphoton.2015.5700460nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006400041210006400105300001100169490000800180100001700188700001700205700001900222700001400241856005900255 2014 eng d00aBeyond the spin model approximation for Ramsey spectroscopy0 aBeyond the spin model approximation for Ramsey spectroscopy a1230010 v1121 aKoller, A, P1 aBeverland, M1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.12300101319nas a2200169 4500008004100000245004200041210004100083260001400124490000800138520086500146100001901011700001701030700002101047700002501068700001901093856003701112 2014 eng d00aKitaev chains with long-range pairing0 aKitaev chains with longrange pairing c2014/10/90 v1133 a We propose and analyze a generalization of the Kitaev chain for fermions with long-range $p$-wave pairing, which decays with distance as a power-law with exponent $\alpha$. Using the integrability of the model, we demonstrate the existence of two types of gapped regimes, where correlation functions decay exponentially at short range and algebraically at long range ($\alpha > 1$) or purely algebraically ($\alpha < 1$). Most interestingly, along the critical lines, long-range pairing is found to break conformal symmetry for sufficiently small $\alpha$. This is accompanied by a violation of the area law for the entanglement entropy in large parts of the phase diagram in the presence of a gap, and can be detected via the dynamics of entanglement following a quench. Some of these features may be relevant for current experiments with cold atomic ions. 1 aVodola, Davide1 aLepori, Luca1 aErcolessi, Elisa1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPupillo, Guido uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1405.5440v202028nas a2200229 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128260001300197300001400210490000800224520134100232100002101573700001901594700001501613700001901628700001701647700002301664700002501687700002501712700002401737856003701761 2014 eng d00aNon-local propagation of correlations in long-range interacting quantum systems 0 aNonlocal propagation of correlations in longrange interacting qu c2014/7/9 a198 - 2010 v5113 a The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective light cone. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, since the best long-range bound is too loose to give the correct light-cone shape for any known spin model and since analytic solutions rarely exist. In this work, we experimentally determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations of a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system evolving under a long-range Ising- or XY-model Hamiltonian. For several different interaction ranges, we extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. In many cases we find increasing propagation velocities, which violate the Lieb-Robinson prediction, and in one instance cannot be explained by any existing theory. Our results demonstrate that even modestly-sized quantum simulators are well-poised for studying complicated many-body systems that are intractable to classical computation. 1 aRicherme, Philip1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLee, Aaron1 aSenko, Crystal1 aSmith, Jacob1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aMichalakis, Spyridon1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1401.5088v101399nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001400174490000800188520091600196100001901112700002301131700002501154700002501179856003701204 2014 eng d00aPersistence of locality in systems with power-law interactions0 aPersistence of locality in systems with powerlaw interactions c2014/7/160 v1133 a Motivated by recent experiments with ultra-cold matter, we derive a new bound on the propagation of information in $D$-dimensional lattice models exhibiting $1/r^{\alpha}$ interactions with $\alpha>D$. The bound contains two terms: One accounts for the short-ranged part of the interactions, giving rise to a bounded velocity and reflecting the persistence of locality out to intermediate distances, while the other contributes a power-law decay at longer distances. We demonstrate that these two contributions not only bound but, except at long times, \emph{qualitatively reproduce} the short- and long-distance dynamical behavior following a local quench in an $XY$ chain and a transverse-field Ising chain. In addition to describing dynamics in numerous intractable long-range interacting lattice models, our results can be experimentally verified in a variety of ultracold-atomic and solid-state systems. 1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aMichalakis, Spyridon1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1401.6174v200651nas a2200229 4500008004100000245006300041210006200104300000800166490000800174100001400182700001900196700001600215700001700231700001400248700001900262700001300281700001300294700001000307700001600317700001700333856007100350 2014 eng d00aProbing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock0 aProbing manybody interactions in an optical lattice clock a3110 v3401 aRey, A, M1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aKraus, C, V1 aMartin, M, J1 aBishof, M1 aSwallows, M, D1 aZhang, X1 aBenko, C1 aYe, J1 aLemke, N, D1 aLudlow, A, D uhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000349161300254601278nas a2200205 4500008004100000245009000041210006900131260001400200490000700214520065300221100001600874700001300890700002000903700002700923700002100950700001800971700002500989700002101014856003701035 2014 eng d00aScattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons 0 aScattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting c2014/11/30 v903 a We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. We use a diagrammatic method to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments. 1 aBienias, P.1 aChoi, S.1 aFirstenberg, O.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGullans, Michael1 aLukin, M., D.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aBüchler, H., P. