To achieve universal quantum computation via general fault-tolerant schemes, stabilizer operations must be supplemented with other non-stabilizer quantum resources. Motivated by this necessity, we develop a resource theory for magic quantum channels to characterize and quantify the quantum "magic" or non-stabilizerness of noisy quantum circuits. For qudit quantum computing with odd dimension d, it is known that quantum states with non-negative Wigner function can be efficiently simulated classically. First, inspired by this observation, we introduce a resource theory based on completely positive-Wigner-preserving quantum operations as free operations, and we show that they can be efficiently simulated via a classical algorithm. Second, we introduce two efficiently computable magic measures for quantum channels, called the mana and thauma of a quantum channel. As applications, we show that these measures not only provide fundamental limits on the distillable magic of quantum channels, but they also lead to lower bounds for the task of synthesizing non-Clifford gates. Third, we propose a classical algorithm for simulating noisy quantum circuits, whose sample complexity can be quantified by the mana of a quantum channel. We further show that this algorithm can outperform another approach for simulating noisy quantum circuits, based on channel robustness. Finally, we explore the threshold of non-stabilizerness for basic quantum circuits under depolarizing noise.

1 aWang, Xin1 aWilde, Mark, M.1 aSu, Yuan uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1903.0448301091nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005500041210005500096260001500151490000800166520066600174100002300840700002400863700002100887856003700908 2019 eng d00aQuantum Algorithm for Simulating the Wave Equation0 aQuantum Algorithm for Simulating the Wave Equation c03/24/20190 v99 3 aWe present a quantum algorithm for simulating the wave equation under Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The algorithm uses Hamiltonian simulation and quantum linear system algorithms as subroutines. It relies on factorizations of discretized Laplacian operators to allow for improved scaling in truncation errors and improved scaling for state preparation relative to general purpose linear differential equation algorithms. We also consider using Hamiltonian simulation for Klein-Gordon equations and Maxwell's equations.

1 aCosta, Pedro, C.S.1 aJordan, Stephen, P.1 aOstrander, Aaron uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1711.0539401747nas a2200289 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001500184520095900199100001501158700001401173700001501187700002001202700001101222700001701233700001901250700002001269700001601289700001601305700001801321700001801339700001201357700001501369700002101384700001501405856003701420 2019 eng d00aQuantum Approximate Optimization with a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator0 aQuantum Approximate Optimization with a TrappedIon Quantum Simul c06/06/20193 aQuantum computers and simulators may offer significant advantages over their classical counterparts, providing insights into quantum many-body systems and possibly solving exponentially hard problems, such as optimization and satisfiability. Here we report the first implementation of a shallow-depth Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) using an analog quantum simulator to estimate the ground state energy of the transverse field Ising model with tunable long-range interactions. First, we exhaustively search the variational control parameters to approximate the ground state energy with up to 40 trapped-ion qubits. We then interface the quantum simulator with a classical algorithm to more efficiently find the optimal set of parameters that minimizes the resulting energy of the system. We finally sample from the full probability distribution of the QAOA output with single-shot and efficient measurements of every qubit.

1 aPagano, G.1 aBapat, A.1 aBecker, P.1 aCollins, K., S.1 aDe, A.1 aHess, P., W.1 aKaplan, H., B.1 aKyprianidis, A.1 aTan, W., L.1 aBaldwin, C.1 aBrady, L., T.1 aDeshpande, A.1 aLiu, F.1 aJordan, S.1 aGorshkov, A., V.1 aMonroe, C. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1906.0270001585nas a2200145 4500008004100000245010600041210006900147260001500216520109100231100002101322700002001343700001901363700002001382856003701402 2019 eng d00aQuantum circuit approximations and entanglement renormalization for the Dirac field in 1+1 dimensions0 aQuantum circuit approximations and entanglement renormalization c05/21/20193 aThe multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz describes quantum many-body states by a hierarchical entanglement structure organized by length scale. Numerically, it has been demonstrated to capture critical lattice models and the data of the corresponding conformal field theories with high accuracy. However, a rigorous understanding of its success and precise relation to the continuum is still lacking. To address this challenge, we provide an explicit construction of entanglement-renormalization quantum circuits that rigorously approximate correlation functions of the massless Dirac conformal field theory. We directly target the continuum theory: discreteness is introduced by our choice of how to probe the system, not by any underlying short-distance lattice regulator. To achieve this, we use multiresolution analysis from wavelet theory to obtain an approximation scheme and to implement entanglement renormalization in a natural way. This could be a starting point for constructing quantum circuit approximations for more general conformal field theories.

1 aWitteveen, Freek1 aScholz, Volkher1 aSwingle, Brian1 aWalter, Michael uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.0882102244nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006000041210006000101260001500161520182800176100002802004700002002032700002102052856003702073 2019 eng d00aQuantum hardness of learning shallow classical circuits0 aQuantum hardness of learning shallow classical circuits c03/07/20193 aIn this paper we study the quantum learnability of constant-depth classical circuits under the uniform distribution and in the distribution-independent framework of PAC learning. In order to attain our results, we establish connections between quantum learning and quantum-secure cryptosystems. We then achieve the following results. 1) Hardness of learning AC0 and TC0 under the uniform distribution. Our first result concerns the concept class TC0 (resp. AC0), the class of constant-depth and polynomial-sized circuits with unbounded fan-in majority gates (resp. AND, OR, NOT gates). We show that if there exists no quantum polynomial-time (resp. sub-exponential time) algorithm to solve the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem, then there exists no polynomial-time quantum learning algorithm for TC0 (resp. AC0) under the uniform distribution (even with access to quantum membership queries). The main technique in this result uses explicit pseudo-random generators that are believed to be quantum-secure to construct concept classes that are hard to learn quantumly under the uniform distribution. 2) Hardness of learning TC02 in the PAC setting. Our second result shows that if there exists no quantum polynomial time algorithm for the LWE problem, then there exists no polynomial time quantum PAC learning algorithm for the class TC02, i.e., depth-2 TC0 circuits. The main technique in this result is to establish a connection between the quantum security of public-key cryptosystems and the learnability of a concept class that consists of decryption functions of the cryptosystem. This gives a strong conditional negative answer to one of the "Ten Semi-Grand Challenges for Quantum Computing Theory" raised by Aaronson [Aar05], who asked if AC0 and TC0 can be PAC-learned in quantum polynomial time.

1 aArunachalam, Srinivasan1 aGrilo, Alex, B.1 aSundaram, Aarthi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1903.0284001364nas a2200157 4500008004100000245003000041210003000071260001500101490000800116520096500124100002101089700002101110700001901131700001901150856003701169 2019 eng d00aQuantum Lyapunov Spectrum0 aQuantum Lyapunov Spectrum c04/10/20190 v0823 aWe introduce a simple quantum generalization of the spectrum of classical Lyapunov exponents. We apply it to the SYK and XXZ models, and study the Lyapunov growth and entropy production. Our numerical results suggest that a black hole is not just the fastest scrambler, but also the fastest entropy generator. We also study the statistical features of the quantum Lyapunov spectrum and find universal random matrix behavior, which resembles the recently-found universality in classical chaos. The random matrix behavior is lost when the system is deformed away from chaos, towards integrability or a many-body localized phase. We propose that quantum systems holographically dual to gravity satisfy this universality in a strong form. We further argue that the quantum Lyapunov spectrum contains important additional information beyond the largest Lyapunov exponent and hence provides us with a better characterization of chaos in quantum systems.

1 aGharibyan, Hrant1 aHanada, Masanori1 aSwingle, Brian1 aTezuka, Masaki uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.0167101467nas a2200157 4500008004100000245012900041210006900170260001500239520088900254100003001143700002401173700002601197700002301223700002601246856003701272 2019 eng d00aQuantum Physics Meets Music: A "Real-Time" Guitar Recording Using Rydberg-Atoms and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency0 aQuantum Physics Meets Music A RealTime Guitar Recording Using Ry c04/01/20193 aWe demonstrate how Rydberg atoms and the phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency can be used to aid in the recording of a musical instrument in real time as it is played. Also, by using two different atomic species (cesium and rubidium) in the same vapor cell, we demonstrate the ability to record two guitars simultaneously, where each atomic species detects and allows for the recording of each guitar separately. The approach shows how audio data (the musical composition) can be detected with a quantum system, illustrating how we can control ensembles of atoms to such an extent that we can use them in this "entertaining" example of recording a musical instrument.

