Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared to product states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the quantity to be measured is a linear function of parameters coupled to each qubit individually. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of non-local observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multi-parameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose a protocol that can make use of GHZ states or spin-squeezed states, and show that in the case of GHZ states the procedure is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound.

%8 2018/03/23 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.04646 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.042337 %0 Journal Article %D 2018 %T Spectrum estimation of density operators with alkaline-earth atoms %A Michael E. Beverland %A Jeongwan Haah %A Gorjan Alagic %A Gretchen K. Campbell %A Ana Maria Rey %A A V Gorshkov %XWe show that Ramsey spectroscopy of fermionic alkaline-earth atoms in a square-well trap provides an efficient and accurate estimate for the eigenspectrum of a density matrix whose *n *copies are stored in the nuclear spins of *n *such atoms. This spectrum estimation is enabled by the high symmetry of the interaction Hamiltonian, dictated, in turn, by the decoupling of the nuclear spin from the electrons and by the shape of the square-well trap. Practical performance of this procedure and its potential applications to quantum computing, quantum simulation, and time-keeping with alkalineearth atoms are discussed.

We consider the classical complexity of approximately simulating time evolution under spatially local quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians for time

Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of non-perturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is in good agreement with experimental data. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 119 %P 043602 %8 2017/07/26 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.06068 %N 4 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.043602 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2017 %T Entanglement area laws for long-range interacting systems %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Fernando G. S. L. Brandão %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XWe prove that the entanglement entropy of any state evolved under an arbitrary 1/rα long-range-interacting D-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonian cannot change faster than a rate proportional to the boundary area for any α > D + 1. We also prove that for any α > 2D + 2, the ground state of such a Hamiltonian satisfies the entanglement area law if it can be transformed along a gapped adiabatic path into a ground state known to satisfy the area law. These results significantly generalize their existing counterparts for short-range interacting systems, and are useful for identifying dynamical phase transitions and quantum phase transitions in the presence of long-range interactions.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 119 %P 050501 %8 2017/07/31 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.05368 %N 5 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.050501 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2017 %T Emergent equilibrium in many-body optical bistability %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Pradeep Niroula %A Jeremy T. Young %A Mohammad Hafezi %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Ryan M. Wilson %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %XMany-body systems constructed of quantum-optical building blocks can now be realized in experimental platforms ranging from exciton-polariton fluids to ultracold gases of Rydberg atoms, establishing a fascinating interface between traditional many-body physics and the driven-dissipative, non-equilibrium setting of cavity-QED. At this interface, the standard techniques and intuitions of both fields are called into question, obscuring issues as fundamental as the role of fluctuations, dimensionality, and symmetry on the nature of collective behavior and phase transitions. Here, we study the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model, a minimal description of numerous atomic, optical, and solid-state systems in which particle loss is countered by coherent driving. Despite being a lattice version of optical bistability---a foundational and patently non-equilibrium model of cavity-QED---the steady state possesses an emergent equilibrium description in terms of a classical Ising model. We establish this picture by identifying a limit in which the quantum dynamics is asymptotically equivalent to non-equilibrium Langevin equations, which support a phase transition described by model A of the Hohenberg-Halperin classification. Numerical simulations of the Langevin equations corroborate this picture, producing results consistent with the behavior of a finite-temperature Ising model.

%B Physical Review A %V 95 %P 043826 %8 2017/04/17 %G eng %U https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.043826 %R doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.043826 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2017 %T Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models %A Bill Fefferman %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XWe study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of *exact* classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in *Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)*, Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl–Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

We investigate the topological degeneracy that can be realized in Abelian fractional quantum spin Hall states with multiply connected gapped boundaries. Such a topological degeneracy (also dubbed as "boundary degeneracy") does not require superconducting proximity effect and can be created by simply applying a depletion gate to the quantum spin Hall material and using a generic spin-mixing term (e.g., due to backscattering) to gap out the edge modes. We construct an exactly soluble microscopic model manifesting this topological degeneracy and solve it using the recently developed technique [S. Ganeshan and M. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 93, 075118 (2016)]. The corresponding string operators spanning this degeneracy are explicitly calculated. It is argued that the proposed scheme is experimentally reasonable.

%B Physical Review B %V 95 %8 2017/01/25 %G eng %U http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.045309 %& 045309 %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.045309 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2017 %T Fast State Transfer and Entanglement Renormalization Using Long-Range Interactions %A Zachary Eldredge %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Ali Hamed Moosavian %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XIn short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speed-up possible is an open question. In this paper, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance

Lieb and Robinson provided bounds on how fast bipartite connected correlations can arise in systems with only short-range interactions. We generalize Lieb-Robinson bounds on bipartite connected correlators to multipartite connected correlators. The bounds imply that an

We analyze theoretically the many-body dynamics of a dissipative Ising model in a transverse field using a variational approach. We find that the steady state phase diagram is substantially modified compared to its equilibrium counterpart, including the appearance of a multicritical point belonging to a different universality class. Building on our variational analysis, we establish a field-theoretical treatment corresponding to a dissipative variant of a Ginzburg-Landau theory, which allows us to compute the upper critical dimension of the system. Finally, we present a possible experimental realization of the dissipative Ising model using ultracold Rydberg gases.

%B Physical Review A %V 95 %P 042133 %8 2017/04/26 %G eng %U https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.042133 %R doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.042133 %0 Journal Article %D 2017 %T Out-of-time-order correlators in finite open systems %A S. V. Syzranov %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A V. Galitski %XWe study out-of-time order correlators (OTOCs) of the form hAˆ(t)Bˆ(0)Cˆ(t)Dˆ(0)i for a quantum system weakly coupled to a dissipative environment. Such an open system may serve as a model of, e.g., a small region in a disordered interacting medium coupled to the rest of this medium considered as an environment. We demonstrate that for a system with discrete energy levels the OTOC saturates exponentially ∝ Paie −t/τi + const to a constant value at t → ∞, in contrast with quantum-chaotic systems which exhibit exponential growth of OTOCs. Focussing on the case of a two-level system, we calculate microscopically the decay times τi and the value of the saturation constant. Because some OTOCs are immune to dephasing processes and some are not, such correlators may decay on two sets of parametrically different time scales related to inelastic transitions between the system levels and to pure dephasing processes, respectively. In the case of a classical environment, the evolution of the OTOC can be mapped onto the evolution of the density matrix of two systems coupled to the same dissipative environment.