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1402.7333v100498nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005300041210005300094300000700147490000800154100002200162700002300184700001700207700001900224700002300243700002000266856004200286 2013 eng d00aAttractive Photons in a Quantum Nonlinear Medium0 aAttractive Photons in a Quantum Nonlinear Medium a710 v5021 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aPeyronel, Thibault1 aLiang, Qi-Yu1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aVuletic, Vladan uhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature1251201262nas a2200193 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134260001400203490000700217520064800224100002200872700002000894700002500914700002000939700002400959700002100983700002701004856003701031 2013 eng d00aControllable quantum spin glasses with magnetic impurities embedded in quantum solids 0 aControllable quantum spin glasses with magnetic impurities embed c2013/7/240 v883 a Magnetic impurities embedded in inert solids can exhibit long coherence times and interact with one another via their intrinsic anisotropic dipolar interaction. We argue that, as a consequence of these properties, disordered ensembles of magnetic impurities provide an effective platform for realizing a controllable, tunable version of the dipolar quantum spin glass seen in LiHo$_x$Y$_{1-x}$F$_4$. Specifically, we propose and analyze a system composed of dysprosium atoms embedded in solid helium. We describe the phase diagram of the system and discuss the realizability and detectability of the quantum spin glass and antiglass phases. 1 aLemeshko, Mikhail1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeimer, Hendrik1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aMomose, Takamasa1 aGopalakrishnan, Sarang uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1307.1130v101151nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005800041210005700099260001300156490000800169520073200177100002500909700001700934700001700951856003700968 2013 eng d00aDissipative Many-body Quantum Optics in Rydberg Media0 aDissipative Manybody Quantum Optics in Rydberg Media c2013/4/90 v1103 a We develop a theoretical framework for the dissipative propagation of quantized light in interacting optical media under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The theory allows us to determine the peculiar spatiotemporal structure of the output of two complementary Rydberg-EIT-based light-processing modules: the recently demonstrated single-photon filter and the recently proposed single-photon subtractor, which, respectively, let through and absorb a single photon. In addition to being crucial for applications of these and other optical quantum devices, the theory opens the door to the study of exotic dissipative many-body dynamics of strongly interacting photons in nonlinear nonlocal media. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNath, Rejish1 aPohl, Thomas uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7060v101632nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007100041210006900112260001500181300001600196490000800212520114600220100002501366700002601391700002001417856003701437 2013 eng d00aKitaev honeycomb and other exotic spin models with polar molecules0 aKitaev honeycomb and other exotic spin models with polar molecul c2013/01/01 a1908 - 19160 v1113 a We show that ultracold polar molecules pinned in an optical lattice can be used to access a variety of exotic spin models, including the Kitaev honeycomb model. Treating each molecule as a rigid rotor, we use DC electric and microwave fields to define superpositions of rotational levels as effective spin degrees of freedom, while dipole-dipole interactions give rise to interactions between the spins. In particular, we show that, with sufficient microwave control, the interaction between two spins can be written as a sum of five independently controllable Hamiltonian terms proportional to the five rank-2 spherical harmonics Y_{2,q}(theta,phi), where (theta,phi) are the spherical coordinates of the vector connecting the two molecules. To demonstrate the potential of this approach beyond the simplest examples studied in [S. R. Manmana et al., arXiv:1210.5518v2], we focus on the realization of the Kitaev honeycomb model, which can support exotic non-Abelian anyonic excitations. We also discuss the possibility of generating spin Hamiltonians with arbitrary spin S, including those exhibiting SU(N=2S+1) symmetry. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1301.5636v101995nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005100041210005100092260001300143490000700156520142000163100002001583700001901603700002301622700002401645700001801669700002301687700001701710700002501727856003701752 2013 eng d00aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers0 aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers c2013/2/60 v873 a We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required to manipulate "dark" spin qubits significantly raise the error threshold for robust operation. Finally, as an example, we demonstrate that eigenmode-mediated state transfer can enable robust long-range logic between spatially separated Nitrogen-Vacancy registers in diamond; numerical simulations confirm that high fidelity gates are achievable even in the presence of moderate disorder. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0014v100588nas a2200205 4500008004100000245006400041210006100105300000800166490000800174100001700182700001400199700001900213700001300232700001300245700001900258700001900277700001400296700001200310856006000322 2013 eng d00aA quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock0 aquantum manybody spin system in an optical lattice clock a6320 v3411 aMartin, M, J1 aBishof, M1 aSwallows, M, D1 aZhang, X1 aBenko, C1 avon-Stecher, J1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aRey, A, M1 aYe, Jun uhttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6146/632.abstract00556nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005900041210005800100300000700158490000700165100001900172700001600191700001600207700001700223700001500240700001900255700001900274700001200293856005700305 2013 eng d00aQuantum Nonlinear Optics: Strongly Interacting Photons0 aQuantum Nonlinear Optics Strongly Interacting Photons a480 v241 aFirstenberg, O1 aLukin, M, D1 aPeyronel, T1 aLiang, Q, -Y1 aVuletic, V1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aHofferberth, S1 aPohl, T uhttp://www.osa-opn.org/abstract.cfm?URI=opn-24-12-4801351nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001400163490000800177520081800185100002001003700002501023700002301048700002601071700001201097700002301109856003701132 2013 eng d00aRealizing Fractional Chern Insulators with Dipolar Spins0 aRealizing Fractional Chern Insulators with Dipolar Spins c2013/4/290 v1103 a Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior controlled by topology. We predict that the \nu=1/2 fractional Chern insulator arises naturally in a two-dimensional array of driven, dipolar-interacting spins. As a specific implementation, we analyze how to prepare and detect synthetic gauge potentials for the rotational excitations of ultra-cold polar molecules trapped in a deep optical lattice. While the orbital motion of the molecules is pinned, at finite densities, the rotational excitations form a fractional Chern insulator. We present a detailed experimental blueprint for KRb, and demonstrate that the energetics are consistent with near-term capabilities. Prospects for the realization of such phases in solid-state dipolar systems are discussed as are their possible applications. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aLäuchli, Andreas, M.1 aYe, Jun1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4839v101446nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001400174490000700188520092200195100002701117700002401144700002601168700002001194700002501214856003701239 2013 eng d00aTopological phases in ultracold polar-molecule quantum magnets0 aTopological phases in ultracold polarmolecule quantum magnets c2013/2/260 v873 a We show how to use polar molecules in an optical lattice to engineer quantum spin models with arbitrary spin S >= 1/2 and with interactions featuring a direction-dependent spin anisotropy. This is achieved by encoding the effective spin degrees of freedom in microwave-dressed rotational states of the molecules and by coupling the spins through dipolar interactions. We demonstrate how one of the experimentally most accessible anisotropies stabilizes symmetry protected topological phases in spin ladders. Using the numerically exact density matrix renormalization group method, we find that these interacting phases -- previously studied only in the nearest-neighbor case -- survive in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions. We also show how to use our approach to realize the bilinear-biquadratic spin-1 and the Kitaev honeycomb models. Experimental detection schemes and imperfections are discussed. 1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aStoudenmire, E., M.1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 aRey, Ana, Maria1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1210.5518v201443nas a2200217 4500008004100000245007500041210006900116260001400185300000900199490000600208520080900214100002001023700002301043700002501066700002001091700001701111700001901128700001801147700002301165856003701188 2013 eng d00aTopologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin Liquid0 aTopologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin c2013/3/12 a15850 v43 a Topology plays a central role in ensuring the robustness of a wide variety of physical phenomena. Notable examples range from the robust current carrying edge states associated with the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects to proposals involving topologically protected quantum memory and quantum logic operations. Here, we propose and analyze a topologically protected channel for the transfer of quantum states between remote quantum nodes. In our approach, state transfer is mediated by the edge mode of a chiral spin liquid. We demonstrate that the proposed method is intrinsically robust to realistic imperfections associated with disorder and decoherence. Possible experimental implementations and applications to the detection and characterization of spin liquid phases are discussed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeimer, Hendrik1 aJiang, Liang1 aCirac, Ignacio1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3788v100393nas a2200145 4500008004100000245003500041210003500076300001100111490000700122100001600129700001300145700001900158700001700177856005300194 2012 eng d00aCavity QED with atomic mirrors0 aCavity QED with atomic mirrors a0630030 v141 aChang, D, E1 aJiang, L1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aKimble, H, J uhttp://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/14/6/063003/00648nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128300000700197490000800204100002300212700002200235700001700257700002700274700001900301700001700320700002300337700002000360856007400380 2012 eng d00aQuantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms0 aQuantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly a570 v4881 aPeyronel, Thibault1 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aLiang, Qi-Yu1 aHofferberth, Sebastian1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aPohl, Thomas1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aVuletic, Vladan uhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7409/full/nature11361.html01927nas a2200205 4500008004100000245009400041210006900135260001400204300000800218490000600226520130900232100002001541700001701561700002501578700002201603700001701625700001901642700002301661856003701684 2012 eng d00aScalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor 0 aScalable Architecture for a Room Temperature SolidState Quantum c2012/4/24 a8000 v33 a The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems. Additionally, the proposed architecture may greatly alleviate the stringent constraints, currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMaurer, Peter, C.1 aGiedke, Geza1 aCirac, Ignacio1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2864v101339nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005300041210005300094260001500147490000800162520078600170100002000956700002300976700002500999700002401024700001901048700001801067700002301085856003701108 2012 eng d00aTopological Flat Bands from Dipolar Spin Systems0 aTopological Flat Bands from Dipolar Spin Systems c2012/12/260 v1093 a We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S = 1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hardcore bosons, namely, the dressed spin-flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose bandgap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultra-cold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aDemler, Eugene1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4479v301352nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001500184490000700199520089800206100002001104700002001124700002501144856003701169 2011 eng d00ad-Wave Superfluidity in Optical Lattices of Ultracold Polar Molecules0 adWave Superfluidity in Optical Lattices of Ultracold Polar Molec c2011/12/290 v843 a Recent work on ultracold polar molecules, governed by a generalization of the t-J Hamiltonian, suggests that molecules may be better suited than atoms for studying d-wave superfluidity due to stronger interactions and larger tunability of the system. We compute the phase diagram for polar molecules in a checkerboard lattice consisting of weakly coupled square plaquettes. In the simplest experimentally realizable case where there is only tunneling and an XX-type spin-spin interaction, we identify the parameter regime where d-wave superfluidity occurs. We also find that the inclusion of a density-density interaction destroys the superfluid phase and that the inclusion of a spin-density or an Ising-type spin-spin interaction can enhance the superfluid phase. We also propose schemes for experimentally realizing the perturbative calculations exhibiting enhanced d-wave superfluidity. 