1 aHolloway, Christopher, L.1 aSimons, Matthew, T.1 aHaddab, Abdulaziz, H.1 aWilliams, Carl, J.1 aHolloway, Maxwell, W. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1904.0195201711nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005600041210005600097260001500153490000700168520117600175100002301351700002701374700002101401700001701422700002401439700002901463856003701492 2019 eng d00aQuantum repeaters based on two species trapped ions0 aQuantum repeaters based on two species trapped ions c05/02/20190 v213 aWe examine the viability of quantum repeaters based on two-species trapped ion modules for long distance quantum key distribution. Repeater nodes comprised of ion-trap modules of co-trapped ions of distinct species are considered. The species used for communication qubits has excellent optical properties while the other longer lived species serves as a memory qubit in the modules. Each module interacts with the network only via single photons emitted by the communication ions. Coherent Coulomb interaction between ions is utilized to transfer quantum information between the communication and memory ions and to achieve entanglement swapping between two memory ions. We describe simple modular quantum repeater architectures realizable with the ion-trap modules and numerically study the dependence of the quantum key distribution rate on various experimental parameters, including coupling efficiency, gate infidelity, operation time and length of the elementary links. Our analysis suggests crucial improvements necessary in a physical implementation for co-trapped two-species ions to be a competitive platform in long-distance quantum communication.

1 aSantra, Siddhartha1 aMuralidharan, Sreraman1 aLichtman, Martin1 aJiang, Liang1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aMalinovsky, Vladimir, S. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1811.1072301220nas a2200109 4500008004100000245005600041210005600097520087900153100002301032700001801055856003701073 2019 eng d00aQuantum spectral methods for differential equations0 aQuantum spectral methods for differential equations3 aRecently developed quantum algorithms address computational challenges in numerical analysis by performing linear algebra in Hilbert space. Such algorithms can produce a quantum state proportional to the solution of a d-dimensional system of linear equations or linear differential equations with complexity poly(logd). While several of these algorithms approximate the solution to within ε with complexity poly(log(1/ε)), no such algorithm was previously known for differential equations with time-dependent coefficients. Here we develop a quantum algorithm for linear ordinary differential equations based on so-called spectral methods, an alternative to finite difference methods that approximates the solution globally. Using this approach, we give a quantum algorithm for time-dependent initial and boundary value problems with complexity poly(logd,log(1/ε)).

1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aLiu, Jin-Peng uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1901.0096102281nas a2200133 4500008004100000245012600041210006900167520180200236100001802038700001702056700001902073700001802092856003702110 2019 eng d00aQuantum-inspired classical sublinear-time algorithm for solving low-rank semidefinite programming via sampling approaches0 aQuantuminspired classical sublineartime algorithm for solving lo3 aSemidefinite programming (SDP) is a central topic in mathematical optimization with extensive studies on its efficient solvers. Recently, quantum algorithms with superpolynomial speedups for solving SDPs have been proposed assuming access to its constraint matrices in quantum superposition. Mutually inspired by both classical and quantum SDP solvers, in this paper we present a sublinear classical algorithm for solving low-rank SDPs which is asymptotically as good as existing quantum algorithms. Specifically, given an SDP with m constraint matrices, each of dimension n and rank poly(logn), our algorithm gives a succinct description and any entry of the solution matrix in time O(m⋅poly(logn,1/ε)) given access to a sample-based low-overhead data structure of the constraint matrices, where ε is the precision of the solution. In addition, we apply our algorithm to a quantum state learning task as an application. Technically, our approach aligns with both the SDP solvers based on the matrix multiplicative weight (MMW) framework and the recent studies of quantum-inspired machine learning algorithms. The cost of solving SDPs by MMW mainly comes from the exponentiation of Hermitian matrices, and we propose two new technical ingredients (compared to previous sample-based algorithms) for this task that may be of independent interest: ∙ Weighted sampling: assuming sampling access to each individual constraint matrix A1,…,Aτ, we propose a procedure that gives a good approximation of A=A1+⋯+Aτ. ∙ Symmetric approximation: we propose a sampling procedure that gives low-rank spectral decomposition of a Hermitian matrix A. This improves upon previous sampling procedures that only give low-rank singular value decompositions, losing the signs of eigenvalues.

1 aChia, Nai-Hui1 aLi, Tongyang1 aLin, Han-Hsuan1 aWang, Chunhao uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1901.0325402682nas a2200181 4500008004100000245010000041210006900141260000900210300001300219490000700232520211600239100002402355700002602379700001602405700002002421700002202441856003702463 2018 eng d00aQFlow lite dataset: A machine-learning approach to the charge states in quantum dot experiments0 aQFlow lite dataset A machinelearning approach to the charge stat c2018 ae02058440 v133 aOver the past decade, machine learning techniques have revolutionized how research is done, from designing new materials and predicting their properties to assisting drug discovery to advancing cybersecurity. Recently, we added to this list by showing how a machine learning algorithm (a so-called learner) combined with an optimization routine can assist experimental efforts in the realm of tuning semiconductor quantum dot (QD) devices. Among other applications, semiconductor QDs are a candidate system for building quantum computers. The present-day tuning techniques for bringing the QD devices into a desirable configuration suitable for quantum computing that rely on heuristics do not scale with the increasing size of the quantum dot arrays required for even near-term quantum computing demonstrations. Establishing a reliable protocol for tuning that does not rely on the gross-scale heuristics developed by experimentalists is thus of great importance. To implement the machine learning-based approach, we constructed a dataset of simulated QD device characteristics, such as the conductance and the charge sensor response versus the applied electrostatic gate voltages. Here, we describe the methodology for generating the dataset, as well as its validation in training convolutional neural networks. We show that the learner's accuracy in recognizing the state of a device is ~96.5 % in both current- and charge-sensor-based training. We also introduce a tool that enables other researchers to use this approach for further research: QFlow lite - a Python-based mini-software suite that uses the dataset to train neural networks to recognize the state of a device and differentiate between states in experimental data. This work gives the definitive reference for the new dataset that will help enable researchers to use it in their experiments or to develop new machine learning approaches and concepts

1 aZwolak, Justyna, P.1 aKalantre, Sandesh, S.1 aWu, Xingyao1 aRagole, Stephen1 aTaylor, Jacob, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.1001801816nas a2200193 4500008004100000245007600041210006900117260001400186300001500200490000600215520125400221100001901475700001901494700001801513700002001531700001901551700001501570856003701585 2018 eng d00aQuantitative Robustness Analysis of Quantum Programs (Extended Version)0 aQuantitative Robustness Analysis of Quantum Programs Extended Ve c2018/12/1 aArticle 310 v33 aQuantum computation is a topic of significant recent interest, with practical advances coming from both research and industry. A major challenge in quantum programming is dealing with errors (quantum noise) during execution. Because quantum resources (e.g., qubits) are scarce, classical error correction techniques applied at the level of the architecture are currently cost-prohibitive. But while this reality means that quantum programs are almost certain to have errors, there as yet exists no principled means to reason about erroneous behavior. This paper attempts to fill this gap by developing a semantics for erroneous quantum while-programs, as well as a logic for reasoning about them. This logic permits proving a property we have identified, called ε-robustness, which characterizes possible "distance" between an ideal program and an erroneous one. We have proved the logic sound, and showed its utility on several case studies, notably: (1) analyzing the robustness of noisy versions of the quantum Bernoulli factory (QBF) and quantum walk (QW); (2) demonstrating the (in)effectiveness of different error correction schemes on single-qubit errors; and (3) analyzing the robustness of a fault-tolerant version of QBF.