%8 2017/04/27 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.08442 %R https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.97.161114 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2017 %T A solvable family of driven-dissipative many-body systems %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Jeremy T. Young %A Victor V. Albert %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %XExactly solvable models have played an important role in establishing the sophisticated modern understanding of equilibrium many-body physics. And conversely, the relative scarcity of solutions for non-equilibrium models greatly limits our understanding of systems away from thermal equilibrium. We study a family of nonequilibrium models, some of which can be viewed as dissipative analogues of the transverse-field Ising model, in that an effectively classical Hamiltonian is frustrated by dissipative processes that drive the system toward states that do not commute with the Hamiltonian. Surprisingly, a broad and experimentally relevant subset of these models can be solved efficiently in any number of spatial dimensions. We leverage these solutions to prove a no-go theorem on steady-state phase transitions in a many-body model that can be realized naturally with Rydberg atoms or trapped ions, and to compute the effects of decoherence on a canonical trapped-ion-based quantum computation architecture.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 119 %8 2017/11/10 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.04626 %N 19 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.190402 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2016 %T Anomalous broadening in driven dissipative Rydberg systems %A E. A. Goldschmidt %A T. Boulier %A R. C. Brown %A S. B. Koller %A J. T. Young %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A S. L. Rolston %A J. V. Porto %X We observe interaction-induced broadening of the two-photon 5s-18s transition in 87Rb atoms trapped in a 3D optical lattice. The measured linewidth increases by nearly two orders of magnitude with increasing atomic density and excitation strength, with corresponding suppression of resonant scattering and enhancement of off-resonant scattering. We attribute the increased linewidth to resonant dipole-dipole interactions of 18s atoms with spontaneously created populations of nearby np states. Over a range of initial atomic densities and excitation strengths, the transition width is described by a single function of the steady-state density of Rydberg atoms, and the observed resonant excitation rate corresponds to that of a two-level system with the measured, rather than natural, linewidth. The broadening mechanism observed here is likely to have negative implications for many proposals with coherently interacting Rydberg atoms. %B Physical Review Letters %V 116 %P 113001 %8 2016/03/16 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.08710 %N 11 %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.113001 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2016 %T Causality and quantum criticality in long-range lattice models %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %B Physical Review B %V 93 %P 125128 %8 2016/03/17 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125128 %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125128 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2016 %T Causality and quantum criticality with long-range interactions %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X Quantum lattice systems with long-range interactions often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model and a fermionic model with long-range interactions, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of long-range interactions, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent. %B Physical Review B %V 92 %P 125128 %8 2016/03/17 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.00906 %N 12 %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125128 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2016 %T Collective phases of strongly interacting cavity photons %A Ryan M. Wilson %A Khan W. Mahmud %A Anzi Hu %A A V Gorshkov %A Mohammad Hafezi %A Michael Foss-Feig %XWe study a coupled array of coherently driven photonic cavities, which maps onto a driven-dissipative XY spin-12 model with ferromagnetic couplings in the limit of strong optical nonlinearities. Using a site-decoupled mean-field approximation, we identify steady state phases with canted antiferromagnetic order, in addition to limit cycle phases, where oscillatory dynamics persist indefinitely. We also identify collective bistable phases, where the system supports two steady states among spatially uniform, antiferromagnetic, and limit cycle phases. We compare these mean-field results to exact quantum trajectories simulations for finite one-dimensional arrays. The exact results exhibit short-range antiferromagnetic order for parameters that have significant overlap with the mean-field phase diagram. In the mean-field bistable regime, the exact quantum dynamics exhibits real-time collective switching between macroscopically distinguishable states. We present a clear physical picture for this dynamics, and establish a simple relationship between the switching times and properties of the quantum Liouvillian.

%B Physical Review A %V 94 %P 033801 %8 2016/09/01 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1601.06857 %N 3 %R http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.033801 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2016 %T Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons %A Michael Gullans %A J. D. Thompson %A Y. Wang %A Q. -Y. Liang %A V. Vuletic %A M. D. Lukin %A A V Gorshkov %XWe study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and determine the photon number at which the EFT description breaks down. We find good agreement throughout between the predictions of EFT and numerical simulations of the exact two and three photon wavefunction transmission.

%B Physical Review Letters %V 117 %P 113601 %8 2016/09/09 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1605.05651 %N 11 %R http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.113601 %0 Journal Article %D 2016 %T Entanglement and spin-squeezing without infinite-range interactions %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Charles W. Clark %XInfinite-range interactions are known to facilitate the production of highly entangled states with applications in quantum information and metrology. However, many experimental systems have interactions that decay with distance, and the achievable benefits in this context are much less clear. Combining recent exact solutions with a controlled expansion in the system size, we analyze quench dynamics in Ising models with power-law (1/r α ) interactions in D dimensions, thereby expanding the understanding of spin squeezing into a broad and experimentally relevant context. In spatially homogeneous systems, we show that for small α the scaling of squeezing with system size is identical to the infinite-range (α = 0) case. This indifference to the interaction range persists up to a critical value α = 2D/3, above which squeezing degrades continuously. Boundaryinduced inhomogeneities present in most experimental systems modify this picture, but it nevertheless remains qualitatively correct for finite-sized systems.

%8 2016/12/22 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.07805 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2016 %T Kaleidoscope of quantum phases in a long-range interacting spin-1 chain %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Anzi Hu %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Philip Richerme %A Christopher Monroe %A A V Gorshkov %X Motivated by recent trapped-ion quantum simulation experiments, we carry out a comprehensive study of the phase diagram of a spin-1 chain with XXZ-type interactions that decay as 1/rα, using a combination of finite and infinite-size DMRG calculations, spin-wave analysis, and field theory. In the absence of long-range interactions, varying the spin-coupling anisotropy leads to four distinct phases: a ferromagnetic Ising phase, a disordered XY phase, a topological Haldane phase, and an antiferromagnetic Ising phase. If long-range interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus frustrated, we find primarily a quantitative change of the phase boundaries. On the other hand, ferromagnetic (non-frustrated) long-range interactions qualitatively impact the entire phase diagram. Importantly, for α≲3, long-range interactions destroy the Haldane phase, break the conformal symmetry of the XY phase, give rise to a new phase that spontaneously breaks a U(1) continuous symmetry, and introduce an exotic tricritical point with no direct parallel in short-range interacting spin chains. We show that the main signatures of all five phases found could be observed experimentally in the near future. %B Physical Review B %V 93 %P 205115 %8 2016/05/11 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.02108 %N 20 %R http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.205115 %0 Journal Article %J New Journal of Physics %D 2016 %T Many-body decoherence dynamics and optimised operation of a single-photon switch %A Callum R. Murray %A A V Gorshkov %A Thomas Pohl %XWe develop a theoretical framework to characterize the decoherence dynamics due to multi-photon scattering in an all-optical switch based on Rydberg atom induced nonlinearities. By incorporating the knowledge of this decoherence process into optimal photon storage and retrieval strategies, we establish optimised switching protocols for experimentally relevant conditions, and evaluate the corresponding limits in the achievable fidelities. Based on these results we work out a simplified description that reproduces recent experiments [arXiv:1511.09445] and provides a new interpretation in terms of many-body decoherence involving multiple incident photons and multiple gate excitations forming the switch. Aside from offering insights into the operational capacity of realistic photon switching capabilities, our work provides a complete description of spin wave decoherence in a Rydberg quantum optics setting, and has immediate relevance to a number of further applications employing photon storage in Rydberg media.

%B New Journal of Physics %V 18 %P 092001 %8 2016/09/13 %G eng %U http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/18/9/092001 %R 10.1088/1367-2630/18/9/092001 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2016 %T Nonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean field theory, the validity of the mean field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class. %B Physical Review B %V 93 %P 014307 %8 2016/01/27 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.01939 %N 1 %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.014307 %0 Journal Article %D 2016 %T Observation of Prethermalization in Long-Range Interacting Spin Chains %A B. Neyenhuis %A J. Smith %A A. C. Lee %A J. Zhang %A P. Richerme %A P. W. Hess %A Z. -X. Gong %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A C. Monroe %XStatistical mechanics can predict thermal equilibrium states for most classical systems, but for an isolated quantum system there is no general understanding on how equilibrium states dynamically emerge from the microscopic Hamiltonian. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale and, instead, relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics when approximately conserved quantities are appropriately included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). Here we experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-ranged interactions the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. In this case, the prethermal state cannot be described by a GGE, but rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a significantly broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions.

