Electron spins in silicon quantum dots are attractive systems for quantum computing due to their long coherence times and the promise of rapid scaling using semiconductor fabrication techniques. While nearest neighbor exchange coupling of two spins has been demonstrated, the interaction of spins via microwave frequency photons could enable long distance spin-spin coupling and \"all-to-all\" qubit connectivity. Here we demonstrate strong-coupling between a single spin in silicon and a microwave frequency photon with spin-photon coupling rates g_s/(2π) \> 10 MHz. The mechanism enabling coherent spin-photon interactions is based on spin-charge hybridization in the presence of a magnetic field gradient. In addition to spin-photon coupling, we demonstrate coherent control of a single spin in the device and quantum non-demolition spin state readout using cavity photons. These results open a direct path toward entangling single spins using microwave frequency photons.

}, doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25769}, url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.03265}, author = {X. Mi and M. Benito and S. Putz and D. M. Zajac and J. M. Taylor and Guido Burkard and J. R. Petta} } @article {2148, title = {A coherent spin{\textendash}photon interface in silicon}, journal = {Nature}, year = {2018}, month = {2018/02/14}, abstract = {Electron spins in silicon quantum dots are attractive systems for quantum computing owing to their long coherence times and the promise of rapid scaling of the number of dots in a system using semiconductor fabrication techniques. Although nearest-neighbour exchange coupling of two spins has been demonstrated, the interaction of spins via microwave-frequency photons could enable long-distance spin\–spin coupling and connections between arbitrary pairs of qubits (\‘all-to-all\’ connectivity) in a spin-based quantum processor. Realizing coherent spin\–photon coupling is challenging because of the small magnetic-dipole moment of a single spin, which limits magnetic-dipole coupling rates to less than 1 kilohertz. Here we demonstrate strong coupling between a single spin in silicon and a single microwave-frequency photon, with spin\–photon coupling rates of more than 10 megahertz. The mechanism that enables the coherent spin\–photon interactions is based on spin\–charge hybridization in the presence of a magnetic-field gradient. In addition to spin\–photon coupling, we demonstrate coherent control and dispersive readout of a single spin. These results open up a direct path to entangling single spins using microwave-frequency photons.

}, doi = {10.1038/nature25769}, url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25769$\#$author-information}, author = {X. Mi and M. Benito and S. Putz and D. M. Zajac and J. M. Taylor and Guido Burkard and J. R. Petta} } @article {2147, title = {High-fidelity quantum gates in Si/SiGe double quantum dots}, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {97}, year = {2018}, month = {2018/02/15}, pages = {085421}, abstract = {Motivated by recent experiments of Zajac\ *et\ al.*\ [Science\ 359, 439 (2018)], we theoretically describe high-fidelity two-qubit gates using the exchange interaction between the spins in neighboring quantum dots subject to a magnetic field gradient. We use a combination of analytical calculations and numerical simulations to provide the optimal pulse sequences and parameter settings for the gate operation. We present a synchronization method which avoids detrimental spin flips during the gate operation and provide details about phase mismatches accumulated during the two-qubit gates which occur due to residual exchange interaction, nonadiabatic pulses, and off-resonant driving. By adjusting the gate times, synchronizing the resonant and off-resonant transitions, and compensating these phase mismatches by phase control, the overall gate fidelity can be increased significantly.

Electron-phonon coupling is known to play an important role in the charge dynamics of semiconductor quantum dots. Here we explore its role in the combined charge-photon dynamics of cavity-coupled double quantum dots. Previous work on these systems has shown that strong electron-phonon coupling leads to a large contribution to photoemission and gain from phonon-assisted emission and absorption processes. We compare the effects of this phonon sideband in three commonly investigated gate-defined quantum dot material systems: InAs nanowires and GaAs and Si two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). We compare our theory with existing experimental data from cavity-coupled InAs nanowire and GaAs 2DEG double quantum dots and find quantitative agreement only when the phonon sideband and photoemission processes during lead tunneling are taken into account. Finally, we show that the phonon sideband also leads to a sizable renormalization of the cavity frequency, which allows for direct spectroscopic probes of the electron-phonon coupling in these systems.

}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.97.035305}, url = {https://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.97.035305}, author = {M. J. Gullans and J. M. Taylor and J. R. Petta} } @article {2150, title = {Resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins}, journal = {Science}, volume = {359}, year = {2018}, month = {2018/01/26}, pages = {439-442}, abstract = {Single-qubit rotations and two-qubit CNOT operations are crucial ingredients for universal quantum computing. Although high-fidelity single-qubit operations have been achieved using the electron spin degree of freedom, realizing a robust CNOT gate has been challenging because of rapid nuclear spin dephasing and charge noise. We demonstrate an efficient resonantly driven CNOT gate for electron spins in silicon. Our platform achieves single-qubit rotations with fidelities greater than 99\%, as verified by randomized benchmarking. Gate control of the exchange coupling allows a quantum CNOT gate to be implemented with resonant driving in ~200 nanoseconds. We used the CNOT gate to generate a Bell state with 78\% fidelity (corrected for errors in state preparation and measurement). Our quantum dot device architecture enables multi-qubit algorithms in silicon.

}, doi = {10.1126/science.aao5965}, url = {http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6374/439}, author = {D. M. Zajac and A. J. Sigillito and M. Russ and F. Borjans and J. M. Taylor and Guido Burkard and J. R. Petta} } @article {2059, title = {Efimov States of Strongly Interacting Photons}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {119}, year = {2017}, month = {2017/12/04}, pages = {233601}, abstract = {We demonstrate the emergence of universal Efimov physics for interacting photons in cold gases of Rydberg atoms. We consider the behavior of three photons injected into the gas in their propagating frame, where a paraxial approximation allows us to consider them as massive particles. In contrast to atoms and nuclei, the photons have a large anisotropy between their longitudinal mass, arising from dispersion, and their transverse mass, arising from diffraction. Nevertheless, we show that in suitably rescaled coordinates the effective interactions become dominated by s-wave scattering near threshold and, as a result, give rise to an Efimov effect near unitarity, but with spatially anisotropic wavefunctions in the original coordinates. We show that the three-body loss of these Efimov trimers can be strongly suppressed and determine conditions under which these states are observable in current experiments. These effects can be naturally extended to probe few-body universality beyond three bodies, as well as the role of Efimov physics in the non-equilbrium, many-body regime.

