Tailoring three-dimensional topological codes for biased noise

TitleTailoring three-dimensional topological codes for biased noise
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsHuang, E, Pesah, A, Chubb, CT, Vasmer, M, Dua, A
Date Published11/3/2022
KeywordsFOS: Physical sciences, Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Tailored topological stabilizer codes in two dimensions have been shown to exhibit high storage threshold error rates and improved subthreshold performance under biased Pauli noise. Three-dimensional (3D) topological codes can allow for several advantages including a transversal implementation of non-Clifford logical gates, single-shot decoding strategies, parallelized decoding in the case of fracton codes as well as construction of fractal lattice codes. Motivated by this, we tailor 3D topological codes for enhanced storage performance under biased Pauli noise. We present Clifford deformations of various 3D topological codes, such that they exhibit a threshold error rate of 50% under infinitely biased Pauli noise. Our examples include the 3D surface code on the cubic lattice, the 3D surface code on a checkerboard lattice that lends itself to a subsystem code with a single-shot decoder, the 3D color code, as well as fracton models such as the X-cube model, the Sierpinski model and the Haah code. We use the belief propagation with ordered statistics decoder (BP-OSD) to study threshold error rates at finite bias. We also present a rotated layout for the 3D surface code, which uses roughly half the number of physical qubits for the same code distance under appropriate boundary conditions. Imposing coprime periodic dimensions on this rotated layout leads to logical operators of weight O(n) at infinite bias and a corresponding exp[−O(n)] subthreshold scaling of the logical failure rate, where n is the number of physical qubits in the code. Even though this scaling is unstable due to the existence of logical representations with O(1) low-rate Pauli errors, the number of such representations scales only polynomially for the Clifford-deformed code, leading to an enhanced effective distance.