Quantum SDP Solvers: Large Speed-ups, Optimality, and Applications to Quantum Learning

TitleQuantum SDP Solvers: Large Speed-ups, Optimality, and Applications to Quantum Learning
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBrandão, FGSL, Kalev, A, Li, T, Lin, CYen-Yu, Svore, KM, Wu, X
JournalTo appear at the 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We give two new quantum algorithms for solving semidefinite programs (SDPs) providing quantum speed-ups. We consider SDP instances with m constraint matrices, each of dimension n, rank r, and sparsity s. The first algorithm assumes an input model where one is given access to entries of the matrices at unit cost. We show that it has run time O~(s2(m−−√ε−10+n−−√ε−12)), where ε is the error. This gives an optimal dependence in terms of m,n and quadratic improvement over previous quantum algorithms when m≈n. The second algorithm assumes a fully quantum input model in which the matrices are given as quantum states. We show that its run time is O~(m−−√+poly(r))⋅poly(logm,logn,B,ε−1), with B an upper bound on the trace-norm of all input matrices. In particular the complexity depends only poly-logarithmically in n and polynomially in r. We apply the second SDP solver to the problem of learning a good description of a quantum state with respect to a set of measurements: Given m measurements and copies of an unknown state ρ, we show we can find in time m−−√⋅poly(logm,logn,r,ε−1) a description of the state as a quantum circuit preparing a density matrix which has the same expectation values as ρ on the m measurements, up to error ε. The density matrix obtained is an approximation to the maximum entropy state consistent with the measurement data considered in Jaynes' principle from statistical mechanics. As in previous work, we obtain our algorithm by "quantizing" classical SDP solvers based on the matrix multiplicative weight method. One of our main technical contributions is a quantum Gibbs state sampler for low-rank Hamiltonians with a poly-logarithmic dependence on its dimension, which could be of independent interest.