Average Rényi Entanglement Entropy in Gaussian Boson Sampling

TitleAverage Rényi Entanglement Entropy in Gaussian Boson Sampling
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsYoum, J, Iosue, JT, Ehrenberg, A, Wang, Y-X, Gorshkov, AV
Date Published3/27/2024

Recently, many experiments have been conducted with the goal of demonstrating a quantum advantage over classical computation. One popular framework for these experiments is Gaussian Boson Sampling, where quadratic photonic input states are interfered via a linear optical unitary and subsequently measured in the Fock basis. In this work, we study the modal entanglement of the output states in this framework just before the measurement stage. Specifically, we compute Page curves as measured by various Rényi-α entropies, where the Page curve describes the entanglement between two partitioned groups of output modes averaged over all linear optical unitaries. We derive these formulas for α=1 (i.e. the von Neumann entropy), and, more generally, for all positive integer α, in the asymptotic limit of infinite number of modes and for input states that are composed of single-mode-squeezed-vacuum state with equal squeezing strength. We then analyze the limiting behaviors when the squeezing is small and large. Having determined the averages, we then explicitly calculate the Rényi-α variance for integers α>1, and we are able to show that these entropies are weakly typical.