1 aHung, Shih-Han1 aHietala, Kesha1 aZhu, Shaopeng1 aYing, Mingsheng1 aHicks, Michael1 aWu, Xiaodi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1811.0358502027nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005400041210005400095520164000149100002001789700001701809700001401826700001601840856003701856 2018 eng d00aQuantum adiabatic optimization without heuristics0 aQuantum adiabatic optimization without heuristics3 aQuantum adiabatic optimization (QAO) is performed using a time-dependent Hamiltonian H(s) with spectral gap γ(s). Assuming the existence of an oracle Γ such that γ(s)=Θ(Γ(s)), we provide an algorithm that reliably performs QAO in time Oγ−1minlog(γ−1min) with Olog(γ−1min) oracle queries, where γmin=minsγ(s). Our strategy is not heuristic and does not require guessing time parameters or annealing paths. Rather, our algorithm naturally produces an annealing path such that dH/ds≈γ(s) and chooses its own runtime T to be as close as possible to optimal while promising convergence to the ground state. We then demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in practice by explicitly constructing a gap oracle Γ for the problem of finding a vertex m=argminuW(u) of the cost function W:V⟶[0,1], restricting ourselves to computational basis measurements and driving Hamiltonian H(0)=I−V−1∑u,v∈V|u⟩⟨v|, with V=|V|. Requiring only that W have a constant lower bound on its spectral gap and upper bound κ on its spectral ratio, our QAO algorithm returns m using Γ with probability (1−ε)(1−e−1/ε) in time O˜(ε−1[V−−√+(κ−1)2/3V2/3]). This achieves a quantum advantage for all κ, and when κ≈1, recovers Grover scaling up to logarithmic factors. We implement the algorithm as a subroutine in an optimization procedure that produces m with exponentially small failure probability and expected runtime O˜(ε−1[V−−√+(κ−1)2/3V2/3]), even when κ is not known beforehand.

1 aJarret, Michael1 aLackey, Brad1 aLiu, Aike1 aWan, Kianna uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1810.0468601497nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006400041210006400105260001500169490000800184520103000192100001801222700002301240700001901263856006901282 2018 eng d00aQuantum algorithm for multivariate polynomial interpolation0 aQuantum algorithm for multivariate polynomial interpolation c2018/01/170 v4743 aHow many quantum queries are required to determine the coefficients of a degree-d polynomial in n variables? We present and analyze quantum algorithms for this multivariate polynomial interpolation problem over the fields Fq, R, and C. We show that kC and 2kC queries suffice to achieve probability 1 for C and R, respectively, where kC = ⌈ 1 n+1 ( n+d d )⌉ except for d = 2 and four other special cases. For Fq, we show that ⌈ d n+d ( n+d d )⌉ queries suffice to achieve probability approaching 1 for large field order q. The classical query complexity of this problem is ( n+d d ), so our result provides a speedup by a factor of n + 1, n+1 2 , and n+d d for C, R, and Fq, respectively. Thus we find a much larger gap between classical and quantum algorithms than the univariate case, where the speedup is by a factor of 2. For the case of Fq, we conjecture that 2kC queries also suffice to achieve probability approaching 1 for large field order q, although we leave this as an open problem.

1 aChen, Jianxin1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aHung, Shih-Han uhttp://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/474/2209/2017048001128nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006400041210006400105520070600169100002700875700002300902700001700925700001500942856003700957 2018 eng d00aQuantum algorithms and lower bounds for convex optimization0 aQuantum algorithms and lower bounds for convex optimization3 aWhile recent work suggests that quantum computers can speed up the solution of semidefinite programs, little is known about the quantum complexity of more general convex optimization. We present a quantum algorithm that can optimize a convex function over an n-dimensional convex body using O~(n) queries to oracles that evaluate the objective function and determine membership in the convex body. This represents a quadratic improvement over the best-known classical algorithm. We also study limitations on the power of quantum computers for general convex optimization, showing that it requires Ω~(n−−√) evaluation queries and Ω(n−−√) membership queries.

1 aChakrabarti, Shouvanik1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aLi, Tongyang1 aWu, Xiaodi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.0173101663nas a2200133 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113520124300182100001401425700001401439700002201453700001701475856003701492 2018 eng d00aQuantum Channel Simulation and the Channel's Smooth Max-Information0 aQuantum Channel Simulation and the Channels Smooth MaxInformatio3 aWe study the general framework of quantum channel simulation, that is, the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another one using different classes of codes. First, we show that the minimum error of simulation and the one-shot quantum simulation cost under no-signalling assisted codes are given by semidefinite programs. Second, we introduce the channel's smooth max-information, which can be seen as a one-shot generalization of the mutual information of a quantum channel. We provide an exact operational interpretation of the channel's smooth max-information as the one-shot quantum simulation cost under no-signalling assisted codes. Third, we derive the asymptotic equipartition property of the channel's smooth max-information, i.e., it converges to the quantum mutual information of the channel in the independent and identically distributed asymptotic limit. This implies the quantum reverse Shannon theorem in the presence of no-signalling correlations. Finally, we explore the simulation cost of various quantum channels.

1 aFang, Kun1 aWang, Xin1 aTomamichel, Marco1 aBerta, Mario uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1807.0535400429nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005200041210004900093260001200142300001000154490000700164100002400171700001600195856008400211 2018 eng d00aQuantum Cryptanalysis: Shor, Grover, and Beyond0 aQuantum Cryptanalysis Shor Grover and Beyond c2018/09 a14-210 v161 aJordan, Stephen, P.1 aLiu, Yi-Kai uhttps://quics.umd.edu/publications/quantum-cryptanalysis-shor-grover-and-beyond01937nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123260001500192300001200207490000700219520145800226100001901684700002001703700001901723856003701742 2018 eng d00aQuantum field theory for the chiral clock transition in one spatial dimension0 aQuantum field theory for the chiral clock transition in one spat c2018/11/09 a205118 0 vB 3 aWe describe the quantum phase transition in the N-state chiral clock model in spatial dimension d=1. With couplings chosen to preserve time-reversal and spatial inversion symmetries, such a model is in the universality class of recent experimental studies of the ordering of pumped Rydberg states in a one-dimensional chain of trapped ultracold alkali atoms. For such couplings and N=3, the clock model is expected to have a direct phase transition from a gapped phase with a broken global ZN symmetry, to a gapped phase with the ZN symmetry restored. The transition has dynamical critical exponent z≠1, and so cannot be described by a relativistic quantum field theory. We use a lattice duality transformation to map the transition onto that of a Bose gas in d=1, involving the onset of a single boson condensate in the background of a higher-dimensional N-boson condensate. We present a renormalization group analysis of the strongly coupled field theory for the Bose gas transition in an expansion in 2−d, with 4−N chosen to be of order 2−d. At two-loop order, we find a regime of parameters with a renormalization group fixed point which can describe a direct phase transition. We also present numerical density-matrix renormalization group studies of lattice chiral clock and Bose gas models for N=3, finding good evidence for a direct phase transition, and obtain estimates for z and the correlation length exponent ν.

1 aWhitsitt, Seth1 aSamajdar, Rhine1 aSachdev, Subir uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1808.0705601662nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008400041210006900125520118800194100002101382700001901403700001801422700002101440700001801461856003701479 2018 eng d00aQuantum generalizations of the polynomial hierarchy with applications to QMA(2)0 aQuantum generalizations of the polynomial hierarchy with applica3 aThe polynomial-time hierarchy (PH) has proven to be a powerful tool for providing separations in computational complexity theory (modulo standard conjectures such as PH does not collapse). Here, we study whether two quantum generalizations of PH can similarly prove separations in the quantum setting. The first generalization, QCPH, uses classical proofs, and the second, QPH, uses quantum proofs. For the former, we show quantum variants of the Karp-Lipton theorem and Toda's theorem. For the latter, we place its third level, QΣ3, into NEXP {using the Ellipsoid Method for efficiently solving semidefinite programs}. These results yield two implications for QMA(2), the variant of Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA) with two unentangled proofs, a complexity class whose characterization has proven difficult. First, if QCPH=QPH (i.e., alternating quantifiers are sufficiently powerful so as to make classical and quantum proofs "equivalent"), then QMA(2) is in the Counting Hierarchy (specifically, in PPPPP). Second, unless QMA(2)=QΣ3 (i.e., alternating quantifiers do not help in the presence of "unentanglement"), QMA(2) is strictly contained in NEXP.

