Bound states of massive particles, such as nuclei, atoms or molecules, are ubiquitous in nature and constitute the bulk of the visible world around us. In contrast, photons typically only weakly influence each other due to their very weak interactions and vanishing mass. We report the observation of traveling three-photon bound states in a quantum nonlinear medium where the interactions between photons are mediated by atomic Rydberg states. In particular, photon correlation and conditional phase measurements reveal the distinct features associated with three-photon and two-photon bound states. Such photonic trimers and dimers can be viewed as quantum solitons with shape-preserving wavefunctions that depend on the constituent photon number. The observed bunching and strongly nonlinear optical phase are quantitatively described by an effective field theory (EFT) of Rydberg-induced photon-photon interactions, which demonstrates the presence of a substantial effective three-body force between the photons. These observations pave the way towards the realization, studies, and control of strongly interacting quantum many-body states of light.

VL - 359 U4 - 783-786 UR - http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6377/783 CP - 6377 U5 - 10.1126/science.aao7293 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Many-body dynamics of dipolar molecules in an optical lattice JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2014 A1 - Kaden R. A. Hazzard A1 - Bryce Gadway A1 - Michael Foss-Feig A1 - Bo Yan A1 - Steven A. Moses A1 - Jacob P. Covey A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Jun Ye A1 - Deborah S. Jin A1 - Ana Maria Rey AB - Understanding the many-body dynamics of isolated quantum systems is one of the central challenges in modern physics. To this end, the direct experimental realization of strongly correlated quantum systems allows one to gain insights into the emergence of complex phenomena. Such insights enable the development of theoretical tools that broaden our understanding. Here, we theoretically model and experimentally probe with Ramsey spectroscopy the quantum dynamics of disordered, dipolar-interacting, ultracold molecules in a partially filled optical lattice. We report the capability to control the dipolar interaction strength, and we demonstrate that the many-body dynamics extends well beyond a nearest-neighbor or mean-field picture, and cannot be quantitatively described using previously available theoretical tools. We develop a novel cluster expansion technique and demonstrate that our theoretical method accurately captures the measured dependence of the spin dynamics on molecule number and on the dipolar interaction strength. In the spirit of quantum simulation, this agreement simultaneously benchmarks the new theoretical method and verifies our microscopic understanding of the experiment. Our findings pave the way for numerous applications in quantum information science, metrology, and condensed matter physics. VL - 113 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.2354v1 CP - 19 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.195302 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - All-Optical Switch and Transistor Gated by One Stored Photon JF - Science Y1 - 2013 A1 - Wenlan Chen A1 - Kristin M. Beck A1 - Robert Bücker A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Haruka Tanji-Suzuki A1 - Vladan Vuletic AB - The realization of an all-optical transistor where one 'gate' photon controls a 'source' light beam, is a long-standing goal in optics. By stopping a light pulse in an atomic ensemble contained inside an optical resonator, we realize a device in which one stored gate photon controls the resonator transmission of subsequently applied source photons. A weak gate pulse induces bimodal transmission distribution, corresponding to zero and one gate photons. One stored gate photon produces fivefold source attenuation, and can be retrieved from the atomic ensemble after switching more than one source photon. Without retrieval, one stored gate photon can switch several hundred source photons. With improved storage and retrieval efficiency, our work may enable various new applications, including photonic quantum gates, and deterministic multiphoton entanglement. VL - 341 U4 - 768 - 770 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.3194v1 CP - 6147 J1 - Science U5 - 10.1126/science.1238169 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Attractive Photons in a Quantum Nonlinear Medium JF - Nature (London) Y1 - 2013 A1 - Ofer Firstenberg A1 - Thibault Peyronel A1 - Qi-Yu Liang A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Vladan Vuletic VL - 502 U4 - 71 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12512 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Quantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2013 A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Zhe-Xuan Gong A1 - Chris R. Laumann A1 - Steven D. Bennett A1 - L. -M. Duan A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov AB - We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required to manipulate "dark" spin qubits significantly raise the error threshold for robust operation. Finally, as an example, we demonstrate that eigenmode-mediated state transfer can enable robust long-range logic between spatially separated Nitrogen-Vacancy registers in diamond; numerical simulations confirm that high fidelity gates are achievable even in the presence of moderate disorder. VL - 87 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0014v1 CP - 2 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.022306 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Realizing Fractional Chern Insulators with Dipolar Spins JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2013 A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Chris R. Laumann A1 - Andreas M. Läuchli A1 - Jun Ye A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior controlled by topology. We predict that the \nu=1/2 fractional Chern insulator arises naturally in a two-dimensional array of driven, dipolar-interacting spins. As a specific implementation, we analyze how to prepare and detect synthetic gauge potentials for the rotational excitations of ultra-cold polar molecules trapped in a deep optical lattice. While the orbital motion of the molecules is pinned, at finite densities, the rotational excitations form a fractional Chern insulator. We present a detailed experimental blueprint for KRb, and demonstrate that the energetics are consistent with near-term capabilities. Prospects for the realization of such phases in solid-state dipolar systems are discussed as are their possible applications. VL - 110 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4839v1 CP - 18 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.185302 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Topologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin Liquid JF - Nature Communications Y1 - 2013 A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Chris R. Laumann A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Hendrik Weimer A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - J. Ignacio Cirac A1 - Peter Zoller A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - Topology plays a central role in ensuring the robustness of a wide variety of physical phenomena. Notable examples range