Exponential Quantum Speed-ups for Semidefinite Programming with Applications to Quantum Learning

TitleExponential Quantum Speed-ups for Semidefinite Programming with Applications to Quantum Learning
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBrandão, FGSL, Kalev, A, Li, T, Lin, CYen-Yu, Svore, KM, Wu, X
Date Published2017/10/06

We give semidefinite program (SDP) quantum solvers with an exponential speed-up over classical ones. Specifically, we consider SDP instances with m constraint matrices of dimension n, each of rank at most r, and assume that the input matrices of the SDP are given as quantum states (after a suitable normalization). Then we show there is a quantum algorithm that solves the SDP feasibility problem with accuracy ǫ by using √ m log m · poly(log n,r, ǫ −1 ) quantum gates. The dependence on n provides an exponential improvement over the work of Brand ˜ao and Svore [6] and the work of van Apeldoorn et al. [23], and demonstrates an exponential quantum speed-up when m and r are small. We apply the SDP solver to the problem of learning a good description of a quantum state with respect to a set of measurements: Given m measurements and a supply of copies of an unknown state ρ, we show we can find in time √ m log m · poly(log n,r, ǫ −1 ) a description of the state as a quantum circuit preparing a density matrix which has the same expectation values as ρ on the m measurements up to error ǫ. The density matrix obtained is an approximation to the maximum entropy state consistent with the measurement data considered in Jaynes’ principle. As in previous work, we obtain our algorithm by “quantizing” classical SDP solvers based on the matrix multiplicative weight update method. One of our main technical contributions is a quantum Gibbs state sampler for low-rank Hamiltonians with a poly-logarithmic dependence on its dimension based on the techniques developed in quantum principal component analysis, which could be of independent interest. Our quantum SDP solver is different from previous ones in the following two aspects: (1) it follows from a zero-sum game approach of Hazan [11] of solving SDPs rather than the primal-dual approach by Arora and Kale [5]; and (2) it does not rely on any sparsity assumption of the input matrices.