%8 2016/08/02 %G eng %U https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.00681 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2016 %T Realizing Exactly Solvable SU(N) Magnets with Thermal Atoms %A Michael E. Beverland %A Gorjan Alagic %A Michael J. Martin %A Andrew P. Koller %A Ana M. Rey %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XWe show that n thermal fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in a flat-bottom trap allow one to robustly implement a spin model displaying two symmetries: the Sn symmetry that permutes atoms occupying different vibrational levels of the trap and the SU(N) symmetry associated with N nuclear spin states. The symmetries make the model exactly solvable, which, in turn, enables the analytic study of dynamical processes such as spin diffusion in this SU(N) system. We also show how to use this system to generate entangled states that allow for Heisenberg-limited metrology. This highly symmetric spin model should be experimentally realizable even when the vibrational levels are occupied according to a high-temperature thermal or an arbitrary nonthermal distribution.

%B Physical Review A %V 93 %8 2016/05/06 %G eng %U http://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.051601 %N 5 %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.051601 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2016 %T Self-organization of atoms coupled to a chiral reservoir %A Zachary Eldredge %A Pablo Solano %A Darrick Chang %A A V Gorshkov %XTightly confined modes of light, as in optical nanofibers or photonic crystal waveguides, can lead to large optical coupling in atomic systems, which mediates long-range interactions between atoms. These one-dimensional systems can naturally possess couplings that are asymmetric between modes propagating in different directions. Strong long-range interaction among atoms via these modes can drive them to a self-organized periodic distribution. In this paper, we examine the self-organizing behavior of atoms in one dimension coupled to a chiral reservoir. We determine the solution to the equations of motion in different parameter regimes, relative to both the detuning of the pump laser that initializes the atomic dipole-dipole interactions and the degree of reservoir chirality. In addition, we calculate possible experimental signatures such as reflectivity from self-organized atoms and motional sidebands.

%B Physical Review A %V 94 %P 053855 %8 2016/11/29 %G eng %U http://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.053855 %N 5 %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.053855 %0 Journal Article %J arXiv:1611.00797 %D 2016 %T Steady-state superradiance with Rydberg polaritons %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Minghui Xu %A Michael Foss-Feig %A James K. Thompson %A Ana Maria Rey %A Murray Holland %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %XA steady-state superradiant laser can be used to generate ultranarrow-linewidth light, and thus has important applications in the fields of quantum information and precision metrology. However, the light produced by such a laser is still essentially classical. Here, we show that the introduction of a Rydberg medium into a cavity containing atoms with a narrow optical transition can lead to the steady-state superradiant emission of ultranarrow-linewidth

We propose a method for creating far-field optical barrier potentials for ultracold atoms with widths that are narrower than the diffraction limit and can approach tens of nanometers. The reduced widths stem from the nonlinear atomic response to control fields that create spatially varying dark resonances. The subwavelength barrier is the result of the geometric scalar potential experienced by an atom prepared in such a spatially varying dark state. The performance of this technique, as well as its applications to the study of many-body physics and to the implementation of quantum-information protocols with ultracold atoms, are discussed, with a focus on the implementation of tunnel junctions.

%B Physical Review A %V 94 %P 063422 %8 2016/12/27 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063422 %N 6 %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063422 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2016 %T Topological phases with long-range interactions %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Anzi Hu %A Michael L. Wall %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X Topological phases of matter are primarily studied in quantum many-body systems with short-range interactions. Whether various topological phases can survive in the presence of long-range interactions, however, is largely unknown. Here we show that a paradigmatic example of a symmetry-protected topological phase, the Haldane phase of an antiferromagnetic spin-1 chain, surprisingly remains intact in the presence of arbitrarily slowly decaying power-law interactions. The influence of long-range interactions on the topological order is largely quantitative, and we expect similar results for more general systems. Our conclusions are based on large-scale matrix-product-state simulations and two complementary effective-field-theory calculations. The striking agreement between the numerical and analytical results rules out finite-size effects. The topological phase considered here should be experimentally observable in a recently developed trapped-ion quantum simulator. %B Physical Review B %V 93 %P 041102 %8 2016/01/08 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03146 %N 4 %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.041102 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Photon. 9, 326 (2015) %D 2015 %T Atom induced cavities and tunable long-range interactions between atoms trapped near photonic crystals %A J S Douglas %A H Habibian %A A V Gorshkov %A H J Kimble %A D E Chang %XUsing cold atoms to simulate strongly interacting quantum systems represents an exciting frontier of physics. However, achieving tunable, coherent long-range interactions between atoms is an outstanding challenge, which currently leaves a large class of models inaccessible to quantum simulation. Here, we propose a solution exploiting the powerful new platform of cold atoms trapped near nano-photonic systems. We show that the dielectric contrast of an atom trapped near a photonic crystal can seed a localized cavity mode around the atomic position. In a dynamic form of “all-atomic” cavity QED, the length of these cavity modes can be tuned, and atoms separated by the order of the e↵ective cavity length can interact coherently with each other. Considering realistic conditions such as fabrication disorder and photon losses, coherent long-range potentials or spin interactions can be dominant in the system over length scales up to hundreds of wavelengths.

