The many-body localization transition in quasiperiodic systems has been extensively studied in recent ultracold atom experiments. At intermediate quasiperiodic potential strength, a surprising Griffiths-like regime with slow dynamics appears in the absence of random disorder and mobility edges. In this work, we study the interacting Aubry-Andre model, a prototype quasiperiodic system, as a function of incommensurate potential strength using a novel dynamical measure, information scrambling, in a large system of 200 lattice sites. Between the thermal phase and the many-body localized phase, we find an intermediate dynamical phase where the butterfly velocity is zero and information spreads in space as a power-law in time. This is in contrast to the ballistic spreading in the thermal phase and logarithmic spreading in the localized phase. We further investigate the entanglement structure of the many-body eigenstates in the intermediate phase and find strong fluctuations in eigenstate entanglement entropy within a given energy window, which is inconsistent with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. Machine-learning on the entanglement spectrum also reaches the same conclusion. Our large-scale simulations suggest that the intermediate phase with vanishing butterfly velocity could be responsible for the slow dynamics seen in recent experiments.

%8 02/19/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1902.07199 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Chaos in a quantum rotor model %A Gong Cheng %A Brian Swingle %XWe study scrambling in a model consisting of a number N of M-component quantum rotors coupled by random infinite-range interactions. This model is known to have both a paramagnetic phase and a spin glass phase separated by second order phase transition. We calculate in perturbation theory the squared commutator of rotor fields at different sites in the paramagnetic phase, to leading non-trivial order at large N and large M. This quantity diagnoses the onset of quantum chaos in this system, and we show that the squared commutator grows exponentially with time, with a Lyapunov exponent proportional to 1M. At high temperature, the Lyapunov exponent limits to a value set by the microscopic couplings, while at low temperature, the exponent exhibits a T4 dependence on temperature T.

%8 01/29/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1901.10446 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T A characterization of quantum chaos by two-point correlation functions %A Hrant Gharibyan %A Masanori Hanada %A Brian Swingle %A Masaki Tezuka %XWe propose a characterization of quantum many-body chaos: given a collection of simple operators, the set of all possible pair-correlations between these operators can be organized into a matrix with random-matrix-like spectrum. This approach is particularly useful for locally interacting systems, which do not generically show exponential Lyapunov growth of out-of-time-ordered correlators. We demonstrate the validity of this characterization by numerically studying the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model and a one-dimensional spin chain with random magnetic field (XXZ model).

%8 02/28/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1902.11086 %0 Journal Article %D 2019 %T Quantum circuit approximations and entanglement renormalization for the Dirac field in 1+1 dimensions %A Freek Witteveen %A Volkher Scholz %A Brian Swingle %A Michael Walter %XThe multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz describes quantum many-body states by a hierarchical entanglement structure organized by length scale. Numerically, it has been demonstrated to capture critical lattice models and the data of the corresponding conformal field theories with high accuracy. However, a rigorous understanding of its success and precise relation to the continuum is still lacking. To address this challenge, we provide an explicit construction of entanglement-renormalization quantum circuits that rigorously approximate correlation functions of the massless Dirac conformal field theory. We directly target the continuum theory: discreteness is introduced by our choice of how to probe the system, not by any underlying short-distance lattice regulator. To achieve this, we use multiresolution analysis from wavelet theory to obtain an approximation scheme and to implement entanglement renormalization in a natural way. This could be a starting point for constructing quantum circuit approximations for more general conformal field theories.

%8 05/21/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.08821 %0 Journal Article %J JHEP04 %D 2019 %T Quantum Lyapunov Spectrum %A Hrant Gharibyan %A Masanori Hanada %A Brian Swingle %A Masaki Tezuka %XWe introduce a simple quantum generalization of the spectrum of classical Lyapunov exponents. We apply it to the SYK and XXZ models, and study the Lyapunov growth and entropy production. Our numerical results suggest that a black hole is not just the fastest scrambler, but also the fastest entropy generator. We also study the statistical features of the quantum Lyapunov spectrum and find universal random matrix behavior, which resembles the recently-found universality in classical chaos. The random matrix behavior is lost when the system is deformed away from chaos, towards integrability or a many-body localized phase. We propose that quantum systems holographically dual to gravity satisfy this universality in a strong form. We further argue that the quantum Lyapunov spectrum contains important additional information beyond the largest Lyapunov exponent and hence provides us with a better characterization of chaos in quantum systems.