1 aGharibian, Sevag1 aSantha, Miklos1 aSikora, Jamie1 aSundaram, Aarthi1 aYirka, Justin uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1805.1113902310nas a2200121 4500008004100000245008000041210006900121520190800190100001902098700001802117700001602135856003702151 2018 eng d00aQuantum Probability Estimation for Randomness with Quantum Side Information0 aQuantum Probability Estimation for Randomness with Quantum Side 3 aWe develop a quantum version of the probability estimation framework [arXiv:1709.06159] for randomness generation with quantum side information. We show that most of the properties of probability estimation hold for quantum probability estimation (QPE). This includes asymptotic optimality at constant error and randomness expansion with logarithmic input entropy. QPE is implemented by constructing model-dependent quantum estimation factors (QEFs), which yield statistical confidence upper bounds on data-conditional normalized Rényi powers. This leads to conditional min-entropy estimates for randomness generation. The bounds are valid for relevant models of sequences of experimental trials without requiring independent and identical or stationary behavior. QEFs may be adapted to changing conditions during the sequence and trials can be stopped any time, such as when the results so far are satisfactory. QEFs can be constructed from entropy estimators to improve the bounds for conditional min-entropy of classical-quantum states from the entropy accumulation framework [Dupuis, Fawzi and Renner, arXiv:1607.01796]. QEFs are applicable to a larger class of models, including models permitting measurement devices with super-quantum but non-signaling behaviors and semi-device dependent models. The improved bounds are relevant for finite data or error bounds of the form e−κs, where s is the number of random bits produced. We give a general construction of entropy estimators based on maximum probability estimators, which exist for many configurations. For the class of (k,2,2) Bell-test configurations we provide schemas for directly optimizing QEFs to overcome the limitations of entropy-estimator-based constructions. We obtain and apply QEFs for examples involving the (2,2,2) Bell-test configuration to demonstrate substantial improvements in finite-data efficiency.

1 aKnill, Emanuel1 aZhang, Yanbao1 aFu, Honghao uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1806.0455302409nas a2200157 4500008004100000245009100041210006900132520188600201100003302087700001602120700001702136700002402153700002202177700001502199856003702214 2018 eng d00aQuantum SDP Solvers: Large Speed-ups, Optimality, and Applications to Quantum Learning0 aQuantum SDP Solvers Large Speedups Optimality and Applications t3 aWe give two new quantum algorithms for solving semidefinite programs (SDPs) providing quantum speed-ups. We consider SDP instances with m constraint matrices, each of dimension n, rank r, and sparsity s. The first algorithm assumes an input model where one is given access to entries of the matrices at unit cost. We show that it has run time O~(s2(m−−√ε−10+n−−√ε−12)), where ε is the error. This gives an optimal dependence in terms of m,n and quadratic improvement over previous quantum algorithms when m≈n. The second algorithm assumes a fully quantum input model in which the matrices are given as quantum states. We show that its run time is O~(m−−√+poly(r))⋅poly(logm,logn,B,ε−1), with B an upper bound on the trace-norm of all input matrices. In particular the complexity depends only poly-logarithmically in n and polynomially in r. We apply the second SDP solver to the problem of learning a good description of a quantum state with respect to a set of measurements: Given m measurements and copies of an unknown state ρ, we show we can find in time m−−√⋅poly(logm,logn,r,ε−1) a description of the state as a quantum circuit preparing a density matrix which has the same expectation values as ρ on the m measurements, up to error ε. The density matrix obtained is an approximation to the maximum entropy state consistent with the measurement data considered in Jaynes' principle from statistical mechanics. As in previous work, we obtain our algorithm by "quantizing" classical SDP solvers based on the matrix multiplicative weight method. One of our main technical contributions is a quantum Gibbs state sampler for low-rank Hamiltonians with a poly-logarithmic dependence on its dimension, which could be of independent interest.

1 aBrandão, Fernando, G. S. L.1 aKalev, Amir1 aLi, Tongyang1 aLin, Cedric, Yen-Yu1 aSvore, Krysta, M.1 aWu, Xiaodi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1710.0258102563nas a2200145 4500008004100000245011000041210006900151260001500220520207500235100001902310700001302329700002002342700001802362856003702380 2018 eng d00aQuantum singular value transformation and beyond: exponential improvements for quantum matrix arithmetics0 aQuantum singular value transformation and beyond exponential imp c2018/06/053 aQuantum computing is powerful because unitary operators describing the time-evolution of a quantum system have exponential size in terms of the number of qubits present in the system. We develop a new "Singular value transformation" algorithm capable of harnessing this exponential advantage, that can apply polynomial transformations to the singular values of a block of a unitary, generalizing the optimal Hamiltonian simulation results of Low and Chuang. The proposed quantum circuits have a very simple structure, often give rise to optimal algorithms and have appealing constant factors, while usually only use a constant number of ancilla qubits. We show that singular value transformation leads to novel algorithms. We give an efficient solution to a certain "non-commutative" measurement problem and propose a new method for singular value estimation. We also show how to exponentially improve the complexity of implementing fractional queries to unitaries with a gapped spectrum. Finally, as a quantum machine learning application we show how to efficiently implement principal component regression. "Singular value transformation" is conceptually simple and efficient, and leads to a unified framework of quantum algorithms incorporating a variety of quantum speed-ups. We illustrate this by showing how it generalizes a number of prominent quantum algorithms, including: optimal Hamiltonian simulation, implementing the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse with exponential precision, fixed-point amplitude amplification, robust oblivious amplitude amplification, fast QMA amplification, fast quantum OR lemma, certain quantum walk results and several quantum machine learning algorithms. In order to exploit the strengths of the presented method it is useful to know its limitations too, therefore we also prove a lower bound on the efficiency of singular value transformation, which often gives optimal bounds.

1 aGilyen, Andras1 aSu, Yuan1 aLow, Guang, Hao1 aWiebe, Nathan uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1806.0183801599nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109520117300177100001801350700002001368700002001388700002001408856003701428 2018 eng d00aQuantum Supremacy and the Complexity of Random Circuit Sampling0 aQuantum Supremacy and the Complexity of Random Circuit Sampling3 aA critical milestone on the path to useful quantum computers is quantum supremacy - a demonstration of a quantum computation that is prohibitively hard for classical computers. A leading near-term candidate, put forth by the Google/UCSB team, is sampling from the probability distributions of randomly chosen quantum circuits, which we call Random Circuit Sampling (RCS). In this paper we study both the hardness and verification of RCS. While RCS was defined with experimental realization in mind, we show complexity theoretic evidence of hardness that is on par with the strongest theoretical proposals for supremacy. Specifically, we show that RCS satisfies an average-case hardness condition - computing output probabilities of typical quantum circuits is as hard as computing them in the worst-case, and therefore #P-hard. Our reduction exploits the polynomial structure in the output amplitudes of random quantum circuits, enabled by the Feynman path integral. In addition, it follows from known results that RCS satisfies an anti-concentration property, making it the first supremacy proposal with both average-case hardness and anti-concentration.