%B Nature Photon. 9, 326 (2015) %8 2015/03/03 %G eng %U http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v9/n5/full/nphoton.2015.57.html %R doi:10.1038/nphoton.2015.57 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2015 %T Bilayer fractional quantum Hall states with ultracold dysprosium %A Norman Y. Yao %A Steven D. Bennett %A Chris R. Laumann %A Benjamin L. Lev %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X We show how dipolar interactions between dysprosium atoms in an optical lattice can be used to obtain fractional quantum Hall states. In our approach, dysprosium atoms are trapped one atom per site in a deep optical lattice with negligible tunneling. Microwave and spatially dependent optical dressing fields are used to define an effective spin-1/2 or spin-1 degree of freedom in each atom. Thinking of spin-1/2 particles as hardcore bosons, dipole-dipole interactions give rise to boson hopping, topological flat bands with Chern number 1, and the \nu = 1/2 Laughlin state. Thinking of spin-1 particles as two-component hardcore bosons, dipole-dipole interactions again give rise to boson hopping, topological flat bands with Chern number 2, and the bilayer Halperin (2,2,1) state. By adjusting the optical fields, we find a phase diagram, in which the (2,2,1) state competes with superfluidity. Generalizations to solid-state magnetic dipoles are discussed. %B Physical Review A %V 92 %P 033609 %8 2015/09/10 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03099v1 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.033609 %0 Journal Article %D 2015 %T Continuous symmetry breaking and a new universality class in 1D long-range interacting quantum systems %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A A V Gorshkov %X Continuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U(1) symmetry and power-law interactions V(r)∼1/rα, directly relevant to ion-trap experiments. Using bosonization and renormalization group theory, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent αc(≤3) depending on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless XY phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal symmetry due to long-range interactions, and is described by a new universality class akin to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Our analytical findings are in good agreement with a numerical calculation. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments. %8 2015/10/05 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.01325 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2015 %T Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Michael Gullans %A P. Bienias %A S. Choi %A I. Martin %A O. Firstenberg %A M. D. Lukin %A H. P. Büchler %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. %B Physical Review Letters %V 115 %P 123601 %8 2015/09/16 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03859v1 %N 12 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.123601 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2015 %T Fractional Quantum Hall States of Rydberg Polaritons %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Norman Y. Yao %A Mohammad Hafezi %A Thomas Pohl %A Ofer Firstenberg %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X We propose a scheme for realizing fractional quantum Hall states of light. In our scheme, photons of two polarizations are coupled to different atomic Rydberg states to form two flavors of Rydberg polaritons that behave as an effective spin. An array of optical cavity modes overlapping with the atomic cloud enables the realization of an effective spin-1/2 lattice. We show that the dipolar interaction between such polaritons, inherited from the Rydberg states, can be exploited to create a flat, topological band for a single spin-flip excitation. At half filling, this gives rise to a photonic (or polaritonic) fractional Chern insulator -- a lattice-based, fractional quantum Hall state of light. %B Physical Review A %V 91 %P 033838 %8 2015/03/31 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.6624v1 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.033838 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2015 %T Nearly-linear light cones in long-range interacting quantum systems %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Charles W. Clark %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X In non-relativistic quantum theories with short-range Hamiltonians, a velocity $v$ can be chosen such that the influence of any local perturbation is approximately confined to within a distance $r$ until a time $t \sim r/v$, thereby defining a linear light cone and giving rise to an emergent notion of locality. In systems with power-law ($1/r^{\alpha}$) interactions, when $\alpha$ exceeds the dimension $D$, an analogous bound confines influences to within a distance $r$ only until a time $t\sim(\alpha/v)\log r$, suggesting that the velocity, as calculated from the slope of the light cone, may grow exponentially in time. We rule out this possibility; light cones of power-law interacting systems are algebraic for $\alpha>2D$, becoming linear as $\alpha\rightarrow\infty$. Our results impose strong new constraints on the growth of correlations and the production of entangled states in a variety of rapidly emerging, long-range interacting atomic, molecular, and optical systems. %B Physical Review Letters %V 114 %P 157201 %8 2015/04/13 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.3466v1 %N 15 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.157201 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2015 %T Parafermionic zero modes in ultracold bosonic systems %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Sriram Ganeshan %A David J. Clarke %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Jay D. Sau %X Exotic topologically protected zero modes with parafermionic statistics (also called fractionalized Majorana modes) have been proposed to emerge in devices fabricated from a fractional quantum Hall system and a superconductor. The fractionalized statistics of these modes takes them an important step beyond the simplest non-Abelian anyons, Majorana fermions. Building on recent advances towards the realization of fractional quantum Hall states of bosonic ultracold atoms, we propose a realization of parafermions in a system consisting of Bose-Einstein-condensate trenches within a bosonic fractional quantum Hall state. We show that parafermionic zero modes emerge at the endpoints of the trenches and give rise to a topologically protected degeneracy. We also discuss methods for preparing and detecting these modes. %B Physical Review Letters %V 115 %P 065301 %8 2015/08/06 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.04012v2 %N 6 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.065301 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Photonics %D 2015 %T Quantum many-body models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals %A Douglas, J. S. %A Habibian, H. %A Hung, C.-L. %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Kimble, H. J. %A Chang, D. E. %B Nature Photonics %V 9 %P 326 - 331 %8 2015/04/04 %G eng %U http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphoton.2015.57 %N 5 %! Nature Photon %R 10.1038/nphoton.2015.57 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2014 %T Beyond the spin model approximation for Ramsey spectroscopy %A A P Koller %A M Beverland %A A V Gorshkov %A A M Rey %B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 112 %P 123001 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.123001 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2014 %T Kitaev chains with long-range pairing %A Davide Vodola %A Luca Lepori %A Elisa Ercolessi %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Guido Pupillo %X We propose and analyze a generalization of the Kitaev chain for fermions with long-range $p$-wave pairing, which decays with distance as a power-law with exponent $\alpha$. Using the integrability of the model, we demonstrate the existence of two types of gapped regimes, where correlation functions decay exponentially at short range and algebraically at long range ($\alpha > 1$) or purely algebraically ($\alpha < 1$). Most interestingly, along the critical lines, long-range pairing is found to break conformal symmetry for sufficiently small $\alpha$. This is accompanied by a violation of the area law for the entanglement entropy in large parts of the phase diagram in the presence of a gap, and can be detected via the dynamics of entanglement following a quench. Some of these features may be relevant for current experiments with cold atomic ions. %B Physical Review Letters %V 113 %8 2014/10/9 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.5440v2 %N 15 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.156402 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2014 %T Non-local propagation of correlations in long-range interacting quantum systems %A Philip Richerme %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Aaron Lee %A Crystal Senko %A Jacob Smith %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Spyridon Michalakis %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Christopher Monroe %X The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective light cone. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, since the best long-range bound is too loose to give the correct light-cone shape for any known spin model and since analytic solutions rarely exist. In this work, we experimentally determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations of a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system evolving under a long-range Ising- or XY-model Hamiltonian. For several different interaction ranges, we extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. In many cases we find increasing propagation velocities, which violate the Lieb-Robinson prediction, and in one instance cannot be explained by any existing theory. Our results demonstrate that even modestly-sized quantum simulators are well-poised for studying complicated many-body systems that are intractable to classical computation. %B Nature %V 511 %P 198 - 201 %8 2014/7/9 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.5088v1 %N 7508 %! Nature %R 10.1038/nature13450 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2014 %T Persistence of locality in systems with power-law interactions %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Michael Foss-Feig %A Spyridon Michalakis %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X Motivated by recent experiments with ultra-cold matter, we derive a new bound on the propagation of information in $D$-dimensional lattice models exhibiting $1/r^{\alpha}$ interactions with $\alpha>D$. The bound contains two terms: One accounts for the short-ranged part of the interactions, giving rise to a bounded velocity and reflecting the persistence of locality out to intermediate distances, while the other contributes a power-law decay at longer distances. We demonstrate