1 aKuns, Kevin, A.1 aRey, Ana, Maria1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1110.5330v201416nas a2200145 4500008004100000245014100041210006900182260001400251490000700265520088800272100002801160700002501188700002001213856003701233 2011 eng d00aLight storage in an optically thick atomic ensemble under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing 0 aLight storage in an optically thick atomic ensemble under condit c2011/6/200 v833 a We study the modification of a traditional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) stored light technique that includes both EIT and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an ensemble of hot Rb atoms. The standard treatment of light storage involves the coherent and reversible mapping of one photonic mode onto a collective spin coherence. It has been shown that unwanted, competing processes such as four-wave mixing are enhanced by EIT and can significantly modify the signal optical pulse propagation. We present theoretical and experimental evidence to indicate that while a Stokes field is indeed detected upon retrieval of the signal field, any information originally encoded in a seeded Stokes field is not independently preserved during the storage process. We present a simple model that describes the propagation dynamics of the fields and the impact of FWM on the spin wave. 1 aPhillips, Nathaniel, B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNovikova, Irina uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1103.2131v101088nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005200041210005100093260001400144490000800158520060000166100002500766700002400791700002600815700001700841700002300858856003700881 2011 eng d00aPhoton-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade0 aPhotonPhoton Interactions via Rydberg Blockade c2011/9/220 v1073 a We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aOtterbach, Johannes1 aFleischhauer, Michael1 aPohl, Thomas1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1103.3700v101573nas a2200181 4500008004100000245004700041210004700088260001400135490000700149520106900156100002501225700002701250700001501277700001901292700002301311700002001334856003701354 2011 eng d00aQuantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers0 aQuantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers c2011/9/150 v843 a We show that dipolar interactions between ultracold polar alkali dimers in optical lattices can be used to realize a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. The model features long-range spin-spin interactions J_z and J_perp of XXZ type, long-range density-density interaction V, and long-range density-spin interaction W, all of which can be controlled in both magnitude and sign independently of each other and of the tunneling t. The "spin" is encoded in the rotational degree of freedom of the molecules, while the interactions are controlled by applied static electric and continuous-wave microwave fields. Furthermore, we show that nuclear spins of the molecules can be used to implement an additional (orbital) degree of freedom that is coupled to the original rotational degree of freedom in a tunable way. The presented system is expected to exhibit exotic physics and to provide insights into strongly correlated phenomena in condensed matter systems. Realistic experimental imperfections are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aChen, Gang1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1655v100477nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005300041210005200094300001100146490000700157100001900164700001800183700001200201700001400213700001600227700001400243856005000257 2011 eng d00aQuantum magnetism with polar alkali-metal dimers0 aQuantum magnetism with polar alkalimetal dimers a0336190 v841 aGorshkov, A, V1 aManmana, S, R1 aChen, G1 aDemler, E1 aLukin, M, D1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033619/01287nas a2200181 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001400183490000800197520074600205100002000951700001400971700002600985700002501011700001201036700002001048856003701068 2011 eng d00aResolved atomic interaction sidebands in an optical clock transition0 aResolved atomic interaction sidebands in an optical clock transi c2011/6/220 v1063 a We report the observation of resolved atomic interaction sidebands (ISB) in the ${}^{87}$Sr optical clock transition when atoms at microkelvin temperatures are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice. The ISB are a manifestation of the strong interactions that occur between atoms confined in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry and disappear when the confinement is relaxed along one dimension. The emergence of ISB is linked to the recently observed suppression of collisional frequency shifts in [1]. At the current temperatures, the ISB can be resolved but are broad. At lower temperatures, ISB are predicted to be substantially narrower and usable as powerful spectroscopic tools in strongly interacting alkaline-earth gases. 1 aBishof, Michael1 aLin, Yige1 aSwallows, Matthew, D.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aYe, Jun1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1102.1016v201404nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109260001400177490000800191520083700199100002001036700001701056700002501073700001901098700001501117700001801132700002301150856003701173 2011 eng d00aRobust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains0 aRobust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains c2011/1/270 v1063 a We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between Nitrogen-Vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aZhai, Alex1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2762v201707nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109260001300177490000700190520125600197100002601453700002501479700002001504856003701524 2011 eng d00aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in 2D pancakes and 3D lattices0 aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in 2D pancakes and 3D lattices c2011/9/60 v843 a Motivated by ongoing measurements at JILA, we calculate the recoil-free spectra of dipolar interacting fermions, for example ultracold heteronuclear molecules, in a one-dimensional lattice of two-dimensional pancakes, spectroscopically probing transitions between different internal (e.g., rotational) states. We additionally incorporate p-wave interactions and losses, which are important for reactive molecules such as KRb. Moreover, we consider other sources of spectral broadening: interaction-induced quasiparticle lifetimes and the different polarizabilities of the different rotational states used for the spectroscopy. Although our main focus is molecules, some of the calculations are also useful for optical lattice atomic clocks. For example, understanding the p-wave shifts between identical fermions and small dipolar interactions coming from the excited clock state are necessary to reach future precision goals. Finally, we consider the spectra in a deep 3D lattice and show how they give a great deal of information about static correlation functions, including \textit{all} the moments of the density correlations between nearby sites. The range of correlations measurable depends on spectroscopic resolution and the dipole moment. 