1 aBouland, Adam1 aFefferman, Bill1 aNirkhe, Chinmay1 aVazirani, Umesh uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1803.0440202448nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006700041210006500108520202500173100001902198700002202217700002302239700001502262856003702277 2018 eng d00aQuantum-secure message authentication via blind-unforgeability0 aQuantumsecure message authentication via blindunforgeability3 aFormulating and designing unforgeable authentication of classical messages in the presence of quantum adversaries has been a challenge, as the familiar classical notions of unforgeability do not directly translate into meaningful notions in the quantum setting. A particular difficulty is how to fairly capture the notion of "predicting an unqueried value" when the adversary can query in quantum superposition. In this work, we uncover serious shortcomings in existing approaches, and propose a new definition. We then support its viability by a number of constructions and characterizations. Specifically, we demonstrate a function which is secure according to the existing definition by Boneh and Zhandry, but is clearly vulnerable to a quantum forgery attack, whereby a query supported only on inputs that start with 0 divulges the value of the function on an input that starts with 1. We then propose a new definition, which we call "blind-unforgeability" (or BU.) This notion matches "intuitive unpredictability" in all examples studied thus far. It defines a function to be predictable if there exists an adversary which can use "partially blinded" oracle access to predict values in the blinded region. Our definition (BU) coincides with standard unpredictability (EUF-CMA) in the classical-query setting. We show that quantum-secure pseudorandom functions are BU-secure MACs. In addition, we show that BU satisfies a composition property (Hash-and-MAC) using "Bernoulli-preserving" hash functions, a new notion which may be of independent interest. Finally, we show that BU is amenable to security reductions by giving a precise bound on the extent to which quantum algorithms can deviate from their usual behavior due to the blinding in the BU security experiment.

1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aMajenz, Christian1 aRussell, Alexander1 aSong, Fang uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1803.0376102365nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006700041210006000108260001200168490000600180520192900186100002802115700001902143700002002162856003702182 2018 eng d00aThe quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator0 aquasiprobability behind the outoftimeordered correlator c04/20180 vA3 aTwo topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC has been shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze the weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct a circuit for implementing the weak-measurement scheme. Next, we calculate the quasiprobability (after coarse-graining) numerically and analytically: We simulate a transverse-field Ising model first. Then, we calculate the quasiprobability averaged over random circuits, which model chaotic dynamics. The quasiprobability, we find, distinguishes chaotic from integrable regimes. We observe nonclassical behaviors: The quasiprobability typically has negative components. It becomes nonreal in some regimes. The onset of scrambling breaks a symmetry that bifurcates the quasiprobability, as in classical-chaos pitchforks. Finally, we present mathematical properties. The quasiprobability obeys a Bayes-type theorem, for example, that exponentially decreases the memory required to calculate weak values, in certain cases. A time-ordered correlator analogous to the OTOC, insensitive to quantum-information scrambling, depends on a quasiprobability closer to a classical probability. This work not only illuminates the OTOC's underpinnings, but also generalizes quasiprobability theory and motivates immediate-future weak-measurement challenges.

1 aHalpern, Nicole, Yunger1 aSwingle, Brian1 aDressel, Justin uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1704.0197101429nas a2200169 4500008004100000245010800041210006900149260001500218300001400233490000800247520088200255100002301137700002301160700002101183700001801204856003701222 2017 eng d00aQuantum algorithm for linear differential equations with exponentially improved dependence on precision0 aQuantum algorithm for linear differential equations with exponen c2017/12/01 a1057-10810 v3563 aWe present a quantum algorithm for systems of (possibly inhomogeneous) linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. The algorithm produces a quantum state that is proportional to the solution at a desired final time. The complexity of the algorithm is polynomial in the logarithm of the inverse error, an exponential improvement over previous quantum algorithms for this problem. Our result builds upon recent advances in quantum linear systems algorithms by encoding the simulation into a sparse, well-conditioned linear system that approximates evolution according to the propagator using a Taylor series. Unlike with finite difference methods, our approach does not require additional hypotheses to ensure numerical stability.

1 aBerry, Dominic, W.1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aOstrander, Aaron1 aWang, Guoming uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1701.0368401566nas a2200133 4500008004100000245004400041210004400085260001500129300001100144490000700155520121600162100001801378856003601396 2017 eng d00aQuantum Algorithm for Linear Regression0 aQuantum Algorithm for Linear Regression c2017/07/31 a0123350 v963 aWe present a quantum algorithm for fitting a linear regression model to a given data set using the least squares approach. Different from previous algorithms which only yield a quantum state encoding the optimal parameters, our algorithm outputs these numbers in the classical form. So by running it once, one completely determines the fitted model and then can use it to make predictions on new data at negligible cost. Moreover, our algorithm does not require the design matrix to be sparse or need any help from additional state preparation procedures. It runs in time poly(log(N), d, κ, 1/), where N is the size of the data set, d is the number of adjustable parameters, κ is the condition number of the design matrix, and is the desired precision in the output. We also show that the polynomial dependence on d and κ is necessary. Thus, our algorithm cannot be significantly improved. Furthermore, we also give a quantum algorithm that estimates the quality of the least-squares fit without computing its parameters explicitly. This algorithm runs faster than the one for finding this fit, and can be used to check whether the given data set qualifies for linear regression in the first place.

1 aWang, Guoming uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1402.066001362nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010600041210006900147260001500216300001400231490000700245520083800252100002301090700001901113700002301132856004901155 2017 eng d00aQuantum algorithm for systems of linear equations with exponentially improved dependence on precision0 aQuantum algorithm for systems of linear equations with exponenti c2017/12/21 a1920-19500 v463 aHarrow, Hassidim, and Lloyd showed that for a suitably specified N×N matrix A and N-dimensional vector b⃗ , there is a quantum algorithm that outputs a quantum state proportional to the solution of the linear system of equations Ax⃗ =b⃗ . If A is sparse and well-conditioned, their algorithm runs in time poly(logN,1/ϵ), where ϵ is the desired precision in the output state. We improve this to an algorithm whose running time is polynomial in log(1/ϵ), exponentially improving the dependence on precision while keeping essentially the same dependence on other parameters. Our algorithm is based on a general technique for implementing any operator with a suitable Fourier or Chebyshev series representation. This allows us to bypass the quantum phase estimation algorithm, whose dependence on ϵ is prohibitive.

1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aKothari, Robin1 aSomma, Rolando, D. uhttp://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/16M108707201240nas a2200121 4500008004100000245006900041210006900110260001500179520084800194100002001042700001901062856003701081 2017 eng d00aQuantum Algorithms for Graph Connectivity and Formula Evaluation0 aQuantum Algorithms for Graph Connectivity and Formula Evaluation c2017/04/033 aWe give a new upper bound on the quantum query complexity of deciding st-connectivity on certain classes of planar graphs, and show the bound is sometimes exponentially better than previous results. We then show Boolean formula evaluation reduces to deciding connectivity on just such a class of graphs. Applying the algorithm for st-connectivity to Boolean formula evaluation problems, we match the O( √ N) bound on the quantum query complexity of evaluating formulas on N variables, give a quadratic speed-up over the classical query complexity of a certain class of promise Boolean formulas, and show this approach can yield superpolynomial quantum/classical separations. These results indicate that this st-connectivity-based approach may be the “right” way of looking at quantum algorithms for formula evaluation.

1 aJeffery, Stacey1 aKimmel, Shelby uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1704.0076501898nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005900041210005900100260001500159300001200174520143500186100001901621700001601640700002501656700002201681856003701703 2017 eng d00aQuantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption With Verification0 aQuantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption With Verification c2017/11/30 a438-4673 aFully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables computation on encrypted data while maintaining secrecy. Recent research has shown that such schemes exist even for quantum computation. Given the numerous applications of classical FHE (zero-knowledge proofs, secure two-party computation, obfuscation, etc.) it is reasonable to hope that quantum FHE (or QFHE) will lead to many new results in the quantum setting. However, a crucial ingredient in almost all applications of FHE is circuit verification. Classically, verification is performed by checking a transcript of the homomorphic computation. Quantumly, this strategy is impossible due to no-cloning. This leads to an important open question: can quantum computations be delegated and verified in a non-interactive manner? In this work, we answer this question in the affirmative, by constructing a scheme for QFHE with verification (vQFHE). Our scheme provides authenticated encryption, and enables arbitrary polynomial-time quantum computations without the need of interaction between client and server. Verification is almost entirely classical; for computations that start and end with classical states, it is completely classical. As a first application, we show how to construct quantum one-time programs from classical one-time programs and vQFHE.