that these two contributions not only bound but, except at long times, \emph{qualitatively reproduce} the short- and long-distance dynamical behavior following a local quench in an $XY$ chain and a transverse-field Ising chain. In addition to describing dynamics in numerous intractable long-range interacting lattice models, our results can be experimentally verified in a variety of ultracold-atomic and solid-state systems. %B Physical Review Letters %V 113 %8 2014/7/16 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.6174v2 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.030602 %0 Journal Article %J Ann. Phys. %D 2014 %T Probing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock %A Rey, A M %A A V Gorshkov %A Kraus, C V %A Martin, M J %A Bishof, M %A Swallows, M D %A Zhang, X %A Benko, C %A Ye, J %A Lemke, N D %A Ludlow, A D %B Ann. Phys. %V 340 %P 311 %G eng %U http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003491613002546 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2014 %T Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons %A P. Bienias %A S. Choi %A O. Firstenberg %A Mohammad F. Maghrebi %A Michael Gullans %A M. D. Lukin %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A H. P. Büchler %X We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. We use a diagrammatic method to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments. %B Physical Review A %V 90 %8 2014/11/3 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.7333v1 %N 5 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.053804 %0 Journal Article %J Nature (London) %D 2013 %T Attractive Photons in a Quantum Nonlinear Medium %A Ofer Firstenberg %A Thibault Peyronel %A Qi-Yu Liang %A A V Gorshkov %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Vladan Vuletic %B Nature (London) %V 502 %P 71 %G eng %U http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12512 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2013 %T Controllable quantum spin glasses with magnetic impurities embedded in quantum solids %A Mikhail Lemeshko %A Norman Y. Yao %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Hendrik Weimer %A Steven D. Bennett %A Takamasa Momose %A Sarang Gopalakrishnan %X Magnetic impurities embedded in inert solids can exhibit long coherence times and interact with one another via their intrinsic anisotropic dipolar interaction. We argue that, as a consequence of these properties, disordered ensembles of magnetic impurities provide an effective platform for realizing a controllable, tunable version of the dipolar quantum spin glass seen in LiHo$_x$Y$_{1-x}$F$_4$. Specifically, we propose and analyze a system composed of dysprosium atoms embedded in solid helium. We describe the phase diagram of the system and discuss the realizability and detectability of the quantum spin glass and antiglass phases. %B Physical Review B %V 88 %8 2013/7/24 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.1130v1 %N 1 %! Phys. Rev. B %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.014426 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2013 %T Dissipative Many-body Quantum Optics in Rydberg Media %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Rejish Nath %A Thomas Pohl %X We develop a theoretical framework for the dissipative propagation of quantized light in interacting optical media under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The theory allows us to determine the peculiar spatiotemporal structure of the output of two complementary Rydberg-EIT-based light-processing modules: the recently demonstrated single-photon filter and the recently proposed single-photon subtractor, which, respectively, let through and absorb a single photon. In addition to being crucial for applications of these and other optical quantum devices, the theory opens the door to the study of exotic dissipative many-body dynamics of strongly interacting photons in nonlinear nonlocal media. %B Physical Review Letters %V 110 %8 2013/4/9 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7060v1 %N 15 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.153601 %0 Journal Article %J Molecular Physics %D 2013 %T Kitaev honeycomb and other exotic spin models with polar molecules %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Kaden R. A. Hazzard %A Ana Maria Rey %X We show that ultracold polar molecules pinned in an optical lattice can be used to access a variety of exotic spin models, including the Kitaev honeycomb model. Treating each molecule as a rigid rotor, we use DC electric and microwave fields to define superpositions of rotational levels as effective spin degrees of freedom, while dipole-dipole interactions give rise to interactions between the spins. In particular, we show that, with sufficient microwave control, the interaction between two spins can be written as a sum of five independently controllable Hamiltonian terms proportional to the five rank-2 spherical harmonics Y_{2,q}(theta,phi), where (theta,phi) are the spherical coordinates of the vector connecting the two molecules. To demonstrate the potential of this approach beyond the simplest examples studied in [S. R. Manmana et al., arXiv:1210.5518v2], we focus on the realization of the Kitaev honeycomb model, which can support exotic non-Abelian anyonic excitations. We also discuss the possibility of generating spin Hamiltonians with arbitrary spin S, including those exhibiting SU(N=2S+1) symmetry. %B Molecular Physics %V 111 %P 1908 - 1916 %8 2013/01/01 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.5636v1 %N 12-13 %! Molecular Physics %R 10.1080/00268976.2013.800604 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2013 %T Quantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers %A Norman Y. Yao %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Chris R. Laumann %A Steven D. Bennett %A L. -M. Duan %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Liang Jiang %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required to manipulate "dark" spin qubits significantly raise the error threshold for robust operation. Finally, as an example, we demonstrate that eigenmode-mediated state transfer can enable robust long-range logic between spatially separated Nitrogen-Vacancy registers in diamond; numerical simulations confirm that high fidelity gates are achievable even in the presence of moderate disorder. %B Physical Review A %V 87 %8 2013/2/6 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0014v1 %N 2 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.022306 %0 Journal Article %J Science %D 2013 %T A quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock %A M J Martin %A Bishof, M %A Swallows, M D %A X Zhang %A C Benko %A J von-Stecher %A A V Gorshkov %A Rey, A M %A Jun Ye %B Science %V 341 %P 632 %G eng %U http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6146/632.abstract %0 Journal Article %J Opt. Photonics News %D 2013 %T Quantum Nonlinear Optics: Strongly Interacting Photons %A Firstenberg, O %A Lukin, M D %A Peyronel, T %A Liang, Q -Y %A Vuletic, V %A A V Gorshkov %A Hofferberth, S %A Pohl, T %B Opt. Photonics News %V 24 %P 48 %G eng %U http://www.osa-opn.org/abstract.cfm?URI=opn-24-12-48 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2013 %T Realizing Fractional Chern Insulators with Dipolar Spins %A Norman Y. Yao %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Chris R. Laumann %A Andreas M. Läuchli %A Jun Ye %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior controlled by topology. We predict that the \nu=1/2 fractional Chern insulator arises naturally in a two-dimensional array of driven, dipolar-interacting spins. As a specific implementation, we analyze how to prepare and detect synthetic gauge potentials for the rotational excitations of ultra-cold polar molecules trapped in a deep optical lattice. While the orbital motion of the molecules is pinned, at finite densities, the rotational excitations form a fractional Chern insulator. We present a detailed experimental blueprint for KRb, and demonstrate that the energetics are consistent with near-term capabilities. Prospects for the realization of such phases in solid-state dipolar systems are discussed as are their possible applications. %B Physical Review Letters %V 110 %8 2013/4/29 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4839v1 %N 18 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.185302 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review B %D 2013 %T Topological phases in ultracold polar-molecule quantum magnets %A Salvatore R. Manmana %A E. M. Stoudenmire %A Kaden R. A. Hazzard %A Ana Maria Rey %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X We show how to use polar molecules in an optical lattice to engineer quantum spin models with arbitrary spin S >= 1/2 and with interactions featuring a direction-dependent spin anisotropy. This is achieved by encoding the effective spin degrees of freedom in microwave-dressed rotational states of the molecules and by coupling the spins through dipolar interactions. We demonstrate how one of the experimentally most accessible anisotropies stabilizes symmetry protected topological phases in spin ladders. Using the numerically exact density matrix renormalization group method, we find that these interacting phases -- previously studied only in the nearest-neighbor case -- survive in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions. We also show how to use our approach to realize the bilinear-biquadratic spin-1 and the Kitaev honeycomb models. Experimental detection schemes and imperfections are discussed. %B Physical Review B %V 87 %8 2013/2/26 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.5518v2 %N 8 %! Phys. Rev. B %R 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.081106 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Communications %D 2013 %T Topologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin Liquid %A Norman Y. Yao %A Chris R. Laumann %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Hendrik Weimer %A Liang Jiang %A J. Ignacio Cirac %A Peter Zoller %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X Topology plays a central role in ensuring the robustness of a wide variety of physical phenomena. Notable examples range from the robust current carrying edge states associated with the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects to proposals involving topologically protected quantum memory and quantum logic operations. Here, we propose and analyze a topologically protected channel for the transfer of quantum states between remote quantum nodes. In our approach, state transfer is mediated by the edge mode of a chiral spin liquid. We demonstrate that the proposed method is intrinsically robust to realistic imperfections associated with disorder and decoherence. Possible experimental implementations and applications to the detection and characterization of spin liquid phases are discussed. %B Nature Communications %V 4 %P 1585 %8 2013/3/12 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3788v1 %! Nat Comms %R 10.1038/ncomms2531 %0 Journal Article %J New J. Phys. %D 2012 %T Cavity QED with atomic mirrors %A D E Chang %A Jiang, L %A A V Gorshkov %A H J Kimble %B New J. Phys. %V 14 %P 063003 %G eng %U http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/14/6/063003/ %0 Journal Article %J Nature (London) %D 2012 %T Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms %A Peyronel, Thibault %A Firstenberg, Ofer %A Liang, Qi-Yu %A Hofferberth, Sebastian %A A V Gorshkov %A Pohl, Thomas %A Lukin, Mikhail D. %A Vuletic, Vladan %B Nature (London) %V 488 %P 57 %G eng %U http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7409/full/nature11361.html %0 Journal Article %J Nature Communications %D 2012 %T Scalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor %A Norman Y. Yao %A Liang Jiang %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Peter C. Maurer %A Geza Giedke %A J. Ignacio Cirac %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems. Additionally, the proposed architecture may greatly alleviate the stringent constraints, currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors. %B Nature Communications %V 3 %P 800 %8 2012/4/24 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2864v1 %! Nat Comms %R 10.1038/ncomms1788 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2012 %T Topological Flat Bands from Dipolar Spin Systems %A Norman Y. Yao %A Chris R. Laumann %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Steven D. Bennett %A Eugene Demler %A Peter Zoller %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S = 1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hardcore bosons, namely, the dressed spin-flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose bandgap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultra-cold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered. %B Physical Review Letters %V 109 %8 2012/12/26 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4479v3 %N 26 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.266804 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2011 %T d-Wave Superfluidity in Optical Lattices of Ultracold Polar Molecules %A Kevin A. Kuns %A Ana Maria Rey %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X Recent work on ultracold polar molecules, governed by a generalization of the t-J Hamiltonian, suggests that molecules may be better suited than atoms for studying d-wave superfluidity due to stronger interactions and larger tunability of the system. We compute the phase diagram for polar molecules in a checkerboard lattice consisting of weakly coupled square plaquettes. In the simplest experimentally realizable case where there is only tunneling and an XX-type spin-spin interaction, we identify the parameter regime where d-wave superfluidity occurs. We also find that the inclusion of a density-density interaction destroys the superfluid phase and that the inclusion of a spin-density or an Ising-type spin-spin interaction can enhance the superfluid phase. We also propose schemes for experimentally realizing the perturbative calculations exhibiting enhanced d-wave superfluidity. %B Physical Review A %V 84 %8 2011/12/29 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.5330v2 %N 6 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.063639 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2011 %T Light storage in an optically thick atomic ensemble under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing %A Nathaniel B. Phillips %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Irina Novikova %X We study the modification of a traditional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) stored light technique that includes both EIT and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an ensemble of hot Rb atoms. The standard treatment of light storage involves the coherent and reversible mapping of one photonic mode onto a collective spin coherence. It has been shown that unwanted, competing processes such as four-wave mixing are enhanced by EIT and can significantly modify the signal optical pulse propagation. We present theoretical and experimental evidence to indicate that while a Stokes field is indeed detected upon retrieval of the signal field, any information originally encoded in a seeded Stokes field is not independently preserved during the storage process. We present a simple model that describes the propagation dynamics of the fields and the impact of FWM on the spin wave. %B Physical Review A %V 83 %8 2011/6/20 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.2131v1 %N 6 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063823 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2011 %T Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Johannes Otterbach %A Michael Fleischhauer %A Thomas Pohl %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons. %B Physical Review Letters %V 107 %8 2011/9/22 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.3700v1 %N 13 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.133602 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2011 %T Quantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Salvatore R. Manmana %A Gang Chen %A Eugene Demler %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Ana Maria Rey %X We show that dipolar interactions between ultracold polar alkali dimers in optical lattices can be used to realize a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. The model features long-range spin-spin interactions J_z and J_perp of XXZ type, long-range density-density interaction V, and long-range density-spin interaction W, all of which can be controlled in both magnitude and sign independently of each other and of the tunneling t. The "spin" is encoded in the rotational degree of freedom of the molecules, while the interactions are controlled by applied static electric and continuous-wave microwave fields. Furthermore, we show that nuclear spins of the molecules can be used to implement an additional (orbital) degree of freedom that is coupled to the original rotational degree of freedom in a tunable way. The presented system is expected to exhibit exotic physics and to provide insights into strongly correlated phenomena in condensed matter systems. Realistic experimental imperfections are discussed. %B Physical Review A %V 84 %8 2011/9/15 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1655v1 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033619 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. A %D 2011 %T Quantum magnetism with polar alkali-metal dimers %A A V Gorshkov %A Manmana, S R %A Chen, G %A Demler, E %A Lukin, M D %A Rey, A M %B Phys. Rev. A %V 84 %P 033619 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033619/ %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2011 %T Resolved atomic interaction sidebands in an optical clock transition %A Michael Bishof %A Yige Lin %A Matthew D. Swallows %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Jun Ye %A Ana Maria Rey %X We report the observation of resolved atomic interaction sidebands (ISB) in the ${}^{87}$Sr optical clock transition when atoms at microkelvin temperatures are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice. The ISB are a manifestation of the strong interactions that occur between atoms confined in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry and disappear when the confinement is relaxed along one dimension. The emergence of ISB is linked to the recently observed suppression of collisional frequency shifts in [1]. At the current temperatures, the ISB can be resolved but are broad. At lower temperatures, ISB are predicted to be substantially narrower and usable as powerful spectroscopic tools in strongly interacting alkaline-earth gases. %B Physical Review Letters %V 106 %8 2011/6/22 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1102.1016v2 %N 25 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.250801 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2011 %T Robust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains %A Norman Y. Yao %A Liang Jiang %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Zhe-Xuan Gong %A Alex Zhai %A L. -M. Duan %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between Nitrogen-Vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed. %B Physical Review Letters %V 106 %8 2011/1/27 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2762v2 %N 4 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.040505 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2011 %T Spectroscopy of dipolar fermions in 2D pancakes and 3D lattices %A Kaden R. A. Hazzard %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Ana Maria Rey %X Motivated by ongoing measurements at JILA, we calculate the recoil-free spectra of dipolar interacting fermions, for example ultracold heteronuclear molecules, in a one-dimensional lattice of two-dimensional pancakes, spectroscopically probing transitions between different internal (e.g., rotational) states. We additionally incorporate p-wave interactions and losses, which are important for reactive molecules such as KRb. Moreover, we consider other sources of spectral broadening: interaction-induced quasiparticle lifetimes and the different polarizabilities of the different rotational states used for the spectroscopy. Although our main focus is molecules, some of the calculations are also useful for optical lattice atomic clocks. For example, understanding the p-wave shifts between identical fermions and small dipolar interactions coming from the excited clock state are necessary to reach future precision goals. Finally, we consider the spectra in a deep 3D lattice and show how they give a great deal of information about static correlation functions, including \textit{all} the moments of the density correlations between nearby sites. The range of correlations measurable depends on spectroscopic resolution and the dipole moment. %B Physical Review A %V 84 %8 2011/9/6 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1718v1 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033608 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. A %D 2011 %T Spectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices %A Hazzard, K R A %A A V Gorshkov %A Rey, A M %B Phys. Rev. A %V 84 %P 033608 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033608/ %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2011 %T Tunable Superfluidity and Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar Molecules %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Salvatore R. Manmana %A Gang Chen %A Jun Ye %A Eugene Demler %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Ana Maria Rey %X By selecting two dressed rotational states of ultracold polar molecules in an optical lattice, we obtain a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. In addition to XXZ spin exchange, the model features density-density interactions and novel density-spin interactions; all interactions are dipolar. We show that full control of all