1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1718v100460nas a2200133 4500008004100000245009500041210006900136300001100205490000700216100002000223700001900243700001400262856005000276 2011 eng d00aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices0 aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered twodimensional and t a0336080 v841 aHazzard, K, R A1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033608/01551nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123260001300192490000800205520096600213100002501179700002701204700001501231700001201246700001901258700002301277700002001300856003701320 2011 eng d00aTunable Superfluidity and Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar Molecules 0 aTunable Superfluidity and Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar c2011/9/80 v1073 a By selecting two dressed rotational states of ultracold polar molecules in an optical lattice, we obtain a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. In addition to XXZ spin exchange, the model features density-density interactions and novel density-spin interactions; all interactions are dipolar. We show that full control of all interaction parameters in both magnitude and sign can be achieved independently of each other and of the tunneling. As a first step towards demonstrating the potential of the system, we apply the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG) to obtain the 1D phase diagram of the simplest experimentally realizable case. Specifically, we show that the tunability and the long-range nature of the interactions in the t-J-V-W model enable enhanced superfluidity. Finally, we show that Bloch oscillations in a tilted lattice can be used to probe the phase diagram experimentally. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aChen, Gang1 aYe, Jun1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1644v100776nas a2200265 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134300000800203490000600211100001700217700001500234700001800249700001300267700001900280700001700299700001300316700001700329700001700346700001400363700001600377700001500393700002000408700001600428856006600444 2010 eng d00aFar-field optical imaging and manipulation of individual spins with nanoscale resolution0 aFarfield optical imaging and manipulation of individual spins wi a9120 v61 aMaurer, P, C1 aMaze, J, R1 aStanwix, P, L1 aJiang, L1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aZibrov, A, A1 aHarke, B1 aHodges, J, S1 aZibrov, A, S1 aYacoby, A1 aTwitchen, D1 aHell, S, W1 aWalsworth, R, L1 aLukin, M, D uhttp://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v6/n11/abs/nphys1774.html01226nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008600041210006900127260001400196490000700210520065700217100002300874700001700897700002500914700002000939700002500959700002300984856003701007 2010 eng d00aFast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluorescent Detection 0 aFast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluores c2010/2/120 v813 a Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensemble quantum memories are promising candidates for achieving scalable distribution of entanglement over long distances. Recently, important experimental progress has been made towards their implementation. However, the entanglement rates and scalability of current approaches are limited by relatively low retrieval and single-photon detector efficiencies. We propose a scheme, which makes use of fluorescent detection of stored excitations to significantly increase the efficiency of connection and hence the rate. Practical performance and possible experimental realizations of the new protocol are discussed. 1 aBrask, Jonatan, B.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aVuletic, Vladan1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0907.3839v201038nas a2200169 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001300193490000800206520050000214100002500714700002400739700001900763700002600782700002300808856003700831 2010 eng d00aPhotonic Phase Gate via an Exchange of Fermionic Spin Waves in a Spin Chain 0 aPhotonic Phase Gate via an Exchange of Fermionic Spin Waves in a c2010/8/50 v1053 a We propose a new protocol for implementing the two-qubit photonic phase gate. In our approach, the pi phase is acquired by mapping two single photons into atomic excitations with fermionic character and exchanging their positions. The fermionic excitations are realized as spin waves in a spin chain, while photon storage techniques provide the interface between the photons and the spin waves. Possible imperfections and experimental systems suitable for implementing the gate are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aOtterbach, Johannes1 aDemler, Eugene1 aFleischhauer, Michael1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1001.0968v300479nas a2200097 4500008004100000245010900041210006900150490001700219100001900236856012600255 2010 eng d00aThesis: Novel Systems and Methods for Quantum Communication, Quantum Computation, and Quantum Simulation0 aThesis Novel Systems and Methods for Quantum Communication Quant0 vPh.D. Thesis1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttps://quics.umd.edu/publications/thesis-novel-systems-and-methods-quantum-communication-quantum-computation-and-quantum00616nas a2200217 4500008004100000245006800041210006400109300000800173490000600181100001900187700001500206700001500221700001000236700001900246700001000265700001400275700001400289700001600303700001400319856006500333 2010 eng d00aTwo-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms0 aTwoorbital SUN magnetism with ultracold alkalineearth atoms a2890 v61 aGorshkov, A, V1 aHermele, M1 aGurarie, V1 aXu, C1 aJulienne, P, S1 aYe, J1 aZoller, P1 aDemler, E1 aLukin, M, D1 aRey, A, M uhttp://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v6/n4/abs/nphys1535.html01223nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006200041210005900103260001400162490000800176520066700184100002500851700002000876700002200896700002100918700001200939700001800951700002300969856003700992 