1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aDulek, Yfke1 aSchaffner, Christian1 aSpeelman, Florian uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1708.0915602767nas a2200121 4500008004100000245005100041210005100092260001500143520241800158100001702576700001502593856003702608 2017 eng d00aQuantum query complexity of entropy estimation0 aQuantum query complexity of entropy estimation c2017/10/163 aEstimation of Shannon and R´enyi entropies of unknown discrete distributions is a fundamental problem in statistical property testing and an active research topic in both theoretical computer science and information theory. Tight bounds on the number of samples to estimate these entropies have been established in the classical setting, while little is known about their quantum counterparts. In this paper, we give the first quantum algorithms for estimating α- R´enyi entropies (Shannon entropy being 1-Renyi entropy). In particular, we demonstrate a quadratic quantum speedup for Shannon entropy estimation and a generic quantum speedup for α-R´enyi entropy estimation for all α ≥ 0, including a tight bound for the collision-entropy (2-R´enyi entropy). We also provide quantum upper bounds for extreme cases such as the Hartley entropy (i.e., the logarithm of the support size of a distribution, corresponding to α = 0) and the min-entropy case (i.e., α = +∞), as well as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between two distributions. Moreover, we complement our results with quantum lower bounds on α-R´enyi entropy estimation for all α ≥ 0. Our approach is inspired by the pioneering work of Bravyi, Harrow, and Hassidim (BHH) [13] on quantum algorithms for distributional property testing, however, with many new technical ingredients. For Shannon entropy and 0-R´enyi entropy estimation, we improve the performance of the BHH framework, especially its error dependence, using Montanaro’s approach to estimating the expected output value of a quantum subroutine with bounded variance [41] and giving a fine-tuned error analysis. For general α-R´enyi entropy estimation, we further develop a procedure that recursively approximates α-R´enyi entropy for a sequence of αs, which is in spirit similar to a cooling schedule in simulated annealing. For special cases such as integer α ≥ 2 and α = +∞ (i.e., the min-entropy), we reduce the entropy estimation problem to the α-distinctness and the dlog ne-distinctness problems, respectively. We exploit various techniques to obtain our lower bounds for different ranges of α, including reductions to (variants of) existing lower bounds in quantum query complexity as well as the polynomial method inspired by the celebrated quantum lower bound for the collision problem.

1 aLi, Tongyang1 aWu, Xiaodi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1710.0602501316nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001500155520091500170100001701085700002101102700002201123856003701145 2017 eng d00aQuantum simulation of ferromagnetic Heisenberg model0 aQuantum simulation of ferromagnetic Heisenberg model c2017/12/143 aLarge quantum simulators, with sufficiently many qubits to be impossible to simulate classically, become hard to experimentally validate. We propose two tests of a quantum simulator with Heisenberg interaction in a linear chain of spins. In the first, we propagate half of a singlet state through a chain of spin with a ferromagnetic interaction and subsequently recover the state with an antiferromagnetic interaction. The antiferromagnetic interaction is intrinsic to the system while the ferromagnetic one can be simulated by a sequence of time-dependent controls of the antiferromagnetic interaction and Suzuki-Trotter approximations. In the second test, we use the same technique to transfer a spin singlet state from one end of a spin chain to the other. We show that the tests are robust against parametric errors in operation of the simulator and may be applicable even without error correction.

1 aWang, Yiping1 aTran, Minh, Cong1 aTaylor, Jacob, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1712.0528201598nas a2200241 4500008004100000245005800041210005800099260001500157300001100172490000800183520093100191100001301122700001401135700001801149700001601167700001801183700001801201700001301219700001601232700001401248700002201262856007201284 2017 eng d00aQuantum state tomography via reduced density matrices0 aQuantum state tomography via reduced density matrices c2017/01/09 a0204010 v1183 aQuantum state tomography via local measurements is an efficient tool for characterizing quantum states. However it requires that the original global state be uniquely determined (UD) by its local reduced density matrices (RDMs). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a class of states that are UD by their RDMs under the assumption that the global state is pure, but fail to be UD in the absence of that assumption. This discovery allows us to classify quantum states according to their UD properties, with the requirement that each class be treated distinctly in the practice of simplifying quantum state tomography. Additionally we experimentally test the feasibility and stability of performing quantum state tomography via the measurement of local RDMs for each class. These theoretical and experimental results advance the project of performing efficient and accurate quantum state tomography in practice.

1 aXin, Tao1 aLu, Dawei1 aKlassen, Joel1 aYu, Nengkun1 aJi, Zhengfeng1 aChen, Jianxin1 aMa, Xian1 aLong, Guilu1 aZeng, Bei1 aLaflamme, Raymond uhttp://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.02040101224nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005300041210005300094260001500147300001100162490000700173520074800180100001800928700002400946700001800970700001900988856004701007 2016 eng d00aQuantifying the coherence of pure quantum states0 aQuantifying the coherence of pure quantum states c2016/10/07 a0423130 v943 aIn recent years, several measures have been proposed for characterizing the coherence of a given quantum state. We derive several results that illuminate how these measures behave when restricted to pure states. Notably, we present an explicit characterization of the closest incoherent state to a given pure state under the trace distance measure of coherence, and we affirm a recent conjecture that the ℓ1 measure of coherence of a pure state is never smaller than its relative entropy of coherence. We then use our result to show that the states maximizing the trace distance of coherence are exactly the maximally coherent states, and we derive a new inequality relating the negativity and distillable entanglement of pure states.

1 aChen, Jianxin1 aJohnston, Nathaniel1 aLi, Chi-Kwong1 aPlosker, Sarah uhttps://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.04231300861nas a2200121 4500008004100000245005500041210005500096260001500151520049300166100002000659700002400679856003600703 2016 eng d00aQuantum Merlin Arthur with Exponentially Small Gap0 aQuantum Merlin Arthur with Exponentially Small Gap c2016/01/083 aWe study the complexity of QMA proof systems with inverse exponentially small promise gap. We show that this class can be exactly characterized by PSPACE, the class of problems solvable with a polynomial amount of memory. As applications we show that a "precise" version of the Local Hamiltonian problem is PSPACE-complete, and give a provable setting in which the ability to prepare PEPS states is not as powerful as the ability to prepare the ground state of general Local Hamiltonians.1 aFefferman, Bill1 aLin, Cedric, Yen-Yu uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1601.0197500982nas a2200145 4500008004100000245004300041210004100084260001500125300001100140490000700151520059900158100002200757700001900779856003800798 2016 eng d00aA Quantum Model for an Entropic Spring0 aQuantum Model for an Entropic Spring c2016/06/01 a2141020 v933 aMotivated by understanding the emergence of thermodynamic restoring forces and oscillations, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of a bath of spins coupled to the elasticity of a material. We show our model reproduces the behavior of a variety of entropic springs while enabling investigation of non-equilibrium resonator states in the quantum domain. We find our model emerges naturally in disordered elastic media such as glasses, and is an additional, expected effect in systems with anomalous specific heat and 1/f noise at low temperatures due to two-level systems that fluctuate.