from the robust current carrying edge states associated with the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects to proposals involving topologically protected quantum memory and quantum logic operations. Here, we propose and analyze a topologically protected channel for the transfer of quantum states between remote quantum nodes. In our approach, state transfer is mediated by the edge mode of a chiral spin liquid. We demonstrate that the proposed method is intrinsically robust to realistic imperfections associated with disorder and decoherence. Possible experimental implementations and applications to the detection and characterization of spin liquid phases are discussed. VL - 4 U4 - 1585 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3788v1 J1 - Nat Comms U5 - 10.1038/ncomms2531 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Scalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor JF - Nature Communications Y1 - 2012 A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Peter C. Maurer A1 - Geza Giedke A1 - J. Ignacio Cirac A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems. Additionally, the proposed architecture may greatly alleviate the stringent constraints, currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors. VL - 3 U4 - 800 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2864v1 J1 - Nat Comms U5 - 10.1038/ncomms1788 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Topological Flat Bands from Dipolar Spin Systems JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2012 A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Chris R. Laumann A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Steven D. Bennett A1 - Eugene Demler A1 - Peter Zoller A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S = 1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hardcore bosons, namely, the dressed spin-flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose bandgap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultra-cold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered. VL - 109 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4479v3 CP - 26 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.266804 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2011 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Johannes Otterbach A1 - Michael Fleischhauer A1 - Thomas Pohl A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons. VL - 107 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.3700v1 CP - 13 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.133602 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Quantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2011 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Salvatore R. Manmana A1 - Gang Chen A1 - Eugene Demler A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Ana Maria Rey AB - We show that dipolar interactions between ultracold polar alkali dimers in optical lattices can be used to realize a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. The model features long-range spin-spin interactions J_z and J_perp of XXZ type, long-range density-density interaction V, and long-range density-spin interaction W, all of which can be controlled in both magnitude and sign independently of each other and of the tunneling t. The "spin" is encoded in the rotational degree of freedom of the molecules, while the interactions are controlled by applied static electric and continuous-wave microwave fields. Furthermore, we show that nuclear spins of the molecules can be used to implement an additional (orbital) degree of freedom that is coupled to the original rotational degree of freedom in a tunable way. The presented system is expected to exhibit exotic physics and to provide insights into strongly correlated phenomena in condensed matter systems. Realistic experimental imperfections are discussed. VL - 84 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1655v1 CP - 3 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033619 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Robust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2011 A1 - Norman Y. Yao A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Zhe-Xuan Gong A1 - Alex Zhai A1 - L. -M. Duan A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between Nitrogen-Vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed. VL - 106 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2762v2 CP - 4 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.040505 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Tunable Superfluidity and Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar Molecules JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2011 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Salvatore R. Manmana A1 - Gang Chen A1 - Jun Ye A1 - Eugene Demler A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Ana Maria Rey AB - By selecting two dressed rotational states of ultracold polar molecules in an optical lattice, we obtain a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. In addition to XXZ spin exchange, the model features density-density interactions and novel density-spin interactions; all interactions are dipolar. We show that full control of all interaction parameters in both magnitude and sign can be achieved independently of each other and of the tunneling. As a first step towards demonstrating the potential of the system, we apply the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG) to obtain the 1D phase diagram of the simplest experimentally realizable case. Specifically, we show that the tunability and the long-range nature of the interactions in the t-J-V-W model enable enhanced superfluidity. Finally, we show that Bloch oscillations in a tilted lattice can be used to probe the phase diagram experimentally. VL - 107 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1644v1 CP - 11 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.115301 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Adiabatic preparation of many-body states in optical lattices JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2010 A1 - Anders S. Sorensen A1 - Ehud Altman A1 - Michael Gullans A1 - J. V. Porto A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Eugene Demler AB - We analyze a technique for the preparation of low entropy many body states of atoms in optical lattices based on adiabatic passage. In particular, we show that this method allows preparation of strongly correlated states as stable highest energy states of Hamiltonians that have trivial ground states. As an example, we analyze the generation of antiferromagnetically ordered states by adiabatic change of a staggered field acting on the spins of bosonic atoms with ferromagnetic interactions. VL - 81 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.2567v3 CP - 6 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.061603 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Fast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluorescent Detection JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2010 A1 - Jonatan B. Brask A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Vladan Vuletic A1 - Anders S. Sorensen A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensemble quantum memories are promising candidates for achieving scalable distribution of entanglement over long distances. Recently, important