The ability to simulate a fermionic system on a quantum computer is expected to revolutionize chemical engineering, materials design, nuclear physics, to name a few. Thus, optimizing the simulation circuits is of significance in harnessing the power of quantum computers. Here, we address this problem in two aspects. In the fault-tolerant regime, we optimize the $\rzgate$ and $\tgate$ gate counts along with the ancilla qubit counts required, assuming the use of a product-formula algorithm for implementation. We obtain a savings ratio of two in the gate counts and a savings ratio of eleven in the number of ancilla qubits required over the state of the art. In the pre-fault tolerant regime, we optimize the two-qubit gate counts, assuming the use of the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) approach. Specific to the latter, we present a framework that enables bootstrapping the VQE progression towards the convergence of the ground-state energy of the fermionic system. This framework, based on perturbation theory, is capable of improving the energy estimate at each cycle of the VQE progression, by about a factor of three closer to the known ground-state energy compared to the standard VQE approach in the test-bed, classically-accessible system of the water molecule. The improved energy estimate in turn results in a commensurate level of savings of quantum resources, such as the number of qubits and quantum gates, required to be within a pre-specified tolerance from the known ground-state energy. We also explore a suite of generalized transformations of fermion to qubit operators and show that resource-requirement savings of up to more than 20% is possible.

1 aWang, Qingfeng1 aLi, Ming1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aNam, Yunseong uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2004.04151