1 aWang, Chiao-Hsuan1 aTaylor, J., M. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1507.08658v102209nas a2200121 4500008004100000245002700041210002400068260001500092520190500107100001902012700002002031856003602051 2016 eng d00aOn Quantum Obfuscation0 aQuantum Obfuscation c2016/02/043 aEncryption of data is fundamental to secure communication in the modern world. Beyond encryption of data lies obfuscation, i.e., encryption of functionality. It is well-known that the most powerful means of obfuscating classical programs, so-called ``black-box obfuscation',' is provably impossible [Barak et al '12]. However, several recent results have yielded candidate schemes that satisfy a definition weaker than black-box, and yet still have numerous applications. In this work, we initialize the rigorous study of obfuscating programs via quantum-mechanical means. We define notions of quantum obfuscation which encompass several natural variants. The input to the obfuscator can describe classical or quantum functionality, and the output can be a circuit description or a quantum state. The obfuscator can also satisfy one of a number of obfuscation conditions: black-box, information-theoretic black-box, indistinguishability, and best possible; the last two conditions come in three variants: perfect, statistical, and computational. We discuss many applications, including CPA-secure quantum encryption, quantum fully-homomorphic encryption, and public-key quantum money. We then prove several impossibility results, extending a number of foundational papers on classical obfuscation to the quantum setting. We prove that quantum black-box obfuscation is impossible in a setting where adversaries can possess more than one output of the obfuscator. In particular, generic transformation of quantum circuits into black-box-obfuscated quantum circuits is impossible. We also show that statistical indistinguishability obfuscation is impossible, up to an unlikely complexity-theoretic collapse. Our proofs involve a new tool: chosen-ciphertext-secure encryption of quantum data, which was recently shown to be possible assuming quantum-secure one-way functions exist [Alagic et al '16].1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aFefferman, Bill uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1602.0177101010nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007200041210006800113260001500181490000700196520056900203100001800772700001900790700001900809856003600828 2016 eng d00aA Quantum Version of Schöning's Algorithm Applied to Quantum 2-SAT0 aQuantum Version of Schönings Algorithm Applied to Quantum 2SAT c2016/03/220 v163 aWe study a quantum algorithm that consists of a simple quantum Markov process, and we analyze its behavior on restricted versions of Quantum 2-SAT. We prove that the algorithm solves this decision problem with high probability for n qubits, L clauses, and promise gap c in time O(n^2 L^2 c^{-2}). If the Hamiltonian is additionally polynomially gapped, our algorithm efficiently produces a state that has high overlap with the satisfying subspace. The Markov process we study is a quantum analogue of Sch\"oning's probabilistic algorithm for k-SAT.

1 aFarhi, Edward1 aKimmel, Shelby1 aTemme, Kristan uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1603.0698501581nas a2200157 4500008004100000245003800041210003700079260001500116300001100131490000800142520115100150100001901301700002201320700002201342856005901364 2016 eng d00aQuantum-Enhanced Machine Learning0 aQuantumEnhanced Machine Learning c2016/09/20 a1305010 v1173 aThe emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

1 aDunjko, Vedran1 aTaylor, Jacob, M.1 aBriegel, Hans, J. uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.13050101941nas a2200145 4500008004100000245004200041210003900083260001500122520154800137100001601685700001801701700001701719700002201736856003701758 2016 eng d00aA quasi-mode theory of chiral phonons0 aquasimode theory of chiral phonons c2016/12/293 aThe coherence properties of mechanical resonators are often limited by multiple unavoidable forms of loss -- including phonon-phonon and phonon-defect scattering -- which result in the scattering of sound into other resonant modes and into the phonon bath. Dynamic suppression of this scattering loss can lift constraints on device structure and can improve tolerance to defects in the material, even after fabrication. Inspired by recent experiments, here we introduce a model of phonon losses resulting from disorder in a whispering gallery mode resonator with acousto-optical coupling between optical and mechanical modes. We show that a typical elastic scattering mechanism of high quality factor (Q) mechanical modes flips the direction of phonon propagation via high-angle scattering, leading to damping into modes with the opposite parity. When the optical mode overlaps co-propagating high-Q and bulk mechanical modes, the addition of laser cooling via sideband-resolved damping of the mechanical mode of a chosen parity also damps and modifies the response of the bulk modes of the same parity. This, in turn, simultaneously improves the quality factor and reduces the thermal load of the counter-propagating high-Q modes, leading to the dynamical creation of a cold phononic shield. We compare our theoretical results to the recent experiments of Kim et al., and find quantitative agreement with our theory.

