Achieving quantum computational advantage requires solving a classically intractable problem on a quantum device. Natural proposals rely upon the intrinsic hardness of classically simulating quantum mechanics; however, verifying the output is itself classically intractable. On the other hand, certain quantum algorithms (e.g. prime factorization via Shor's algorithm) are efficiently verifiable, but require more resources than what is available on near-term devices. One way to bridge the gap between verifiability and implementation is to use "interactions" between a prover and a verifier. By leveraging cryptographic functions, such protocols enable the classical verifier to enforce consistency in a quantum prover's responses across multiple rounds of interaction. In this work, we demonstrate the first implementation of an interactive quantum advantage protocol, using an ion trap quantum computer. We execute two complementary protocols -- one based upon the learning with errors problem and another where the cryptographic construction implements a computational Bell test. To perform multiple rounds of interaction, we implement mid-circuit measurements on a subset of trapped ion qubits, with subsequent coherent evolution. For both protocols, the performance exceeds the asymptotic bound for classical behavior; maintaining this fidelity at scale would conclusively demonstrate verifiable quantum advantage.

1 aZhu, Daiwei1 aKahanamoku-Meyer, Gregory, D.1 aLewis, Laura1 aNoel, Crystal1 aKatz, Or1 aHarraz, Bahaa1 aWang, Qingfeng1 aRisinger, Andrew1 aFeng, Lei1 aBiswas, Debopriyo1 aEgan, Laird1 aGheorghiu, Alexandru1 aNam, Yunseong1 aVidick, Thomas1 aVazirani, Umesh1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aCetina, Marko1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2112.05156