Electron spins in silicon quantum dots are attractive systems for quantum computing due to their long coherence times and the promise of rapid scaling using semiconductor fabrication techniques. While nearest neighbor exchange coupling of two spins has been demonstrated, the interaction of spins via microwave frequency photons could enable long distance spin-spin coupling and "all-to-all" qubit connectivity. Here we demonstrate strong-coupling between a single spin in silicon and a microwave frequency photon with spin-photon coupling rates g_s/(2π) > 10 MHz. The mechanism enabling coherent spin-photon interactions is based on spin-charge hybridization in the presence of a magnetic field gradient. In addition to spin-photon coupling, we demonstrate coherent control of a single spin in the device and quantum non-demolition spin state readout using cavity photons. These results open a direct path toward entangling single spins using microwave frequency photons.

1 aMi, X.1 aBenito, M.1 aPutz, S.1 aZajac, D., M.1 aTaylor, J., M.1 aBurkard, Guido1 aPetta, J., R. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1710.0326501974nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005000041210004800091260001500139520145800154100001101612700001501623700001301638700001801651700001901669700001901688700001801707856006701725 2018 eng d00aA coherent spin–photon interface in silicon0 acoherent spin–photon interface in silicon c2018/02/143 aElectron spins in silicon quantum dots are attractive systems for quantum computing owing to their long coherence times and the promise of rapid scaling of the number of dots in a system using semiconductor fabrication techniques. Although nearest-neighbour exchange coupling of two spins has been demonstrated, the interaction of spins via microwave-frequency photons could enable long-distance spin–spin coupling and connections between arbitrary pairs of qubits (‘all-to-all’ connectivity) in a spin-based quantum processor. Realizing coherent spin–photon coupling is challenging because of the small magnetic-dipole moment of a single spin, which limits magnetic-dipole coupling rates to less than 1 kilohertz. Here we demonstrate strong coupling between a single spin in silicon and a single microwave-frequency photon, with spin–photon coupling rates of more than 10 megahertz. The mechanism that enables the coherent spin–photon interactions is based on spin–charge hybridization in the presence of a magnetic-field gradient. In addition to spin–photon coupling, we demonstrate coherent control and dispersive readout of a single spin. These results open up a direct path to entangling single spins using microwave-frequency photons.

1 aMi, X.1 aBenito, M.1 aPutz, S.1 aZajac, D., M.1 aTaylor, J., M.1 aBurkard, Guido1 aPetta, J., R. uhttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature25769#author-information02685nas a2200205 4500008004100000245006300041210006100104260001500165300001100180490000700191520207900198100002102277700001802298700002202316700001602338700001902354700001802373700001902391856006902410 2018 eng d00aHigh-fidelity quantum gates in Si/SiGe double quantum dots0 aHighfidelity quantum gates in SiSiGe double quantum dots c2018/02/15 a0854210 v973 aMotivated by recent experiments of Zajac *et al.* [Science 359, 439 (2018)], we theoretically describe high-fidelity two-qubit gates using the exchange interaction between the spins in neighboring quantum dots subject to a magnetic field gradient. We use a combination of analytical calculations and numerical simulations to provide the optimal pulse sequences and parameter settings for the gate operation. We present a synchronization method which avoids detrimental spin flips during the gate operation and provide details about phase mismatches accumulated during the two-qubit gates which occur due to residual exchange interaction, nonadiabatic pulses, and off-resonant driving. By adjusting the gate times, synchronizing the resonant and off-resonant transitions, and compensating these phase mismatches by phase control, the overall gate fidelity can be increased significantly.

Single-qubit rotations and two-qubit CNOT operations are crucial ingredients for universal quantum computing. Although high-fidelity single-qubit operations have been achieved using the electron spin degree of freedom, realizing a robust CNOT gate has been challenging because of rapid nuclear spin dephasing and charge noise. We demonstrate an efficient resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins in silicon. Our platform achieves single-qubit rotations with fidelities greater than 99%, as verified by randomized benchmarking. Gate control of the exchange coupling allows a quantum CNOT gate to be implemented with resonant driving in ~200 nanoseconds. We used the CNOT gate to generate a Bell state with 78% fidelity (corrected for errors in state preparation and measurement). Our quantum dot device architecture enables multi-qubit algorithms in silicon.

1 aZajac, D., M.1 aSigillito, A., J.1 aRuss, M.1 aBorjans, F.1 aTaylor, J., M.1 aBurkard, Guido1 aPetta, J., R. uhttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6374/439