2009 eng d00aAlkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms as Few-Qubit Quantum Registers0 aAlkalineEarthMetal Atoms as FewQubit Quantum Registers c2009/3/180 v1023 a We propose and analyze a novel approach to quantum information processing, in which multiple qubits can be encoded and manipulated using electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom associated with individual alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Specifically, we describe how the qubits within each register can be individually manipulated and measured with sub-wavelength optical resolution. We also show how such few-qubit registers can be coupled to each other in optical superlattices via conditional tunneling to form a scalable quantum network. Finally, potential applications to quantum computation and precision measurements are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, Ana, Maria1 aDaley, Andrew, J.1 aBoyd, Martin, M.1 aYe, Jun1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0812.3660v200438nas a2200133 4500008004100000245007800041210006900119300001100188490000800199100001400207700001900221700001300240856005100253 2009 eng d00aMany-Body Treatment of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Fermionic Atoms0 aManyBody Treatment of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Fermion a2604020 v1031 aRey, A, M1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aRubbo, C uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v103/e260402/01343nas a2200193 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001300183490000700196520075700203100001400960700002500974700002100999700002601020700002001046700002301066700002301089856003701112 2009 eng d00aRealization of Coherent Optically Dense Media via Buffer-Gas Cooling0 aRealization of Coherent Optically Dense Media via BufferGas Cool c2009/1/60 v793 a We demonstrate that buffer-gas cooling combined with laser ablation can be used to create coherent optical media with high optical depth and low Doppler broadening that offers metastable states with low collisional and motional decoherence. Demonstration of this generic technique opens pathways to coherent optics with a large variety of atoms and molecules. We use helium buffer gas to cool 87Rb atoms to below 7 K and slow atom diffusion to the walls. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in this medium allows for 50% transmission in a medium with initial OD >70 and for slow pulse propagation with large delay-bandwidth products. In the high-OD regime, we observe high-contrast spectrum oscillations due to efficient four-wave mixing. 1 aHong, Tao1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPatterson, David1 aZibrov, Alexander, S.1 aDoyle, John, M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aPrentiss, Mara, G. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1416v200533nas a2200133 4500008004100000245014600041210006900187300000900256490000700265100001900272700001900291700001600310856007300326 2009 eng d00aSlow light propagation and amplification via electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing in an optically dense atomic vapor0 aSlow light propagation and amplification via electromagnetically a19160 v561 aPhillips, N, B1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aNovikova, I uhttp://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content db=all content=a91354540501661nas a2200217 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001400184300001400198490000600212520102000218100001701238700002301255700002501278700002201303700002101325700001901346700002301365700001801388856003701406 2008 eng d00aAnyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lattices0 aAnyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lat c2008/4/20 a482 - 4880 v43 a Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior called topological order which is characterized by non-local correlations that depend on the system topology. Such systems can exhibit remarkable phenomena such as quasi-particles with anyonic statistics and have been proposed as candidates for naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation. Despite these remarkable properties, anyons have never been observed in nature directly. Here we describe how to unambiguously detect and characterize such states in recently proposed spin lattice realizations using ultra-cold atoms or molecules trapped in an optical lattice. We propose an experimentally feasible technique to access non-local degrees of freedom by performing global operations on trapped spins mediated by an optical cavity mode. We show how to reliably read and write topologically protected quantum memory using an atomic or photonic qubit. Furthermore, our technique can be used to probe statistics and dynamics of anyonic excitations. 1 aJiang, Liang1 aBrennen, Gavin, K.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHammerer, Klemens1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aZoller, Peter uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0711.1365v101158nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006700108260001300175490000800188520065200196100002500848700001700873700002000890700001800910700002300928856003700951 2008 eng d00aCoherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution0 aCoherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution c2008/3/70 v1003 a We suggest a new method for quantum optical control with nanoscale resolution. Our method allows for coherent far-field manipulation of individual quantum systems with spatial selectivity that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation and can, in principle, approach a few nanometers. The selectivity is enabled by the nonlinear atomic response, under the conditions of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, to a control beam with intensity vanishing at a certain location. Practical performance of this technique and its potential applications to quantum information science with cold atoms, ions, and solid-state qubits are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGreiner, Markus1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0706.3879v201341nas a2200145 4500008004100000245004200041210004200083260001300125490000700138520094000145100002801085700002501113700002001138856003701158 2008 eng d00aOptimal light storage in atomic vapor0 aOptimal light storage in atomic vapor c2008/8/10 v783 a We study procedures for the optimization of efficiency of light storage and retrieval based on the dynamic form of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in warm Rb vapor. We present a detailed analysis of two recently demonstrated optimization protocols: a time-reversal-based iteration procedure, which finds the optimal input signal pulse shape for any given control field, and a procedure based on the calculation of an optimal control field for any given signal pulse shape. We verify that the two procedures are consistent with each other, and that they both independently achieve the maximum memory efficiency for any given optical depth. We observe good agreement with theoretical predictions for moderate optical depths (<25), while at higher optical depths the experimental efficiency falls below the theoretically predicted values. We identify possible effects responsible for this reduction in memory efficiency. 