interaction parameters in both magnitude and sign can be achieved independently of each other and of the tunneling. As a first step towards demonstrating the potential of the system, we apply the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG) to obtain the 1D phase diagram of the simplest experimentally realizable case. Specifically, we show that the tunability and the long-range nature of the interactions in the t-J-V-W model enable enhanced superfluidity. Finally, we show that Bloch oscillations in a tilted lattice can be used to probe the phase diagram experimentally. %B Physical Review Letters %V 107 %8 2011/9/8 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1644v1 %N 11 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.115301 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Phys. %D 2010 %T Far-field optical imaging and manipulation of individual spins with nanoscale resolution %A Maurer, P C %A Maze, J R %A Stanwix, P L %A Jiang, L %A A V Gorshkov %A Zibrov, A A %A Harke, B %A Hodges, J S %A Zibrov, A S %A Yacoby, A %A Twitchen, D %A Hell, S W %A Walsworth, R L %A Lukin, M D %B Nature Phys. %V 6 %P 912 %G eng %U http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v6/n11/abs/nphys1774.html %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2010 %T Fast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluorescent Detection %A Jonatan B. Brask %A Liang Jiang %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Vladan Vuletic %A Anders S. Sorensen %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensemble quantum memories are promising candidates for achieving scalable distribution of entanglement over long distances. Recently, important experimental progress has been made towards their implementation. However, the entanglement rates and scalability of current approaches are limited by relatively low retrieval and single-photon detector efficiencies. We propose a scheme, which makes use of fluorescent detection of stored excitations to significantly increase the efficiency of connection and hence the rate. Practical performance and possible experimental realizations of the new protocol are discussed. %B Physical Review A %V 81 %8 2010/2/12 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.3839v2 %N 2 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.020303 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2010 %T Photonic Phase Gate via an Exchange of Fermionic Spin Waves in a Spin Chain %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Johannes Otterbach %A Eugene Demler %A Michael Fleischhauer %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We propose a new protocol for implementing the two-qubit photonic phase gate. In our approach, the pi phase is acquired by mapping two single photons into atomic excitations with fermionic character and exchanging their positions. The fermionic excitations are realized as spin waves in a spin chain, while photon storage techniques provide the interface between the photons and the spin waves. Possible imperfections and experimental systems suitable for implementing the gate are discussed. %B Physical Review Letters %V 105 %8 2010/8/5 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.0968v3 %N 6 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.060502 %0 Journal Article %J Harvard University Physics Department %D 2010 %T Thesis: Novel Systems and Methods for Quantum Communication, Quantum Computation, and Quantum Simulation %A A V Gorshkov %B Harvard University Physics Department %V Ph.D. Thesis %G eng %0 Journal Article %J Nature Phys. %D 2010 %T Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms %A A V Gorshkov %A Hermele, M %A Gurarie, V %A Xu, C %A Julienne, P S %A Ye, J %A Zoller, P %A Demler, E %A Lukin, M D %A Rey, A M %B Nature Phys. %V 6 %P 289 %G eng %U http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v6/n4/abs/nphys1535.html %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2009 %T Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms as Few-Qubit Quantum Registers %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Ana Maria Rey %A Andrew J. Daley %A Martin M. Boyd %A Jun Ye %A Peter Zoller %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We propose and analyze a novel approach to quantum information processing, in which multiple qubits can be encoded and manipulated using electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom associated with individual alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Specifically, we describe how the qubits within each register can be individually manipulated and measured with sub-wavelength optical resolution. We also show how such few-qubit registers can be coupled to each other in optical superlattices via conditional tunneling to form a scalable quantum network. Finally, potential applications to quantum computation and precision measurements are discussed. %B Physical Review Letters %V 102 %8 2009/3/18 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0812.3660v2 %N 11 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.110503 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2009 %T Many-Body Treatment of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Fermionic Atoms %A Rey, A M %A A V Gorshkov %A Rubbo, C %B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 103 %P 260402 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v103/e260402/ %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2009 %T Realization of Coherent Optically Dense Media via Buffer-Gas Cooling %A Tao Hong %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A David Patterson %A Alexander S. Zibrov %A John M. Doyle %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Mara G. Prentiss %X We demonstrate that buffer-gas cooling combined with laser ablation can be used to create coherent optical media with high optical depth and low Doppler broadening that offers metastable states with low collisional and motional decoherence. Demonstration of this generic technique opens pathways to coherent optics with a large variety of atoms and molecules. We use helium buffer gas to cool 87Rb atoms to below 7 K and slow atom diffusion to the walls. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in this medium allows for 50% transmission in a medium with initial OD >70 and for slow pulse propagation with large delay-bandwidth products. In the high-OD regime, we observe high-contrast spectrum oscillations due to efficient four-wave mixing. %B Physical Review A %V 79 %8 2009/1/6 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1416v2 %N 1 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.013806 %0 Journal Article %J J. Mod. Opt. %D 2009 %T Slow light propagation and amplification via electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing in an optically dense atomic vapor %A Phillips, N B %A A V Gorshkov %A Novikova, I %B J. Mod. Opt. %V 56 %P 1916 %G eng %U http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content db=all content=a913545405 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Physics %D 2008 %T Anyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lattices %A Liang Jiang %A Gavin K. Brennen %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Klemens Hammerer %A Mohammad Hafezi %A Eugene Demler %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Peter Zoller %X Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior called topological order which is characterized by non-local correlations that depend on the system topology. Such systems can exhibit remarkable phenomena such as quasi-particles with anyonic statistics and have been proposed as candidates for naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation. Despite these remarkable properties, anyons have never been observed in nature directly. Here we describe how to unambiguously detect and characterize such states in recently proposed spin lattice realizations using ultra-cold atoms or molecules trapped in an optical lattice. We propose an experimentally feasible technique to access non-local degrees of freedom by performing global operations on trapped spins mediated by an optical cavity mode. We show how to reliably read and write topologically protected quantum memory using an atomic or photonic qubit. Furthermore, our technique can be used to probe statistics and dynamics of anyonic excitations. %B Nature Physics %V 4 %P 482 - 488 %8 2008/4/20 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.1365v1 %N 6 %! Nat Phys %R 10.1038/nphys943 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2008 %T Coherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Liang Jiang %A Markus Greiner %A Peter Zoller %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We suggest a new method for quantum optical control with nanoscale resolution. Our method allows for coherent far-field manipulation of individual quantum systems with spatial selectivity that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation and can, in principle, approach a few nanometers. The selectivity is enabled by the nonlinear atomic response, under the conditions of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, to a control beam with intensity vanishing at a certain location. Practical performance of this technique and its potential applications to quantum information science with cold atoms, ions, and solid-state qubits are discussed. %B Physical Review Letters %V 100 %8 2008/3/7 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.3879v2 %N 9 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.093005 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2008 %T Optimal light storage in atomic vapor %A Nathaniel B. Phillips %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Irina Novikova %X We study procedures for the optimization of efficiency of light storage and retrieval based on the dynamic form of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in warm Rb vapor. We present a detailed analysis of two recently demonstrated optimization protocols: a time-reversal-based iteration procedure, which finds the optimal input signal pulse shape for any given control field, and a procedure based on the calculation of an optimal control field for any given signal pulse shape. We verify that the two procedures are consistent with each other, and that they both independently achieve the maximum memory efficiency for any given optical depth. We observe good agreement with theoretical predictions for moderate optical depths (<25), while at higher optical depths the experimental efficiency falls below the theoretically predicted values. We identify possible effects responsible for this reduction in memory efficiency. %B Physical Review A %V 78 %8 2008/8/1 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.3348v1 %N 2 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.023801 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2008 %T Optimal light storage with full pulse shape control %A Irina Novikova %A Nathaniel B. Phillips %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %X We experimentally demonstrate optimal storage and retrieval of light pulses of arbitrary shape in atomic ensembles. By shaping auxiliary control pulses, we attain efficiencies approaching the fundamental limit and achieve precise retrieval into any predetermined temporal profile. Our techniques, demonstrated in warm Rb vapor, are applicable to a wide range of systems and protocols. As an example, we present their potential application to the creation of optical time-bin qubits and to controlled partial retrieval. %B Physical Review A %V 78 %8 2008/8/20 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1927v1 %N 2 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.021802 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. A %D 2008 %T Optimal light storage with full pulse-shape control %A Novikova, I %A Phillips, N B %A A V Gorshkov %B Phys. Rev. A %V 78 %P 021802(R) %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v78/e021802/ %0 Journal Article %J Proc. SPIE %D 2008 %T Optimizing Slow and Stored Light for Multidisciplinary Applications %A Klein, M %A Xiao, Y %A A V Gorshkov %A M Hohensee %A C D Leung %A M R Browning %A Phillips, D F %A Novikova, I %A Walsworth, R L %B Proc. SPIE %V 6904 %P 69040C %G eng %U http://spie.org/x648.xml?product_id=772216&Search_Origin=QuickSearch&Search_Results_URL=http://spie.org/x1636.xml&Alternate_URL=http://spie.org/x18509.xml&Alternate_URL_Name=timeframe&Alternate_URL_Value=Exhibitors&UseJavascript=1&Please_Wait_URL=http://s %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2008 %T Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Tommaso Calarco %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Anders S. Sorensen %X We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in Lambda-type media to previously inaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical control pulses used to mediate photon storage, we open up the possibility of high efficiency photon storage in the non-adiabatic limit, in which analytical solutions to the equations of motion do not exist. This control shaping technique enables an order-of-magnitude increase in the bandwidth of the memory. We also demonstrate that the often discussed connection between time reversal and optimality in photon storage follows naturally from gradient ascent. Finally, we discuss the optimization of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. %B Physical Review A %V 77 %8 2008/4/4 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.2698v2 %N 4 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.043806 %0 Journal Article %J Phys. Rev. Lett. %D 2008 %T Suppression of Inelastic Collisions Between Polar Molecules With a Repulsive Shield %A A V Gorshkov %A Rabl, P %A Pupillo, G %A Micheli, A %A Zoller, P %A Lukin, M D %A Büchler, H P %B Phys. Rev. Lett. %V 101 %P 073201 %G eng %U http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v101/e073201/ %0 Journal Article %J Proc. SPIE %D 2007 %T Multi-photon Entanglement: From Quantum Curiosity to Quantum Computing and Quantum Repeaters %A Walther, P %A Eisaman, M D %A Nemiroski, A %A A V Gorshkov %A Zibrov, A S %A Zeilinger, A %A Lukin, M D %B Proc. SPIE %V 6664 %P 66640G %G eng %U http://spiedigitallibrary.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG00666400000166640G000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes&bproc=volrange&scode=6600%20-%206699 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2007 %T Optimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval %A Irina Novikova %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A David F. Phillips %A Anders S. Sorensen %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Ronald L. Walsworth %X We demonstrate experimentally a procedure to obtain the maximum efficiency for the storage and retrieval of light pulses in atomic media. The procedure uses time reversal to obtain optimal input signal pulse-shapes. Experimental results in warm Rb vapor are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate a substantial improvement of efficiency. This optimization procedure is applicable to a wide range of systems. %B Physical Review Letters %V 98 %8 2007/6/15 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0702266v1 %N 24 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.243602 %0 Journal Article %J Proc. SPIE %D 2007 %T Optimization of slow and stored light in atomic vapor %A Novikova, I %A A V Gorshkov %A Phillips, D F %A Xiao, Y %A Klein, M %A Walsworth, R L %B Proc. SPIE %V 6482 %P 64820M %G eng %U http://spiedigitallibrary.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG00648200000164820M000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes&bproc=volrange&scode=6400%20-%206499 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2007 %T Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. I. Cavity model %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Axel Andre %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Anders S. Sorensen %X In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we perform the same analysis for the cavity model. In particular, we show that the retrieval efficiency is equal to C/(1+C) independent of the retrieval technique, where C is the cooperativity parameter. We also derive the optimal strategy for storage and, in particular, demonstrate that at any detuning one can store, with the optimal efficiency of C/(1+C), any smooth input mode satisfying T C gamma >> 1 and a certain class of resonant input modes satisfying T C gamma ~ 1, where T is the duration of the input mode and 2 gamma is the transition linewidth. In the two subsequent papers of the series, we present the full analysis of the free-space model and discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening on photon storage. %B Physical Review A %V 76 %8 2007/9/7 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612082v2 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.033804 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2007 %T Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. II. Free-space model %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Axel Andre %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Anders S. Sorensen %X In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we presented a universal physical picture for describing a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo based techniques. This universal picture produced an optimal control strategy for photon storage and retrieval applicable to all approaches and yielded identical maximum efficiencies for all of them. In the present paper, we present the full details of this analysis as well some of its extensions, including the discussion of the effects of non-degeneracy of the two lower levels of the Lambda system. The analysis in the present paper is based on the intuition obtained from the study of photon storage in the cavity model in the preceding paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007)]. %B Physical Review A %V 76 %8 2007/9/7 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612083v2 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.033805 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review A %D 2007 %T Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Axel Andre %A Mikhail D. Lukin %A Anders S. Sorensen %X In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)] and in the two preceding papers [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007); 76, 033805 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in homogeneously broadened Lambda-type atomic media, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we generalize this treatment to include inhomogeneous broadening. In particular, we consider the case of Doppler-broadened atoms and assume that there is a negligible difference between the Doppler shifts of the two optical transitions. In this situation, we show that, at high enough optical depth, all atoms contribute coherently to the storage process as if the medium were homogeneously broadened. We also discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening in solid state samples. In this context, we discuss the advantages and limitations of reversing the inhomogeneous broadening during the storage time, as well as suggest a way for achieving high efficiencies with a nonreversible inhomogeneous profile. %B Physical Review A %V 76 %8 2007/9/7 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612084v2 %N 3 %! Phys. Rev. A %R 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.033806 %0 Journal Article %D 2007 %T Signatures of incoherence in a quantum information processor %A Michael K. Henry %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Yaakov S. Weinstein %A Paola Cappellaro %A Joseph Emerson %A Nicolas Boulant %A Jonathan S. Hodges %A Chandrasekhar Ramanathan %A Timothy F. Havel %A Rudy Martinez %A David G. Cory %X Incoherent noise is manifest in measurements of expectation values when the underlying ensemble evolves under a classical distribution of unitary processes. While many incoherent processes appear decoherent, there are important differences. The distribution functions underlying incoherent processes are either static or slowly varying with respect to control operations and so the errors introduced by these distributions are refocusable. The observation and control of incoherence in small Hilbert spaces is well known. Here we explore incoherence during an entangling operation, such as is relevant in quantum information processing. As expected, it is more difficult to separate incoherence and decoherence over such processes. However, by studying the fidelity decay under a cyclic entangling map we are able to identify distinctive experimental signatures of incoherence. This result is demonstrated both through numerical simulations and experimentally in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance implementation. %8 2007/05/24 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.3666v2 %0 Journal Article %J Physical Review Letters %D 2007 %T Universal Approach to Optimal Photon Storage in Atomic Media %A Alexey V. Gorshkov %A Axel Andre %A Michael Fleischhauer %A Anders S. Sorensen %A Mikhail D. Lukin %X We present a universal physical picture for describing storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in a Lambda-type atomic medium. This physical picture encompasses a variety of different approaches to pulse storage ranging from adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity and pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman fields to photon-echo based techniques. Furthermore, we derive an optimal control strategy for storage and retrieval of a photon wave packet of any given shape. All these approaches, when optimized, yield identical maximum efficiencies, which only depend on the optical depth of the medium. %B Physical Review Letters %V 98 %8 2007/3/19 %G eng %U http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0604037v3 %N 12 %! Phys. Rev. Lett. %R 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.123601