experimental progress has been made towards their implementation. However, the entanglement rates and scalability of current approaches are limited by relatively low retrieval and single-photon detector efficiencies. We propose a scheme, which makes use of fluorescent detection of stored excitations to significantly increase the efficiency of connection and hence the rate. Practical performance and possible experimental realizations of the new protocol are discussed. VL - 81 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.3839v2 CP - 2 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.020303 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Photonic Phase Gate via an Exchange of Fermionic Spin Waves in a Spin Chain JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2010 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Johannes Otterbach A1 - Eugene Demler A1 - Michael Fleischhauer A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We propose a new protocol for implementing the two-qubit photonic phase gate. In our approach, the pi phase is acquired by mapping two single photons into atomic excitations with fermionic character and exchanging their positions. The fermionic excitations are realized as spin waves in a spin chain, while photon storage techniques provide the interface between the photons and the spin waves. Possible imperfections and experimental systems suitable for implementing the gate are discussed. VL - 105 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.0968v3 CP - 6 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.060502 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms as Few-Qubit Quantum Registers JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2009 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Ana Maria Rey A1 - Andrew J. Daley A1 - Martin M. Boyd A1 - Jun Ye A1 - Peter Zoller A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We propose and analyze a novel approach to quantum information processing, in which multiple qubits can be encoded and manipulated using electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom associated with individual alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Specifically, we describe how the qubits within each register can be individually manipulated and measured with sub-wavelength optical resolution. We also show how such few-qubit registers can be coupled to each other in optical superlattices via conditional tunneling to form a scalable quantum network. Finally, potential applications to quantum computation and precision measurements are discussed. VL - 102 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0812.3660v2 CP - 11 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.110503 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Realization of Coherent Optically Dense Media via Buffer-Gas Cooling JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2009 A1 - Tao Hong A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - David Patterson A1 - Alexander S. Zibrov A1 - John M. Doyle A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Mara G. Prentiss AB - We demonstrate that buffer-gas cooling combined with laser ablation can be used to create coherent optical media with high optical depth and low Doppler broadening that offers metastable states with low collisional and motional decoherence. Demonstration of this generic technique opens pathways to coherent optics with a large variety of atoms and molecules. We use helium buffer gas to cool 87Rb atoms to below 7 K and slow atom diffusion to the walls. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in this medium allows for 50% transmission in a medium with initial OD >70 and for slow pulse propagation with large delay-bandwidth products. In the high-OD regime, we observe high-contrast spectrum oscillations due to efficient four-wave mixing. VL - 79 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1416v2 CP - 1 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.013806 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Anyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lattices JF - Nature Physics Y1 - 2008 A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - Gavin K. Brennen A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Klemens Hammerer A1 - Mohammad Hafezi A1 - Eugene Demler A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Peter Zoller AB - Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior called topological order which is characterized by non-local correlations that depend on the system topology. Such systems can exhibit remarkable phenomena such as quasi-particles with anyonic statistics and have been proposed as candidates for naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation. Despite these remarkable properties, anyons have never been observed in nature directly. Here we describe how to unambiguously detect and characterize such states in recently proposed spin lattice realizations using ultra-cold atoms or molecules trapped in an optical lattice. We propose an experimentally feasible technique to access non-local degrees of freedom by performing global operations on trapped spins mediated by an optical cavity mode. We show how to reliably read and write topologically protected quantum memory using an atomic or photonic qubit. Furthermore, our technique can be used to probe statistics and dynamics of anyonic excitations. VL - 4 U4 - 482 - 488 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.1365v1 CP - 6 J1 - Nat Phys U5 - 10.1038/nphys943 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Coherence of an optically illuminated single nuclear spin qubit JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2008 A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - M. V. Gurudev Dutt A1 - Emre Togan A1 - Lily Childress A1 - Paola Cappellaro A1 - J. M. Taylor A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We investigate the coherence properties of individual nuclear spin quantum bits in diamond [Dutt et al., Science, 316, 1312 (2007)] when a proximal electronic spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is being interrogated by optical radiation. The resulting nuclear spin dynamics are governed by time-dependent hyperfine interaction associated with rapid electronic transitions, which can be described by a spin-fluctuator model. We show that due to a process analogous to motional averaging in nuclear magnetic resonance, the nuclear spin coherence can be preserved after a large number of optical excitation cycles. Our theoretical analysis is in good agreement with experimental results. It indicates a novel approach that could potentially isolate the nuclear spin system completely from the electronic environment. VL - 100 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.1341v2 CP - 7 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.073001 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Coherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2008 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Liang Jiang A1 - Markus Greiner A1 - Peter Zoller A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We suggest a new method for quantum optical control with nanoscale resolution. Our method allows for coherent far-field manipulation of individual quantum systems with spatial selectivity that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation and can, in