1 aPhillips, Nathaniel, B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNovikova, Irina uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.3348v100956nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005600041210005600097260001400153490000700167520052600174100002000700700002800720700002500748856003700773 2008 eng d00aOptimal light storage with full pulse shape control0 aOptimal light storage with full pulse shape control c2008/8/200 v783 a We experimentally demonstrate optimal storage and retrieval of light pulses of arbitrary shape in atomic ensembles. By shaping auxiliary control pulses, we attain efficiencies approaching the fundamental limit and achieve precise retrieval into any predetermined temporal profile. Our techniques, demonstrated in warm Rb vapor, are applicable to a wide range of systems and protocols. As an example, we present their potential application to the creation of optical time-bin qubits and to controlled partial retrieval. 1 aNovikova, Irina1 aPhillips, Nathaniel, B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1927v100411nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005600041210005500097300001400152490000700166100001600173700001900189700001900208856005000227 2008 eng d00aOptimal light storage with full pulse-shape control0 aOptimal light storage with full pulseshape control a021802(R)0 v781 aNovikova, I1 aPhillips, N, B1 aGorshkov, A, V uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v78/e021802/00818nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113300001100182490000900193100001300202700001200215700001900227700001600246700001600262700001900278700001900297700001600316700002000332856026000352 2008 eng d00aOptimizing Slow and Stored Light for Multidisciplinary Applications0 aOptimizing Slow and Stored Light for Multidisciplinary Applicati a69040C0 v69041 aKlein, M1 aXiao, Y1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aHohensee, M1 aLeung, C, D1 aBrowning, M, R1 aPhillips, D, F1 aNovikova, I1 aWalsworth, R, L uhttp://spie.org/x648.xml?product_id=772216&Search_Origin=QuickSearch&Search_Results_URL=http://spie.org/x1636.xml&Alternate_URL=http://spie.org/x18509.xml&Alternate_URL_Name=timeframe&Alternate_URL_Value=Exhibitors&UseJavascript=1&Please_Wait_URL=http://s01383nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010900041210006900150260001300219490000700232520085500239100002501094700002101119700002301140700002501163856003701188 2008 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media IV Opt c2008/4/40 v773 a We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in Lambda-type media to previously inaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical control pulses used to mediate photon storage, we open up the possibility of high efficiency photon storage in the non-adiabatic limit, in which analytical solutions to the equations of motion do not exist. This control shaping technique enables an order-of-magnitude increase in the bandwidth of the memory. We also demonstrate that the often discussed connection between time reversal and optimality in photon storage follows naturally from gradient ascent. Finally, we discuss the optimization of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aCalarco, Tommaso1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0710.2698v200560nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008800041210006900129300001100198490000800209100001900217700001200236700001500248700001500263700001400278700001600292700001900308856005100327 2008 eng d00aSuppression of Inelastic Collisions Between Polar Molecules With a Repulsive Shield0 aSuppression of Inelastic Collisions Between Polar Molecules With a0732010 v1011 aGorshkov, A, V1 aRabl, P1 aPupillo, G1 aMicheli, A1 aZoller, P1 aLukin, M, D1 aBüchler, H, P uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v101/e073201/00700nas a2200181 4500008004100000245009700041210006900138300001100207490000900218100001500227700001800242700001700260700001900277700001700296700001700313700001600330856017200346 2007 eng d00aMulti-photon Entanglement: From Quantum Curiosity to Quantum Computing and Quantum Repeaters0 aMultiphoton Entanglement From Quantum Curiosity to Quantum Compu a66640G0 v66641 aWalther, P1 aEisaman, M, D1 aNemiroski, A1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aZibrov, A, S1 aZeilinger, A1 aLukin, M, D uhttp://spiedigitallibrary.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG00666400000166640G000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes&bproc=volrange&scode=6600%20-%20669900984nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001400155490000700169520043900176100002000615700002500635700002400660700002500684700002300709700002600732856004400758 2007 eng d00aOptimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval0 aOptimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval c2007/6/150 v983 a We demonstrate experimentally a procedure to obtain the maximum efficiency for the storage and retrieval of light pulses in atomic media. The procedure uses time reversal to obtain optimal input signal pulse-shapes. Experimental results in warm Rb vapor are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate a substantial improvement of efficiency. This optimization procedure is applicable to a wide range of systems. 1 aNovikova, Irina1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPhillips, David, F.1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aWalsworth, Ronald, L. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0702266v100618nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005800041210005800099300001100157490000900168100001600177700001900193700001900212700001200231700001300243700002000256856017200276 2007 eng d00aOptimization of slow and stored light in atomic vapor0 aOptimization of slow and stored light in atomic vapor a64820M0 v64821 aNovikova, I1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aPhillips, D, F1 aXiao, Y1 aKlein, M1 aWalsworth, R, L uhttp://spiedigitallibrary.