%B JHEP04 %V 082 %8 04/10/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.01671 %R https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2019)082 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. D %D 2019 %T Thermalization and chaos in QED3 %A Julia Steinberg %A Brian Swingle %XWe study the real time dynamics of NF flavors of fermions coupled to a U(1) gauge field in 2+1 dimensions to leading order in a 1/NF expansion. For large enough NF, this is an interacting conformal field theory and describes the low energy properties of the Dirac spin liquid. We focus on thermalization and the onset of many-body quantum chaos which can be diagnosed from the growth of initally anti-commuting fermion field operators. We compute such anti-commutators in this gauge theory to leading order in 1/NF. We find that the anti-commutator grows exponentially in time and compute the quantum Lyapunov exponent. We briefly comment on chaos, locality, and gauge invariance.

%B Phys. Rev. D %V 99 %8 04/11/2019 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1901.04984 %N 076007 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.99.076007 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Accessing scrambling using matrix product operators %A Shenglong Xu %A Brian Swingle %XScrambling, a process in which quantum information spreads over a complex quantum system becoming inaccessible to simple probes, happens in generic chaotic quantum many-body systems, ranging from spin chains, to metals, even to black holes. Scrambling can be measured using out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs), which are closely tied to the growth of Heisenberg operators. In this work, we present a general method to calculate OTOCs of local operators in local one-dimensional systems based on approximating Heisenberg operators as matrix-product operators (MPOs). Contrary to the common belief that such tensor network methods work only at early times, we show that the entire early growth region of the OTOC can be captured using an MPO approximation with modest bond dimension. We analytically establish the goodness of the approximation by showing that if an appropriate OTOC is close to its initial value, then the associated Heisenberg operator has low entanglement across a given cut. We use the method to study scrambling in a chaotic spin chain with 201 sites. Based on this data and OTOC results for black holes, local random circuit models, and non-interacting systems, we conjecture a universal form for the dynamics of the OTOC near the wavefront. We show that this form collapses the chaotic spin chain data over more than fifteen orders of magnitude.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.00801 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Black Hole Microstate Cosmology %A Sean Cooper %A Moshe Rozali %A Brian Swingle %A Mark Van Raamsdonk %A Christopher Waddell %A David Wakeham %XIn this note, we explore the possibility that certain high-energy holographic CFT states correspond to black hole microstates with a geometrical behind-the-horizon region, modelled by a portion of a second asymptotic region terminating at an end-of-the-world (ETW) brane. We study the time-dependent physics of this behind-the-horizon region, whose ETW boundary geometry takes the form of a closed FRW spacetime. We show that in many cases, this behind-the-horizon physics can be probed directly by looking at the time dependence of entanglement entropy for sufficiently large spatial CFT subsystems. We study in particular states defined via Euclidean evolution from conformal boundary states and give specific predictions for the behavior of the entanglement entropy in this case. We perform analogous calculations for the SYK model and find qualitative agreement with our expectations. A fascinating possibility is that for certain states, we might have gravity localized to the ETW brane as in the Randall-Sundrum II scenario for cosmology. In this case, the effective description of physics beyond the horizon could be a big bang/big crunch cosmology of the same dimensionality as the CFT. In this case, the d-dimensional CFT describing the black hole microstate would give a precise, microscopic description of the d-dimensional cosmological physics.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1810.10601 %0 Journal Article %J Journal of High Energy Physics %D 2018 %T Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography %A Phuc Nguyen %A Trithep Devakul %A Matthew G. Halbasch %A Michael P. Zaletel %A Brian Swingle %XPurification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

%B Journal of High Energy Physics %P 98 %8 2018/01/22 %G eng %U https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP01%282018%29098#citeas %R 10.1007/JHEP01(2018)098 %0 Journal Article %J J. High Energ. Phys. %D 2018 %T Holographic Complexity of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton Gravity %A Brian Swingle %A Yixu Wang %XWe study the holographic complexity of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity using the recently proposed "complexity = volume" and "complexity = action" dualities. The model we consider has a ground state that is represented in the bulk via a so-called hyperscaling violating geometry. We calculate the action growth of the Wheeler-DeWitt patch of the corresponding black hole solution at non-zero temperature and find that, in the presence of violations of hyperscaling, there is a parametric enhancement of the action growth rate. We partially match this behavior to simple tensor network models which can capture aspects of hyperscaling violation. We also exhibit the switchback effect in complexity growth using shockwave geometries and comment on a subtlety of our action calculations when the metric is discontinuous at a null surface.