}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.233601}, url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.01955}, author = {M. J. Gullans and S. Diehl and S. T. Rittenhouse and B. P. Ruzic and J. P. D{\textquoteright}Incao and P. Julienne and Alexey V. Gorshkov and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1815, title = {Double Quantum Dot Floquet Gain Medium}, journal = {Physical Review X}, volume = {6}, year = {2016}, month = {2016/11/07}, pages = {041027}, abstract = {Strongly driving a two-level quantum system with light leads to a ladder of Floquet states separated by the photon energy. Nanoscale quantum devices allow the interplay of confined electrons, phonons, and photons to be studied under strong driving conditions. Here we show that a single electron in a periodically driven DQD functions as a \"Floquet gain medium,\" where population imbalances in the DQD Floquet quasi-energy levels lead to an intricate pattern of gain and loss features in the cavity response. We further measure a large intra-cavity photon number n_c in the absence of a cavity drive field, due to equilibration in the Floquet picture. Our device operates in the absence of a dc current -- one and the same electron is repeatedly driven to the excited state to generate population inversion. These results pave the way to future studies of non-classical light and thermalization of driven quantum systems.

}, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041027}, url = {http://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041027}, author = {J. Stehlik and Y.-Y. Liu and C. Eichler and T. R. Hartke and X. Mi and Michael Gullans and J. M. Taylor and J. R. Petta} } @article {1822, title = {Observation of Optomechanical Quantum Correlations at Room Temperature}, year = {2016}, month = {2016/05/18}, abstract = {By shining laser light through a nanomechanical beam, we measure the beam\&$\#$39;s thermally driven vibrations and perturb its motion with optical forces at a level dictated by the Heisenberg measurement-disturbance uncertainty relation. Such quantum backaction is typically difficult to observe at room temperature where the motion driven by optical quantum intensity fluctuations is many orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal motion. We demonstrate a cross-correlation technique to distinguish optically driven motion from thermally driven motion, observing this quantum backaction signature up to room temperature. While it is often difficult to absolutely calibrate optical detection, we use the scale of the quantum correlations, which is determined by fundamental constants, to gauge the size of thermal motion, demonstrating a path towards absolute thermometry with quantum mechanically calibrated ticks.

}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1605.05664}, author = {T. P. Purdy and K. E. Grutter and K. Srinivasan and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1330, title = {A Quantum Model for an Entropic Spring}, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {93}, year = {2016}, month = {2016/06/01}, pages = {214102}, abstract = {Motivated by understanding the emergence of thermodynamic restoring forces and oscillations, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of a bath of spins coupled to the elasticity of a material. We show our model reproduces the behavior of a variety of entropic springs while enabling investigation of non-equilibrium resonator states in the quantum domain. We find our model emerges naturally in disordered elastic media such as glasses, and is an additional, expected effect in systems with anomalous specific heat and 1/f noise at low temperatures due to two-level systems that fluctuate.

}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.214102}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.08658v1}, author = {Chiao-Hsuan Wang and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1692, title = {Sisyphus Thermalization of Photons in a Cavity-Coupled Double Quantum Dot}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {117}, year = {2016}, month = {2016/07/25}, pages = {056801}, abstract = {A strongly driven quantum system, coupled to a thermalizing bath, generically evolves into a highly non-thermal state as the external drive competes with the equilibrating force of the bath. We demonstrate a notable exception to this picture for a microwave resonator interacting with a periodically driven double quantum dot (DQD). In the limit of strong driving and long times, we show that the resonator field can be driven into a thermal state with a chemical potential given by a harmonic of the drive frequency. Such tunable chemical potentials are achievable with current devices and would have broad utility for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics. As an example, we show how several DQDs embedded in an array of microwave resonators can induce a phase transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate of light.