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG00648200000164820M000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes&bproc=volrange&scode=6400%20-%20649901698nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001300193490000700206520119400213100002501407700001601432700002301448700002501471856004401496 2007 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. I. Cavity model 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media I Cavi c2007/9/70 v763 a In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we perform the same analysis for the cavity model. In particular, we show that the retrieval efficiency is equal to C/(1+C) independent of the retrieval technique, where C is the cooperativity parameter. We also derive the optimal strategy for storage and, in particular, demonstrate that at any detuning one can store, with the optimal efficiency of C/(1+C), any smooth input mode satisfying T C gamma >> 1 and a certain class of resonant input modes satisfying T C gamma ~ 1, where T is the duration of the input mode and 2 gamma is the transition linewidth. In the two subsequent papers of the series, we present the full analysis of the free-space model and discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening on photon storage. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612082v201505nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008800041210006900129260001300198490000700211520099600218100002501214700001601239700002301255700002501278856004401303 2007 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. II. Free-space model 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media II Fre c2007/9/70 v763 a In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we presented a universal physical picture for describing a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo based techniques. This universal picture produced an optimal control strategy for photon storage and retrieval applicable to all approaches and yielded identical maximum efficiencies for all of them. In the present paper, we present the full details of this analysis as well some of its extensions, including the discussion of the effects of non-degeneracy of the two lower levels of the Lambda system. The analysis in the present paper is based on the intuition obtained from the study of photon storage in the cavity model in the preceding paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007)]. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612083v201814nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010800041210006900149260001300218490000700231520128500238100002501523700001601548700002301564700002501587856004401612 2007 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media III Ef c2007/9/70 v763 a In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)] and in the two preceding papers [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007); 76, 033805 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in homogeneously broadened Lambda-type atomic media, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we generalize this treatment to include inhomogeneous broadening. In particular, we consider the case of Doppler-broadened atoms and assume that there is a negligible difference between the Doppler shifts of the two optical transitions. In this situation, we show that, at high enough optical depth, all atoms contribute coherently to the storage process as if the medium were homogeneously broadened. We also discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening in solid state samples. In this context, we discuss the advantages and limitations of reversing the inhomogeneous broadening during the storage time, as well as suggest a way for achieving high efficiencies with a nonreversible inhomogeneous profile. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612084v201734nas a2200229 4500008004100000245006500041210006500106260001500171520102700186100002301213700002501236700002601261700002201287700002001309700002101329700002501350700003001375700002301405700001901428700002001447856003701467 2007 eng d00aSignatures of incoherence in a quantum information processor0 aSignatures of incoherence in a quantum information processor c2007/05/243 a Incoherent noise is manifest in measurements of expectation values when the underlying ensemble evolves under a classical distribution of unitary processes. While many incoherent processes appear decoherent, there are important differences. The distribution functions underlying incoherent processes are either static or slowly varying with respect to control operations and so the errors introduced by these distributions are refocusable. The observation and control of incoherence in small Hilbert spaces is well known. Here we explore incoherence during an entangling operation, such as is relevant in quantum information processing. As expected, it is more difficult to separate incoherence and decoherence over such processes. However, by studying the fidelity decay under a cyclic entangling map we are able to identify distinctive experimental signatures of incoherence. This result is demonstrated both through numerical simulations and experimentally in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance implementation. 1 aHenry, Michael, K.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeinstein, Yaakov, S.1 aCappellaro, Paola1 aEmerson, Joseph1 aBoulant, Nicolas1 aHodges, Jonathan, S.1 aRamanathan, Chandrasekhar1 aHavel, Timothy, F.1 aMartinez, Rudy1 aCory, David, G. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0705.3666v201151nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006500041210006500106260001400171490000700185520063000192100002500822700001600847700002600863700002500889700002300914856004400937 2007 eng d00aUniversal Approach to Optimal Photon Storage in Atomic Media0 aUniversal Approach to Optimal Photon Storage in Atomic Media c2007/3/190 v983 a We present a universal physical picture for describing storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in a Lambda-type atomic medium. This physical picture encompasses a variety of different approaches to pulse storage ranging from adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity and pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman fields to photon-echo based techniques. Furthermore, we derive an optimal control strategy for storage and retrieval of a photon wave packet of any given shape. All these approaches, when optimized, yield identical maximum efficiencies, which only depend on the optical depth of the medium. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aFleischhauer, Michael1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0604037v3