%B J. High Energ. Phys. %V 106 %8 2018 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.09826 %R https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2018)106 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Locality, Quantum Fluctuations, and Scrambling %A Shenglong Xu %A Brian Swingle %XThermalization of chaotic quantum many-body systems under unitary time evolution is related to the growth in complexity of initially simple Heisenberg operators. Operator growth is a manifestation of information scrambling and can be diagnosed by out-of-time-order correlators (OTOCs). However, the behavior of OTOCs of local operators in generic chaotic local Hamiltonians remains poorly understood, with some semiclassical and large N models exhibiting exponential growth of OTOCs and a sharp chaos wavefront and other random circuit models showing a diffusively broadened wavefront. In this paper we propose a unified physical picture for scrambling in chaotic local Hamiltonians. We construct a random time-dependent Hamiltonian model featuring a large N limit where the OTOC obeys a Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (FKPP) type equation and exhibits exponential growth and a sharp wavefront. We show that quantum fluctuations manifest as noise (distinct from the randomness of the couplings in the underlying Hamiltonian) in the FKPP equation and that the noise-averaged OTOC exhibits a cross-over to a diffusively broadened wavefront. At small N we demonstrate that operator growth dynamics, averaged over the random couplings, can be efficiently simulated for all time using matrix product state techniques. To show that time-dependent randomness is not essential to our conclusions, we push our previous matrix product operator methods to very large size and show that data for a time-independent Hamiltonian model are also consistent with a diffusively-broadened wavefront.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.05376 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Product Spectrum Ansatz and the Simplicity of Thermal States %A John Martyn %A Brian Swingle %XCalculating the physical properties of quantum thermal states is a difficult problem for classical computers, rendering it intractable for most quantum many-body systems. A quantum computer, by contrast, would make many of these calculations feasible in principle, but it is still non-trivial to prepare a given thermal state or sample from it. It is also not known how to prepare special simple purifications of thermal states known as thermofield doubles, which play an important role in quantum many-body physics and quantum gravity. To address this problem, we propose a variational scheme to prepare approximate thermal states on a quantum computer by applying a series of two-qubit gates to a product mixed state. We apply our method to a non-integrable region of the mixed field Ising chain and the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We also demonstrate how our method can be easily extended to large systems governed by local Hamiltonians and the preparation of thermofield double states. By comparing our results with exact solutions, we find that our construction enables the efficient preparation of approximate thermal states on quantum devices. Our results can be interpreted as implying that the details of the many-body energy spectrum are not needed to capture simple thermal observables.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.01015 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. %D 2018 %T The quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator %A Nicole Yunger Halpern %A Brian Swingle %A Justin Dressel %XTwo topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC has been shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze the weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct a circuit for implementing the weak-measurement scheme. Next, we calculate the quasiprobability (after coarse-graining) numerically and analytically: We simulate a transverse-field Ising model first. Then, we calculate the quasiprobability averaged over random circuits, which model chaotic dynamics. The quasiprobability, we find, distinguishes chaotic from integrable regimes. We observe nonclassical behaviors: The quasiprobability typically has negative components. It becomes nonreal in some regimes. The onset of scrambling breaks a symmetry that bifurcates the quasiprobability, as in classical-chaos pitchforks. Finally, we present mathematical properties. The quasiprobability obeys a Bayes-type theorem, for example, that exponentially decreases the memory required to calculate weak values, in certain cases. A time-ordered correlator analogous to the OTOC, insensitive to quantum-information scrambling, depends on a quasiprobability closer to a classical probability. This work not only illuminates the OTOC's underpinnings, but also generalizes quasiprobability theory and motivates immediate-future weak-measurement challenges.

%B Phys. Rev. %V A %8 04/2018 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.01971 %N 97 %& 042105 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.042105 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Recovery Map for Fermionic Gaussian Channels %A Brian Swingle %A Yixu Wang %XA recovery map effectively cancels the action of a quantum operation to a partial or full extent. We study the Petz recovery map in the case where the quantum channel and input states are fermionic and Gaussian. Gaussian states are convenient because they are totally determined by their covariance matrix and because they form a closed set under so-called Gaussian channels. Using a Grassmann representation of fermionic Gaussian maps, we show that the Petz recovery map is also Gaussian and determine it explicitly in terms of the covariance matrix of the reference state and the data of the channel. As a by-product, we obtain a formula for the fidelity between two fermionic Gaussian states. We also discuss subtleties arising from the singularities of the involved matrices.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.04956 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. %D 2018 %T Resilience of scrambling measurements %A Brian Swingle %A Nicole Yunger Halpern %XMost experimental protocols for measuring scrambling require time evolution with a Hamiltonian and with the Hamiltonian's negative counterpart (backwards time evolution). Engineering controllable quantum many-body systems for which such forward and backward evolution is possible is a significant experimental challenge. Furthermore, if the system of interest is quantum-chaotic, one might worry that any small errors in the time reversal will be rapidly amplified, obscuring the physics of scrambling. This paper undermines this expectation: We exhibit a renormalization protocol that extracts nearly ideal out-of-time-ordered-correlator measurements from imperfect experimental measurements. We analytically and numerically demonstrate the protocol's effectiveness, up to the scrambling time, in a variety of models and for sizable imperfections. The scheme extends to errors from decoherence by an environment.