principle, approach a few nanometers. The selectivity is enabled by the nonlinear atomic response, under the conditions of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, to a control beam with intensity vanishing at a certain location. Practical performance of this technique and its potential applications to quantum information science with cold atoms, ions, and solid-state qubits are discussed. VL - 100 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.3879v2 CP - 9 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.093005 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2008 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Tommaso Calarco A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Anders S. Sorensen AB - We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in Lambda-type media to previously inaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical control pulses used to mediate photon storage, we open up the possibility of high efficiency photon storage in the non-adiabatic limit, in which analytical solutions to the equations of motion do not exist. This control shaping technique enables an order-of-magnitude increase in the bandwidth of the memory. We also demonstrate that the often discussed connection between time reversal and optimality in photon storage follows naturally from gradient ascent. Finally, we discuss the optimization of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. VL - 77 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.2698v2 CP - 4 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.043806 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Optimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2007 A1 - Irina Novikova A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - David F. Phillips A1 - Anders S. Sorensen A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Ronald L. Walsworth AB - We demonstrate experimentally a procedure to obtain the maximum efficiency for the storage and retrieval of light pulses in atomic media. The procedure uses time reversal to obtain optimal input signal pulse-shapes. Experimental results in warm Rb vapor are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate a substantial improvement of efficiency. This optimization procedure is applicable to a wide range of systems. VL - 98 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0702266v1 CP - 24 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.243602 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. I. Cavity model JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2007 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Axel Andre A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Anders S. Sorensen AB - In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we perform the same analysis for the cavity model. In particular, we show that the retrieval efficiency is equal to C/(1+C) independent of the retrieval technique, where C is the cooperativity parameter. We also derive the optimal strategy for storage and, in particular, demonstrate that at any detuning one can store, with the optimal efficiency of C/(1+C), any smooth input mode satisfying T C gamma >> 1 and a certain class of resonant input modes satisfying T C gamma ~ 1, where T is the duration of the input mode and 2 gamma is the transition linewidth. In the two subsequent papers of the series, we present the full analysis of the free-space model and discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening on photon storage. VL - 76 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612082v2 CP - 3 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.033804 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. II. Free-space model JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2007 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Axel Andre A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Anders S. Sorensen AB - In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we presented a universal physical picture for describing a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo based techniques. This universal picture produced an optimal control strategy for photon storage and retrieval applicable to all approaches and yielded identical maximum efficiencies for all of them. In the present paper, we present the full details of this analysis as well some of its extensions, including the discussion of the effects of non-degeneracy of the two lower levels of the Lambda system. The analysis in the present paper is based on the intuition obtained from the study of photon storage in the cavity model in the preceding paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007)]. VL - 76 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612083v2 CP - 3 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.033805 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Photon storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening JF - Physical Review A Y1 - 2007 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Axel Andre A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin A1 - Anders S. Sorensen AB - In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)] and in the two preceding papers [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007); 76, 033805 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in homogeneously broadened Lambda-type atomic media, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we generalize this treatment to include inhomogeneous broadening. In particular, we consider the case of Doppler-broadened atoms and assume that there is a negligible difference between the Doppler shifts of the two optical transitions. In this situation, we show that, at high enough optical depth, all atoms contribute coherently to the storage process as if the medium were homogeneously broadened. We also discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening in solid state samples. In this context, we discuss the advantages and limitations of reversing the inhomogeneous broadening during the storage time, as well as suggest a way for achieving high efficiencies with a nonreversible inhomogeneous profile. VL - 76 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612084v2 CP - 3 J1 - Phys. Rev. A U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.033806 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Universal Approach to Optimal Photon Storage in Atomic Media JF - Physical Review Letters Y1 - 2007 A1 - Alexey V. Gorshkov A1 - Axel Andre A1 - Michael Fleischhauer A1 - Anders S. Sorensen A1 - Mikhail D. Lukin AB - We present a universal physical picture for describing storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in a Lambda-type atomic medium. This physical picture encompasses a variety of different approaches to pulse storage ranging from adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity and pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman fields to photon-echo based techniques. Furthermore, we derive an optimal control strategy for storage and retrieval of a photon wave packet of any given shape. All these approaches, when optimized, yield identical maximum efficiencies, which only depend on the optical depth of the medium. VL - 98 UR - http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0604037v3 CP - 12 J1 - Phys. Rev. Lett. U5 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.123601 ER -