Crystallography of Hyperbolic Lattices

TitleCrystallography of Hyperbolic Lattices
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsBoettcher, I, Gorshkov, AV, Kollár, AJ, Maciejko, J, Rayan, S, Thomale, R
Date Published5/3/2021

Hyperbolic lattices are a revolutionary platform for tabletop simulations of holography and quantum physics in curved space and facilitate efficient quantum error correcting codes. Their underlying geometry is non-Euclidean, and the absence of Bloch's theorem precludes a simple understanding of their band structure. Motivated by recent insights into hyperbolic band theory, we initiate a crystallography of hyperbolic lattices. We show that many hyperbolic lattices feature a hidden crystal structure characterized by unit cells, hyperbolic Bravais lattices, and associated symmetry groups. Using the mathematical framework of higher-genus Riemann surfaces and Fuchsian groups, we derive, for the first time, a list of example hyperbolic {p,q} lattices and their hyperbolic Bravais lattices, including five infinite families and several graphs relevant for experiments in circuit quantum electrodynamics and topolectrical circuits. Our results find application for both finite and infinite hyperbolic lattices. We describe a method to efficiently generate finite hyperbolic lattices of arbitrary size and explain why the present crystallography is the first step towards a complete band theory of hyperbolic lattices and apply it to construct Bloch wave Hamiltonians. This work lays the foundation for generalizing some of the most powerful concepts of solid state physics, such as crystal momentum and Brillouin zone, to the emerging field of hyperbolic lattices and tabletop simulations of gravitational theories, and reveals the connections to concepts from topology and algebraic geometry.