}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.056801}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.01248}, author = {Michael Gullans and J. Stehlik and Y. -Y. Liu and J. R. Petta and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1334, title = {Bounds on quantum communication via Newtonian gravity}, journal = {New Journal of Physics}, volume = {17}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/01/15}, pages = {015006}, abstract = {Newtonian gravity yields specific observable consequences, the most striking of which is the emergence of a $1/r^2$ force. In so far as communication can arise via such interactions between distant particles, we can ask what would be expected for a theory of gravity that only allows classical communication. Many heuristic suggestions for gravity-induced decoherence have this restriction implicitly or explicitly in their construction. Here we show that communication via a $1/r^2$ force has a minimum noise induced in the system when the communication cannot convey quantum information, in a continuous time analogue to Bell{\textquoteright}s inequalities. Our derived noise bounds provide tight constraints from current experimental results on any theory of gravity that does not allow quantum communication. }, doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/17/1/015006}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.3214v2}, author = {D. Kafri and G. J. Milburn and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1336, title = {Capacitively coupled singlet-triplet qubits in the double charge resonant regime}, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {92}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/12/01}, pages = {235301}, abstract = {We investigate a method for entangling two singlet-triplet qubits in adjacent double quantum dots via capacitive interactions. In contrast to prior work, here we focus on a regime with strong interactions between the qubits. The interplay of the interaction energy and simultaneous large detunings for both double dots gives rise to the double charge resonant regime, in which the unpolarized (1111) and fully polarized (0202) four-electron states in the absence of interqubit tunneling are near degeneracy, while being energetically well-separated from the partially polarized (0211 and 1102) states. A controlled-phase gate may be realized by combining time evolution in this regime in the presence of intraqubit tunneling and the interqubit Coulomb interaction with refocusing {\pi} pulses that swap the singly occupied singlet and triplet states of the two qubits via, e.g., magnetic gradients. We calculate the fidelity of this entangling gate, incorporating models for two types of noise - classical, Gaussian-distributed charge fluctuations in the single-qubit detunings and charge relaxation within the low-energy subspace via electron-phonon interaction - and identify parameter regimes that optimize the fidelity. The rates of phonon-induced decay for pairs of GaAs or Si double quantum dots vary with the sizes of the dipolar and quadrupolar contributions and are several orders of magnitude smaller for Si, leading to high theoretical gate fidelities for coupled singlet-triplet qubits in Si dots. We also consider the dependence of the capacitive coupling on the relative orientation of the double dots and find that a linear geometry provides the fastest potential gate. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.4740v2}, author = {V. Srinivasa and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1338, title = {A chemical potential for light}, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {92}, year = {2015}, month = {2014/05/22}, pages = {174305}, abstract = {Photons are not conserved in interactions with other matter. Consequently, when understanding the equation of state and thermodynamics of photons, while we have a concept of temperature for energy conservation, there is no equivalent chemical potential for particle number conservation. However, the notion of a chemical potential is crucial in understanding a wide variety of single- and many-body effects, from transport in conductors and semi-conductors to phase transitions in electronic and atomic systems. Here we show how a direct modification of the system-bath coupling via parametric oscillation creates an effective chemical potential for photons even in the thermodynamic limit. Specific implementations, using circuit-QED or optomechanics, are feasible using current technologies, and we show a detailed example demonstrating the emergence of Mott Insulator-superfluid transition in a lattice of nonlinear oscillators. Our approach paves the way for quantum simulation, quantum sources and even electron-like circuits with light. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.92.174305}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.5821v2}, author = {M. Hafezi and P. Adhikari and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1331, title = {Framework for learning agents in quantum environments}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/07/30}, abstract = {In this paper we provide a broad framework for describing learning agents in general quantum environments. We analyze the types of classically specified environments which allow for quantum enhancements in learning, by contrasting environments to quantum oracles. We show that whether or not quantum improvements are at all possible depends on the internal structure of the quantum environment. If the environments are constructed and the internal structure is appropriately chosen, or if the agent has limited capacities to influence the internal states of the environment, we show that improvements in learning times are possible in a broad range of scenarios. Such scenarios we call luck-favoring settings. The case of constructed environments is particularly relevant for the class of model-based learning agents, where our results imply a near-generic improvement. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.08482v1}, author = {Vedran Dunjko and J. M. Taylor and Hans J. Briegel} } @article {1337, title = {From membrane-in-the-middle to mirror-in-the-middle with a high-reflectivity sub-wavelength grating}, journal = {Annalen der Physik}, volume = {527}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/01/02}, pages = {81 - 88}, abstract = {We demonstrate a "membrane in the middle" optomechanical system using a silicon nitride membrane patterned as a subwavelength grating. The grating has a reflectivity of over 99.8\%, effectively creating two sub-cavities, with free spectral ranges of 6 GHz, optically coupled via photon tunneling. Measurements of the transmission and reflection spectra show an avoided crossing where the two sub-cavities simultaneously come into resonance, with a frequency splitting of 54 MHz. We derive expressions for the lineshapes of the symmetric and antisymmetric modes at the avoided crossing, and infer the grating reflection, transmission, absorption, and scattering through comparison with the experimental data. }, doi = {10.1002/andp.201400142}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.1709v1}, author = {Corey Stambaugh and Haitan Xu and Utku Kemiktarak and J. M. Taylor and John Lawall} } @article {1500, title = {Injection Locking of a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Micromaser}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {92}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/11/02}, pages = {053802}, abstract = { Emission linewidth is an important figure of merit for masers and lasers. We recently demonstrated a semiconductor double quantum dot (DQD) micromaser where photons are generated through single electron tunneling events. Charge noise directly couples to the DQD energy levels, resulting in a maser linewidth that is more than 100 times larger than the Schawlow-Townes prediction. Here we demonstrate a linewidth narrowing of more than a factor 10 by locking the DQD emission to a coherent tone that is injected to the input port of the cavity. We measure the injection locking range as a function of cavity input power and show that it is in agreement with the Adler equation. The position and amplitude of distortion sidebands that appear outside of the injection locking range are quantitatively examined. Our results show that this unconventional maser, which is impacted by strong charge noise and electron-phonon coupling, is well described by standard laser models. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.92.053802}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.04147}, author = {Y. -Y. Liu and J. Stehlik and Michael Gullans and J. M. Taylor and J. R. Petta} } @article {1329, title = {Optical Control of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon}, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {92}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/11/11}, pages = {195411}, abstract = {We show how to achieve optical, spin-selective transitions from the ground state to excited orbital states of group-V donors (P, As, Sb, Bi) in silicon. We consider two approaches based on either resonant, far-infrared (IR) transitions of the neutral donor or resonant, near-IR excitonic transitions. For far-IR light, we calculate the dipole matrix elements between the valley-orbit and spin-orbit split states for all the goup-V donors using effective mass theory. We then calculate the maximum rate and amount of electron-nuclear spin-polarization achievable through optical pumping with circularly polarized light. We find this approach is most promising for Bi donors due to their large spin-orbit and valley-orbit interactions. Using near-IR light, spin-selective excitation is possible for all the donors by driving a two-photon $\Lambda$-transition from the ground state to higher orbitals with even parity. We show that externally applied electric fields or strain allow similar, spin-selective $\Lambda$-transition to odd-parity excited states. We anticipate these results will be useful for future spectroscopic investigations of donors, quantum control and state preparation of donor spin qubits, and for developing a coherent interface between donor spin qubits and single photons. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.92.195411}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.07929}, author = {Michael Gullans and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1333, title = {Optomechanical reference accelerometer}, journal = {Metrologia}, volume = {52}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/09/08}, pages = {654}, abstract = {We present an optomechanical accelerometer with high dynamic range, high bandwidth and read-out noise levels below 8 ${\mu}$g/$\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}$. The straightforward assembly and low cost of our device make it a prime candidate for on-site reference calibrations and autonomous navigation. We present experimental data taken with a vacuum sealed, portable prototype and deduce the achieved bias stability and scale factor accuracy. Additionally, we present a comprehensive model of the device physics that we use to analyze the fundamental noise sources and accuracy limitations of such devices.