%B Phys. Rev. %V A %8 2018/06/18 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.01587 %N 97 %& 062113 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.062113 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Scrambling dynamics across a thermalization-localization quantum phase transition %A Subhayan Sahu %A Shenglong Xu %A Brian Swingle %XWe study quantum information scrambling, specifically the growth of Heisenberg operators, in large disordered spin chains using matrix product operator dynamics to scan across the thermalization-localization quantum phase transition. We observe ballistic operator growth for weak disorder, and a sharp transition to a phase with sub-ballistic operator spreading. The critical disorder strength for the ballistic to sub-ballistic transition is well below the many body localization phase transition, as determined from finite size scaling of energy eigenstate entanglement entropy in small chains. In contrast, we find that the operator dynamics is not very sensitive to the actual eigenstate localization transition. These data are discussed in the context of a universal form for the growing operator shape and substantiated with a simple phenomenological model of rare regions.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.06086 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Subsystem Complexity and Holography %A Cesar A. Agón %A Matthew Headrick %A Brian Swingle %XWe study circuit complexity for spatial regions in holographic field theories. We study analogues based on the entanglement wedge of the bulk quantities appearing in the "complexity = volume" and "complexity = action" conjectures. We calculate these quantities for one exterior region of an eternal static neutral or charged black hole in general dimensions, dual to a thermal state on one boundary with or without chemical potential respectively, as well as for a shock wave geometry. We then define several analogues of circuit complexity for mixed states, and use tensor networks to gain intuition about them. We find a promising qualitative match between the holographic action and what we call the purification complexity, the minimum number of gates required to prepare an arbitrary purification of the given mixed state. On the other hand, the holographic volume does not appear to match any of our definitions of mixed-state complexity.

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.01561 %0 Journal Article %D 2017 %T Entanglement Wedge Reconstruction via Universal Recovery Channels %A Jordan Cotler %A Patrick Hayden %A Geoffrey Penington %A Grant Salton %A Brian Swingle %A Michael Walter %XWe apply and extend the theory of universal recovery channels from quantum information theory to address the problem of entanglement wedge reconstruction in AdS/CFT. It has recently been proposed that any low-energy local bulk operators in a CFT boundary region's entanglement wedge can be reconstructed on that boundary region itself. Existing work arguing for this proposal relies on algebraic consequences of the exact equivalence between bulk and boundary relative entropies, namely the theory of operator algebra quantum error correction. However, bulk and boundary relative entropies are only approximately equal in bulk effective field theory, and in similar situations it is known that predictions from exact entropic equalities can be qualitatively incorrect. The framework of universal recovery channels provides a robust demonstration of the entanglement wedge reconstruction conjecture in addition to new physical insights. Most notably, we find that a bulk operator acting in a given boundary region's entanglement wedge can be expressed as the response of the boundary region's modular Hamiltonian to a perturbation of the bulk state in the direction of the bulk operator. This formula can be interpreted as a noncommutative version of Bayes' rule that attempts to undo the noise induced by restricting to only a portion of the boundary, and has an integral representation in terms of modular flows. To reach these conclusions, we extend the theory of universal recovery channels to finite-dimensional operator algebras and demonstrate that recovery channels approximately preserve the multiplicative structure of the operator algebra

%G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05839 %0 Journal Article %D 2017 %T Robust entanglement renormalization on a noisy quantum computer %A Isaac H. Kim %A Brian Swingle %XA method to study strongly interacting quantum many-body systems at and away from criticality is proposed. The method is based on a MERA-like tensor network that can be efficiently and reliably contracted on a noisy quantum computer using a number of qubits that is much smaller than the system size. We prove that the outcome of the contraction is stable to noise and that the estimated energy upper bounds the ground state energy. The stability, which we numerically substantiate, follows from the positivity of operator scaling dimensions under renormalization group flow. The variational upper bound follows from a particular assignment of physical qubits to different locations of the tensor network plus the assumption that the noise model is local. We postulate a scaling law for how well the tensor network can approximate ground states of lattice regulated conformal field theories in d spatial dimensions and provide evidence for the postulate. Under this postulate, a O(logd (1/δ))-qubit quantum computer can prepare a valid quantum-mechanical state with energy density δ above the ground state. In the presence of noise, δ = O( logd+1(1/)) can be achieved, where is the noise strength.

%8 2017/11/20 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.07500