}, doi = {10.1088/0026-1394/52/5/654}, url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0026-1394/52/5/654/meta;jsessionid=C2B417A5CD50B9B57EE14C78E1783802.ip-10-40-1-105}, author = {Oliver Gerberding and Felipe Guzman Cervantes and John Melcher and Jon R. Pratt and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1332, title = {Phonon-Assisted Gain in a Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot Maser}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {114}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/05/13}, pages = {196802}, abstract = {We develop a microscopic model for the recently demonstrated double quantum dot (DQD) maser. In characterizing the gain of this device we find that, in addition to the direct stimulated emission of photons, there is a large contribution from the simultaneous emission of a photon and a phonon, i.e., the phonon sideband. We show that this phonon-assisted gain typically dominates the overall gain which leads to masing. Recent experimental data are well fit with our model. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.196802}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.03499v3}, author = {Michael Gullans and Y. -Y. Liu and J. Stehlik and J. R. Petta and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1494, title = {Quantum Nonlinear Optics Near Optomechanical Instabilities}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {91}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/01/09}, pages = {013818}, abstract = { Optomechanical systems provide a unique platform for observing quantum behavior of macroscopic objects. However, efforts towards realizing nonlinear behavior at the single photon level have been inhibited by the small size of the radiation pressure interaction. Here we show that it is not necessary to reach the single-photon strong-coupling regime in order to realize significant optomechanical nonlinearities. Instead, nonlinearities at the few quanta level can be achieved, even with weak-coupling, in a two-mode optomechanical system driven near instability. In this limit, we establish a new figure of merit for realizing strong nonlinearity which scales with the single-photon optomechanical coupling and the sideband resolution of the mechanical mode with respect to the cavity linewidth. We find that current devices based on optomechanical crystals, thought to be in the weak-coupling regime, can still achieve strong quantum nonlinearity; enabling deterministic interactions between single photons. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.91.013818}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.3726v2}, author = {Xunnong Xu and Michael Gullans and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1499, title = {Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser}, journal = {Science}, volume = {347}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/01/15}, pages = {285 - 287}, abstract = { The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from THz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside of a high quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. }, doi = {10.1126/science.aaa2501}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.06359v1}, author = {Y. -Y. Liu and J. Stehlik and C. Eichler and Michael Gullans and J. M. Taylor and J. R. Petta} } @article {1339, title = {Tunable Spin Qubit Coupling Mediated by a Multi-Electron Quantum Dot}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {114}, year = {2015}, month = {2015/06/04}, pages = {226803}, abstract = {We present an approach for entangling electron spin qubits localized on spatially separated impurity atoms or quantum dots via a multi-electron, two-level quantum dot. The effective exchange interaction mediated by the dot can be understood as the simplest manifestation of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida exchange, and can be manipulated through gate voltage control of level splittings and tunneling amplitudes within the system. This provides both a high degree of tuneability and a means for realizing high-fidelity two-qubit gates between spatially separated spins, yielding an experimentally accessible method of coupling donor electron spins in silicon via a hybrid impurity-dot system. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.226803}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.1711v3}, author = {V. Srinivasa and H. Xu and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1340, title = {A classical channel model for gravitational decoherence}, journal = {New Journal of Physics}, volume = {16}, year = {2014}, month = {2014/06/26}, pages = {065020}, abstract = {We show that, by treating the gravitational interaction between two mechanical resonators as a classical measurement channel, a gravitational decoherence model results that is equivalent to a model first proposed by Diosi. The resulting decoherence model implies that the classically mediated gravitational interaction between two gravitationally coupled resonators cannot create entanglement. The gravitational decoherence rate ( and the complementary heating rate) is of the order of the gravitationally induced normal mode splitting of the two resonators. }, doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/16/6/065020}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.0946v1}, author = {D. Kafri and J. M. Taylor and G. J. Milburn} } @article {1342, title = {Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer}, journal = {Nature}, volume = {507}, year = {2014}, month = {2014/3/5}, pages = {81 - 85}, abstract = {Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple very strongly to either microwave or optical fields. An oscillator accommodating both functionalities would bear great promise as the intermediate platform in a radio-to-optical transduction cascade. Here, we demonstrate such an opto-electro-mechanical transducer utilizing a high-Q nanomembrane. A moderate voltage bias (<10V) is sufficient to induce strong coupling between the voltage fluctuations in a rf resonance circuit and the membrane{\textquoteright}s displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its metallized surface. The circuit acts as an antenna; the voltage signals it induces are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude below that of standard optical modulators. The noise added by the membrane is suppressed by the electro-mechanical cooperativity C~6800 and has a temperature of 40mK, far below 300K where the entire device is operated. This corresponds to a sensitivity limit as low as 5 pV/Hz^1/2, or -210dBm/Hz in a narrow band around 1 MHz. Our work introduces an entirely new approach to all-optical, ultralow-noise detection of classical electronic signals, and sets the stage for coherent upconversion of low-frequency quantum signals to the optical domain. }, doi = {10.1038/nature13029}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.3467v2}, author = {T. Bagci and A. Simonsen and S. Schmid and L. G. Villanueva and E. Zeuthen and J. Appel and J. M. Taylor and A. S{\o}rensen and K. Usami and A. Schliesser and E. S. Polzik} } @article {1495, title = {A Quantum Network of Silicon Qubits using Mid-Infrared Graphene Plasmons}, year = {2014}, month = {2014/07/25}, abstract = { We consider a quantum network of mid-infrared, graphene plasmons coupled to the hydrogen-like excited states of group-V donors in silicon. First, we show how to use plasmon-enhanced light-matter interactions to achieve single-shot spin readout of the donor qubits via optical excitation and electrical detection of the emitted plasmons. We then show how plasmons in high mobility graphene nanoribbons can be used to achieve high-fidelity, two-qubit gates and entanglement of distant Si donor qubits. The proposed device is readily compatible with existing technology and fabrication methods. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7035v1}, author = {Michael Gullans and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1343, title = {Electrically-protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {111}, year = {2013}, month = {2013/7/31}, abstract = {We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.050502}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.3407v2}, author = {J. M. Taylor and V. Srinivasa and J. Medford} } @article {1341, title = {A noise inequality for classical forces}, year = {2013}, month = {2013/11/18}, abstract = {Lorentz invariance requires local interactions, with force laws such as the Coulomb interaction arising via virtual exchange of force carriers such as photons. Many have considered the possibility that, at long distances or large mass scales, this process changes in some way to lead to classical behavior. Here we hypothesize that classical behavior could be due to an inability of some force carriers to convey entanglement, a characteristic measure of nonlocal, quantum behavior. We then prove that there exists a local test that allows one to verify entanglement generation, falsifying our hypothesis. Crucially, we show that noise measurements can directly verify entanglement generation. This provides a step forward for a wide variety of experimental systems where traditional entanglement tests are challenging, including entanglement generation by gravity alone between macroscopic torsional oscillators. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.4558v1}, author = {Dvir Kafri and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1497, title = {Preparation of Non-equilibrium Nuclear Spin States in Double Quantum Dots }, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {88}, year = {2013}, month = {2013/7/15}, abstract = { We theoretically study the dynamic polarization of lattice nuclear spins in GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. In our prior work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 226807 (2010)] we identified three regimes of long-term dynamics, including the build up of a large difference in the Overhauser fields across the dots, the saturation of the nuclear polarization process associated with formation of so-called "dark states," and the elimination of the difference field. In particular, when the dots are different sizes we found that the Overhauser field becomes larger in the smaller dot. Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of these problems including a model of the polarization dynamics and the development of a new numerical method to efficiently simulate semiclassical central-spin problems. When nuclear spin noise is included, the results agree with our prior work indicating that large difference fields and dark states are stable configurations, while the elimination of the difference field is unstable; however, in the absence of noise we find all three steady states are achieved depending on parameters. These results are in good agreement with dynamic nuclear polarization experiments in double quantum dots. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.88.035309}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.6953v3}, author = {Michael Gullans and J. J. Krich and J. M. Taylor and B. I. Halperin and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1344, title = {The Resonant Exchange Qubit}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {111}, year = {2013}, month = {2013/7/31}, abstract = {We introduce a solid-state qubit in which exchange interactions among confined electrons provide both the static longitudinal field and the oscillatory transverse field, allowing rapid and full qubit control via rf gate-voltage pulses. We demonstrate two-axis control at a detuning sweet-spot, where leakage due to hyperfine coupling is suppressed by the large exchange gap. A {\pi}/2-gate time of 2.5 ns and a coherence time of 19 {\mu}s, using multi-pulse echo, are also demonstrated. Model calculations that include effects of hyperfine noise are in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.050501}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.3413v2}, author = {J. Medford and J. Beil and J. M. Taylor and E. I. Rashba and H. Lu and A. C. Gossard and C. M. Marcus} } @article {1345, title = {Self-Consistent Measurement and State Tomography of an Exchange-Only Spin Qubit}, journal = {Nature Nanotechnology}, volume = {8}, year = {2013}, month = {2013/9/1}, pages = {654 - 659}, abstract = {We report initialization, complete electrical control, and single-shot readout of an exchange-only spin qubit. Full control via the exchange interaction is fast, yielding a demonstrated 75 qubit rotations in under 2 ns. Measurement and state tomography are performed using a maximum-likelihood estimator method, allowing decoherence, leakage out of the qubit state space, and measurement fidelity to be quantified. The methods developed here are generally applicable to systems with state leakage, noisy measurements, and non-orthogonal control axes. }, doi = {10.1038/nnano.2013.168}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.1933v1}, author = {J. Medford and J. Beil and J. M. Taylor and S. D. Bartlett and A. C. Doherty and E. I. Rashba and D. P. DiVincenzo and H. Lu and A. C. Gossard and C. M. Marcus} } @article {1346, title = {Algorithmic Cooling of a Quantum Simulator}, year = {2012}, month = {2012/07/30}, abstract = {Controlled quantum mechanical devices provide a means of simulating more complex quantum systems exponentially faster than classical computers. Such "quantum simulators" rely heavily upon being able to prepare the ground state of Hamiltonians, whose properties can be used to calculate correlation functions or even the solution to certain classical computations. While adiabatic preparation remains the primary means of producing such ground states, here we provide a different avenue of preparation: cooling to the ground state via simulated dissipation. This is in direct analogy to contemporary efforts to realize generalized forms of simulated annealing in quantum systems. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.7111v1}, author = {Dvir Kafri and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1347, title = {The equilibrium states of open quantum systems in the strong coupling regime}, journal = {Physical Review E}, volume = {86}, year = {2012}, month = {2012/12/26}, abstract = {In this work we investigate the late-time stationary states of open quantum systems coupled to a thermal reservoir in the strong coupling regime. In general such systems do not necessarily relax to a Boltzmann distribution if the coupling to the thermal reservoir is non-vanishing or equivalently if the relaxation timescales are finite. Using a variety of non-equilibrium formalisms valid for non-Markovian processes, we show that starting from a product state of the closed system = system + environment, with the environment in its thermal state, the open system which results from coarse graining the environment will evolve towards an equilibrium state at late-times. This state can be expressed as the reduced state of the closed system thermal state at the temperature of the environment. For a linear (harmonic) system and environment, which is exactly solvable, we are able to show in a rigorous way that all multi-time correlations of the open system evolve towards those of the closed system thermal state. Multi-time correlations are especially relevant in the non-Markovian regime, since they cannot be generated by the dynamics of the single-time correlations. For more general systems, which cannot be exactly solved, we are able to provide a general proof that all single-time correlations of the open system evolve to those of the closed system thermal state, to first order in the relaxation rates. For the special case of a zero-temperature reservoir, we are able to explicitly construct the reduced closed system thermal state in terms of the environmental correlations. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.86.061132}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.2707v1}, author = {Y. Subasi and C. H. Fleming and J. M. Taylor and B. L. Hu} } @article {1348, title = {Quantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single atom}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {108}, year = {2012}, month = {2012/3/30}, abstract = {We show how to bridge the divide between atomic systems and electronic devices by engineering a coupling between the motion of a single ion and the quantized electric field of a resonant circuit. Our method can be used to couple the internal state of an ion to the quantized circuit with the same speed as the internal-state coupling between two ions. All the well-known quantum information protocols linking ion internal and motional states can be converted to protocols between circuit photons and ion internal states. Our results enable quantum interfaces between solid state qubits, atomic qubits, and light, and lay the groundwork for a direct quantum connection between electrical and atomic metrology standards. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.5999v1}, author = {D. Kielpinski and D. Kafri and M. J. Woolley and G. J. Milburn and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1351, title = {Fast and robust quantum computation with ionic Wigner crystals}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {83}, year = {2011}, month = {2011/4/15}, abstract = {We present a detailed analysis of the modulated-carrier quantum phase gate implemented with Wigner crystals of ions confined in Penning traps. We elaborate on a recent scheme, proposed by two of the authors, to engineer two-body interactions between ions in such crystals. We analyze for the first time the situation in which the cyclotron (w_c) and the crystal rotation (w_r) frequencies do not fulfill the condition w_c=2w_r. It is shown that even in the presence of the magnetic field in the rotating frame the many-body (classical) Hamiltonian describing small oscillations from the ion equilibrium positions can be recast in canonical form. As a consequence, we are able to demonstrate that fast and robust two-qubit gates are achievable within the current experimental limitations. Moreover, we describe a realization of the state-dependent sign-changing dipole forces needed to realize the investigated quantum computing scheme. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.83.042319}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.5616v2}, author = {J. D. Baltrusch and A. Negretti and J. M. Taylor and T. Calarco} } @article {1352, title = {Interferometry with Synthetic Gauge Fields}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {83}, year = {2011}, month = {2011/3/3}, abstract = {We propose a compact atom interferometry scheme for measuring weak, time-dependent accelerations. Our proposal uses an ensemble of dilute trapped bosons with two internal states that couple to a synthetic gauge field with opposite charges. The trapped gauge field couples spin to momentum to allow time dependent accelerations to be continuously imparted on the internal states. We generalize this system to reduce noise and estimate the sensitivity of such a system to be S~10^-7 m / s^2 / Hz^1/2. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.83.031602}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3910v2}, author = {Brandon M. Anderson and J. M. Taylor and Victor M. Galitski} } @article {1349, title = {Laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a LC electrical circuit}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {107}, year = {2011}, month = {2011/12/27}, abstract = {We explore a method for laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a LC electrical circuit. Our approach uses a nanomechanical oscillator as a transducer between optical and electronic excitations. An experimentally feasible system with the oscillator capacitively coupled to the LC and at the same time interacting with light via an optomechanical force is shown to provide strong electro-mechanical coupling. Conditions for improved sensitivity and quantum limited readout of electrical signals with such an "optical loud speaker" are outlined. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.273601}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.2035v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor and A. S. S{\o}rensen and C. M. Marcus and E. S. Polzik} } @article {1350, title = {Unified approach to topological quantum computation with anyons: From qubit encoding to Toffoli gate}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {84}, year = {2011}, month = {2011/7/26}, abstract = {Topological quantum computation may provide a robust approach for encoding and manipulating information utilizing the topological properties of anyonic quasi-particle excitations. We develop an efficient means to map between dense and sparse representations of quantum information (qubits) and a simple construction of multi-qubit gates, for all anyon models from Chern-Simons-Witten SU(2)$_k$ theory that support universal quantum computation by braiding ($k\geq 3,\ k \neq 4$). In the process, we show how the constructions of topological quantum memory and gates for $k=2,4$ connect naturally to those for $k\geq 3,\ k \neq 4$, unifying these concepts in a simple framework. Furthermore, we illustrate potential extensions of these ideas to other anyon models outside of Chern-Simons-Witten field theory. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.84.012332}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.4085v2}, author = {Haitan Xu and J. M. Taylor} } @article {1353, title = {Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Double Quantum Dots}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {104}, year = {2010}, month = {2010/6/4}, abstract = {We theoretically investigate the controlled dynamic polarization of lattice nuclear spins in GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. Three regimes of long-term dynamics are identified, including the build up of a large difference in the Overhauser fields across the dots, the saturation of the nuclear polarization process associated with formation of so-called "dark states," and the elimination of the difference field. We show that in the case of unequal dots, build up of difference fields generally accompanies the nuclear polarization process, whereas for nearly identical dots, build up of difference fields competes with polarization saturation in dark states. The elimination of the difference field does not, in general, correspond to a stable steady state of the polarization process. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.226807}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4508v2}, author = {Michael Gullans and J. J. Krich and J. M. Taylor and H. Bluhm and B. I. Halperin and C. M. Marcus and M. Stopa and A. Yacoby and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1355, title = {Coherence of an optically illuminated single nuclear spin qubit}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {100}, year = {2008}, month = {2008/2/19}, abstract = {We investigate the coherence properties of individual nuclear spin quantum bits in diamond [Dutt et al., Science, 316, 1312 (2007)] when a proximal electronic spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is being interrogated by optical radiation. The resulting nuclear spin dynamics are governed by time-dependent hyperfine interaction associated with rapid electronic transitions, which can be described by a spin-fluctuator model. We show that due to a process analogous to motional averaging in nuclear magnetic resonance, the nuclear spin coherence can be preserved after a large number of optical excitation cycles. Our theoretical analysis is in good agreement with experimental results. It indicates a novel approach that could potentially isolate the nuclear spin system completely from the electronic environment. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.073001}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.1341v2}, author = {Liang Jiang and M. V. Gurudev Dutt and Emre Togan and Lily Childress and Paola Cappellaro and J. M. Taylor and Mikhail D. Lukin} } @article {1354, title = {High-sensitivity diamond magnetometer with nanoscale resolution}, journal = {Nature Physics}, volume = {4}, year = {2008}, month = {2008/9/14}, pages = {810 - 816}, abstract = {We present a novel approach to the detection of weak magnetic fields that takes advantage of recently developed techniques for the coherent control of solid-state electron spin quantum bits. Specifically, we investigate a magnetic sensor based on Nitrogen-Vacancy centers in room-temperature diamond. We discuss two important applications of this technique: a nanoscale magnetometer that could potentially detect precession of single nuclear spins and an optical magnetic field imager combining spatial resolution ranging from micrometers to millimeters with a sensitivity approaching few femtotesla/Hz$^{1/2}$. }, doi = {10.1038/nphys1075}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1367v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor and P. Cappellaro and L. Childress and L. Jiang and D. Budker and P. R. Hemmer and A. Yacoby and R. Walsworth and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1357, title = {Wigner crystals of ions as quantum hard drives}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {78}, year = {2008}, month = {2008/12/18}, abstract = {Atomic systems in regular lattices are intriguing systems for implementing ideas in quantum simulation and information processing. Focusing on laser cooled ions forming Wigner crystals in Penning traps, we find a robust and simple approach to engineering non-trivial 2-body interactions sufficient for universal quantum computation. We then consider extensions of our approach to the fast generation of large cluster states, and a non-local architecture using an asymmetric entanglement generation procedure between a Penning trap system and well-established linear Paul trap designs. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.78.062331}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.1951v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor and T. Calarco} } @article {1358, title = {A fast and robust approach to long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {76}, year = {2007}, month = {2007/7/2}, abstract = {Quantum repeaters create long-distance entanglement between quantum systems while overcoming difficulties such as the attenuation of single photons in a fiber. Recently, an implementation of a repeater protocol based on single qubits in atomic ensembles and linear optics has been proposed [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Motivated by rapid experimental progress towards implementing that protocol, here we develop a more efficient scheme compatible with active purification of arbitrary errors. Using similar resources as the earlier protocol, our approach intrinsically purifies leakage out of the logical subspace and all errors within the logical subspace, leading to greatly improved performance in the presence of experimental inefficiencies. Our analysis indicates that our scheme could generate approximately one pair per 3 minutes over 1280 km distance with fidelity (F>78\%) sufficient to violate Bell{\textquoteright}s inequality. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.76.012301}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0609236v3}, author = {L. Jiang and J. M. Taylor and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1356, title = {A quantum dot implementation of the quantum NAND algorithm}, year = {2007}, month = {2007/08/10}, abstract = {We propose a physical implementation of the quantum NAND tree evaluation algorithm. Our approach, based on continuous time quantum walks, uses the wave interference of a single electron in a heirarchical set of tunnel coupled quantum dots. We find that the query complexity of the NAND tree evaluation does not suffer strongly from disorder and dephasing, nor is it directly limited by temperature or restricted dimensionality for 2-d structures. Finally, we suggest a potential application of this algorithm to the efficient determination of high-order correlation functions of complex quantum systems. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0708.1484v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor} } @article {1359, title = {Relaxation, dephasing, and quantum control of electron spins in double quantum dots}, journal = {Physical Review B}, volume = {76}, year = {2007}, month = {2007/7/13}, abstract = {Recent experiments have demonstrated quantum manipulation of two-electron spin states in double quantum dots using electrically controlled exchange interactions. Here, we present a detailed theory for electron spin dynamics in two-electron double dot systems that was used to guide these experiments and analyze experimental results. The theory treats both charge and spin degrees of freedom on an equal basis. Specifically, we analyze the relaxation and dephasing mechanisms that are relevant to experiments and discuss practical approaches for quantum control of two-electron system. We show that both charge and spin dephasing play important roles in the dynamics of the two-spin system, but neither represents a fundamental limit for electrical control of spin degrees of freedom in semiconductor quantum bits. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.76.035315}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0602470v2}, author = {J. M. Taylor and J. R. Petta and A. C. Johnson and A. Yacoby and C. M. Marcus and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1360, title = {Cavity quantum electrodynamics with semiconductor double-dot molecules on a chip}, year = {2006}, month = {2006/05/05}, abstract = {We describe a coherent control technique for coupling electron spin states associated with semiconductor double-dot molecule to a microwave stripline resonator on a chip. We identify a novel regime of operation in which strong interaction between a molecule and a resonator can be achieved with minimal decoherence, reaching the so-called strong coupling regime of cavity QED. We describe potential applications of such a system, including low-noise coherent electrical control, fast QND measurements of spin states, and long-range spin coupling. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0605144v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1364, title = {Fault-tolerant Quantum Communication with Minimal Physical Requirements}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {96}, year = {2006}, month = {2006/2/23}, abstract = {We describe a novel protocol for a quantum repeater which enables long distance quantum communication through realistic, lossy photonic channels. Contrary to previous proposals, our protocol incorporates active purification of arbitrary errors at each step of the protocol using only two qubits at each repeater station. Because of these minimal physical requirements, the present protocol can be realized in simple physical systems such as solid-state single photon emitters. As an example, we show how nitrogen vacancy color centers in diamond can be used to implement the protocol, using the nuclear and electronic spin to form the two qubits. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.070504}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0410123v3}, author = {L. Childress and J. M. Taylor and A. S. Sorensen and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1361, title = {Dephasing of quantum bits by a quasi-static mesoscopic environment}, year = {2005}, month = {2005/12/07}, abstract = {We examine coherent processes in a two-state quantum system that is strongly coupled to a mesoscopic spin bath and weakly coupled to other environmental degrees of freedom. Our analysis is specifically aimed at understanding the quantum dynamics of solid-state quantum bits such as electron spins in semiconductor structures and superconducting islands. The role of mesoscopic degrees of freedom with long correlation times (local degrees of freedom such as nuclear spins and charge traps) in qubit-related dephasing is discussed in terms of a quasi-static bath. A mathemat- ical framework simultaneously describing coupling to the slow mesoscopic bath and a Markovian environment is developed and the dephasing and decoherence properties of the total system are investigated. The model is applied to several specific examples with direct relevance to current ex- periments. Comparisons to experiments suggests that such quasi-static degrees of freedom play an important role in current qubit implementations. Several methods of mitigating the bath-induced error are considered. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0512059v2}, author = {J. M. Taylor and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1363, title = {Fault-tolerant quantum repeaters with minimal physical resources, and implementations based on single photon emitters}, journal = {Physical Review A}, volume = {72}, year = {2005}, month = {2005/11/28}, abstract = {We analyze a novel method that uses fixed, minimal physical resources to achieve generation and nested purification of quantum entanglement for quantum communication over arbitrarily long distances, and discuss its implementation using realistic photon emitters and photonic channels. In this method, we use single photon emitters with two internal degrees of freedom formed by an electron spin and a nuclear spin to build intermediate nodes in a quantum channel. State-selective fluorescence is used for probabilistic entanglement generation between electron spins in adjacent nodes. We analyze in detail several approaches which are applicable to realistic, homogeneously broadened single photon emitters. Furthermore, the coupled electron and nuclear spins can be used to efficiently implement entanglement swapping and purification. We show that these techniques can be combined to generate high-fidelity entanglement over arbitrarily long distances. We present a specific protocol that functions in polynomial time and tolerates percent-level errors in entanglement fidelity and local operations. The scheme has the lowest requirements on physical resources of any current scheme for fully fault-tolerant quantum repeaters. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.72.052330}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0502112v1}, author = {L. I. Childress and J. M. Taylor and A. S. Sorensen and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1362, title = {Solid-state circuit for spin entanglement generation and purification}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {94}, year = {2005}, month = {2005/6/15}, abstract = {We show how realistic charge manipulation and measurement techniques, combined with the exchange interaction, allow for the robust generation and purification of four-particle spin entangled states in electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dots. The generated states are immunized to the dominant sources of noise via a dynamical decoherence-free subspace; all additional errors are corrected by a purification protocol. This approach may find application in quantum computation, communication, and metrology. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.236803}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0503255v2}, author = {J. M. Taylor and W. D{\"u}r and P. Zoller and A. Yacoby and C. M. Marcus and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1365, title = {Quantum information processing using localized ensembles of nuclear spins}, year = {2004}, month = {2004/07/23}, abstract = {We describe a technique for quantum information processing based on localized en sembles of nuclear spins. A qubit is identified as the presence or absence of a collective excitation of a mesoscopic ensemble of nuclear spins surrounding a single quantum dot. All single and two-qubit operations can be effected using hyperfine interactions and single-electron spin rotations, hence the proposed scheme avoids gate errors arising from entanglement between spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Ultra-long coherence times of nuclear spins suggest that this scheme could be particularly well suited for applications where long lived memory is essential. }, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0407640v2}, author = {J. M. Taylor and G. Giedke and H. Christ and B. Paredes and J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller and M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu} } @article {1366, title = {Controlling a mesoscopic spin environment by quantum bit manipulation}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {91}, year = {2003}, month = {2003/12/10}, abstract = {We present a unified description of cooling and manipulation of a mesoscopic bath of nuclear spins via coupling to a single quantum system of electronic spin (quantum bit). We show that a bath cooled by the quantum bit rapidly saturates. Although the resulting saturated states of the spin bath ({\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}dark states{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}) generally have low degrees of polarization and purity, their symmetry properties make them a valuable resource for the coherent manipulation of quantum bits. Specifically, we demonstrate that the dark states of nuclear ensembles can be used to coherently control the system-bath interaction and to provide a robust, long-lived quantum memory for qubit states. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.246802}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0308459v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor and A. Imamoglu and M. D. Lukin} } @article {1367, title = {Long-lived memory for mesoscopic quantum bits}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, volume = {90}, year = {2003}, month = {2003/5/20}, abstract = {We describe a technique to create long-lived quantum memory for quantum bits in mesoscopic systems. Specifically we show that electronic spin coherence can be reversibly mapped onto the collective state of the surrounding nuclei. The coherent transfer can be efficient and fast and it can be used, when combined with standard resonance techniques, to reversibly store coherent superpositions on the time scale of seconds. This method can also allow for {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}engineering{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} entangled states of nuclear ensembles and efficiently manipulating the stored states. We investigate the feasibility of this method through a detailed analysis of the coherence properties of the system. }, doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.206803}, url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0301323v1}, author = {J. M. Taylor and C. M. Marcus and M. D. Lukin} }