1 aXu, Xunnong1 aKim, Seunghwi1 aBahl, Gaurav1 aTaylor, Jacob, M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1612.0924001216nas a2200121 4500008004100000245004700041210004600088260001500134520087400149100001901023700001601042856003601058 2015 eng d00aQuantum Compressed Sensing Using 2-Designs0 aQuantum Compressed Sensing Using 2Designs c2015/10/293 aWe develop a method for quantum process tomography that combines the efficiency of compressed sensing with the robustness of randomized benchmarking. Our method is robust to state preparation and measurement errors, and it achieves a quadratic speedup over conventional tomography when the unknown process is a generic unitary evolution. Our method is based on PhaseLift, a convex programming technique for phase retrieval. We show that this method achieves approximate recovery of almost all signals, using measurements sampled from spherical or unitary 2-designs. This is the first positive result on PhaseLift using 2-designs. We also show that exact recovery of all signals is possible using unitary 4-designs. Previous positive results for PhaseLift required spherical 4-designs, while PhaseLift was known to fail in certain cases when using spherical 2-designs.1 aKimmel, Shelby1 aLiu, Yi-Kai uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0888700905nas a2200121 4500008004100000245004100041210004100082260001500123520053800138100001700676700002200693856006800715 2015 eng d00aQuantum Entanglement and Information0 aQuantum Entanglement and Information c02/07/20153 aQuantum entanglement is a physical resource, like energy, associated with the peculiar nonclassical correlations that are possible between separated quantum systems. Entanglement can be measured, transformed, and purified. A pair of quantum systems in an entangled state can be used as a quantum information channel to perform computational and cryptographic tasks that are impossible for classical systems. The general study of the information-processing capabilities of quantum systems is the subject of quantum information theory.1 aBub, Jeffrey1 aZalta, Edward, N. uhttp://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/qt-entangle/00602nas a2200193 4500008004100000022001400041245007400055210006900129260001500198300001400213490000600227100002000233700001700253700001600270700002500286700001900311700001800330856006000348 2015 eng d a1749-488500aQuantum many-body models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals0 aQuantum manybody models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crys c2015/04/04 a326 - 3310 v91 aDouglas, J., S.1 aHabibian, H.1 aHung, C.-L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKimble, H., J.1 aChang, D., E. uhttp://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphoton.2015.5701482nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006300041210006300104260001500167300001100182490000700193520103100200100001601231700002101247700001901268856003701287 2015 eng d00aQuantum Nonlinear Optics Near Optomechanical Instabilities0 aQuantum Nonlinear Optics Near Optomechanical Instabilities c2015/01/09 a0138180 v913 a Optomechanical systems provide a unique platform for observing quantum behavior of macroscopic objects. However, efforts towards realizing nonlinear behavior at the single photon level have been inhibited by the small size of the radiation pressure interaction. Here we show that it is not necessary to reach the single-photon strong-coupling regime in order to realize significant optomechanical nonlinearities. Instead, nonlinearities at the few quanta level can be achieved, even with weak-coupling, in a two-mode optomechanical system driven near instability. In this limit, we establish a new figure of merit for realizing strong nonlinearity which scales with the single-photon optomechanical coupling and the sideband resolution of the mechanical mode with respect to the cavity linewidth. We find that current devices based on optomechanical crystals, thought to be in the weak-coupling regime, can still achieve strong quantum nonlinearity; enabling deterministic interactions between single photons. 1 aXu, Xunnong1 aGullans, Michael1 aTaylor, J., M. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1404.3726v201003nas a2200121 4500008004100000245005600041210005600097260001500153520063800168100002000806700001900826856003600845 2015 eng d00aQuantum vs Classical Proofs and Subset Verification0 aQuantum vs Classical Proofs and Subset Verification c2015/10/223 aWe study the ability of efficient quantum verifiers to decide properties of exponentially large subsets given either a classical or quantum witness. We develop a general framework that can be used to prove that QCMA machines, with only classical witnesses, cannot verify certain properties of subsets given implicitly via an oracle. We use this framework to prove an oracle separation between QCMA and QMA using an ``in-place'' permutation oracle, making the first progress on this question since Aaronson and Kuperberg in 2007. We also use the framework to prove a particularly simple standard oracle separation between QCMA and AM.1 aFefferman, Bill1 aKimmel, Shelby uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0675001107nas a2200109 4500008004100000245004100041210004100082260001500123520080600138100001800944856003500962 2014 eng d00aQuantum Algorithms for Curve Fitting0 aQuantum Algorithms for Curve Fitting c2014/04/023 aWe present quantum algorithms for estimating the best-fit parameters and the quality of least-square curve fitting. The running times of these algorithms are polynomial in logn, d, κ, ν, χ, 1/Φ and 1/ϵ, where n is the number of data points to be fitted, d is the dimension of feature vectors, κ is the condition number of the design matrix, ν and χ are some parameters reflecting the variances of the design matrix and response vector, Φ is the fit quality, and ϵ is the tolerable error. Different from previous quantum algorithms for these tasks, our algorithms do not require the design matrix to be sparse, and they do completely determine the fitted curve. They are developed by combining phase estimation and the density matrix exponentiation technique for dense Hamiltonian simulation.1 aWang, Guoming uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1402.066001013nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006000041210006000101260001500161520060100176100002400777700002200801700001900823856003700842 2014 eng d00aQuantum Algorithms for Fermionic Quantum Field Theories0 aQuantum Algorithms for Fermionic Quantum Field Theories c2014/04/283 a Extending previous work on scalar field theories, we develop a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering amplitudes in fermionic field theories, exemplified by the massive Gross-Neveu model, a theory in two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. The algorithm introduces new techniques to meet the additional challenges posed by the characteristics of fermionic fields, and its run time is polynomial in the desired precision and the energy. Thus, it constitutes further progress towards an efficient quantum algorithm for simulating the Standard Model of particle physics. 1 aJordan, Stephen, P.1 aLee, Keith, S. M.1 aPreskill, John uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1404.7115v101152nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001400163490000600177520075500183100002300938700002000961856003700981 2014 eng d00aQuantum computation of discrete logarithms in semigroups0 aQuantum computation of discrete logarithms in semigroups c2014/01/10 v83 a We describe an efficient quantum algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in semigroups using Shor's algorithms for period finding and discrete log as subroutines. Thus proposed cryptosystems based on the presumed hardness of discrete logarithms in semigroups are insecure against quantum attacks. In contrast, we show that some generalizations of the discrete log problem are hard in semigroups despite being easy in groups. We relate a shifted version of the discrete log problem in semigroups to the dihedral hidden subgroup problem, and we show that the constructive membership problem with respect to $k \ge 2$ generators in a black-box abelian semigroup of order $N$ requires $\tilde \Theta(N^{\frac{1}{2}-\frac{1}{2k}})$ quantum queries. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aIvanyos, Gábor uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1310.6238v201375nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007100041210006900112260001500181300001400196490000700210520089800217100002401115700002201139700001901161856003701180 2014 eng d00aQuantum Computation of Scattering in Scalar Quantum Field Theories0 aQuantum Computation of Scattering in Scalar Quantum Field Theori c2014/09/01 a1014-10800 v143 a Quantum field theory provides the framework for the most fundamental physical theories to be confirmed experimentally, and has enabled predictions of unprecedented precision. However, calculations of physical observables often require great computational complexity and can generally be performed only when the interaction strength is weak. A full understanding of the foundations and rich consequences of quantum field theory remains an outstanding challenge. We develop a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering amplitudes in massive phi-fourth theory in spacetime of four and fewer dimensions. The algorithm runs in a time that is polynomial in the number of particles, their energy, and the desired precision, and applies at both weak and strong coupling. Thus, it offers exponential speedup over existing classical methods at high precision or strong coupling. 1 aJordan, Stephen, P.1 aLee, Keith, S. M.1 aPreskill, John uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1112.4833v101850nas a2200205 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123260001500192490000700207520120600214100002601420700002601446700002301472700002701495700002701522700001701549700002101566700002001587856003701607 2014 eng d00aQuantum correlations and entanglement in far-from-equilibrium spin systems 0 aQuantum correlations and entanglement in farfromequilibrium spin c2014/12/150 v903 a By applying complementary analytic and numerical methods, we investigate the dynamics of spin-$1/2$ XXZ models with variable-range interactions in arbitrary dimensions. The dynamics we consider is initiated from uncorrelated states that are easily prepared in experiments, and can be equivalently viewed as either Ramsey spectroscopy or a quantum quench. Our primary focus is the dynamical emergence of correlations and entanglement in these far-from-equilibrium interacting quantum systems: we characterize these correlations by the entanglement entropy, concurrence, and squeezing, which are inequivalent measures of entanglement corresponding to different quantum resources. In one spatial dimension, we show that the time evolution of correlation functions manifests a non-perturbative dynamic singularity. This singularity is characterized by a universal power-law exponent that is insensitive to small perturbations. Explicit realizations of these models in current experiments using polar molecules, trapped ions, Rydberg atoms, magnetic atoms, and alkaline-earth and alkali atoms in optical lattices, along with the relative merits and limitations of these different systems, are discussed. 1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 avan den Worm, Mauritz1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aTorre, Emanuele, Dalla1 aPfau, Tilman1 aKastner, Michael1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1406.0937v102166nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005300041210005300094260001400147300001600161490000700177520179400184100001701978856003701995 2014 eng d00aQuantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem0 aQuantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem c2013/6/30 a3346 - 33690 v533 a The transition from classical to quantum mechanics rests on the recognition that the structure of information is not what we thought it was: there are operational, i.e., phenomenal, probabilistic correlations that lie outside the polytope of local correlations. Such correlations cannot be simulated with classical resources, which generate classical correlations represented by the points in a simplex, where the vertices of the simplex represent joint deterministic states that are the common causes of the correlations. The `no go' hidden variable theorems tell us that we can't shoe-horn correlations outside the local polytope into a classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The replacement of the classical simplex by the quantum convex set as the structure representing probabilistic correlations is the analogue for quantum mechanics of the replacement of Newton's Euclidean space and time by Minkowski spacetime in special relativity. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are generic features of correlations that lie outside the local correlation polytope. This paper is an elaboration of these ideas, and its consequences for the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. A large part of the difficulty is removed by seeing that the inconsistency in reconciling the entangled state at the end of a quantum measurement process with the definiteness of the macroscopic pointer reading and the definiteness of the correlated value of the measured micro-observable is only apparent and depends on a stipulation that is not required by the structure of the quantum possibility space. Replacing this stipulation by an alternative consistent stipulation resolves the problem. 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1210.6371v302190nas a2200133 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001400193490000700207520177000214100001701984700001802001856003702019 2014 eng d00aQuantum Interactions with Closed Timelike Curves and Superluminal Signaling 0 aQuantum Interactions with Closed Timelike Curves and Superlumina c2014/2/120 v893 a There is now a significant body of results on quantum interactions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) in the quantum information literature, for both the Deutsch model of CTC interactions (D-CTCs) and the projective model (P-CTCs). As a consequence, there is a prima facie argument exploiting entanglement that CTC interactions would enable superluminal and, indeed, effectively instantaneous signaling. In cases of spacelike separation between the sender of a signal and the receiver, whether a receiver measures the local part of an entangled state or a disentangled state to access the signal can depend on the reference frame. We propose a consistency condition that gives priority to either an entangled perspective or a disentangled perspective in spacelike separated scenarios. For D-CTC interactions, the consistency condition gives priority to frames of reference in which the state is disentangled, while for P-CTC interactions the condition selects the entangled state. Using the consistency condition, we show that there is a procedure that allows Alice to signal to Bob in the past via relayed superluminal communications between spacelike separated Alice and Clio, and spacelike separated Clio and Bob. This opens the door to time travel paradoxes in the classical domain. Ralph (arXiv:1107.4675) first pointed this out for P-CTCs, but we show that Ralph's procedure for a 'radio to the past' is flawed. Since both D-CTCs and P-CTCs allow classical information to be sent around a spacetime loop, it follows from a result by Aaronson and Watrous (Proc.Roy.Soc.A, 465:631-647 (2009)) for CTC-enhanced classical computation that a quantum computer with access to P-CTCs would have the power of PSPACE, equivalent to a D-CTC-enhanced quantum computer. 1 aBub, Jeffrey1 aStairs, Allen uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1309.4751v401000nas a2200121 4500008004100000245007700041210006900118260001500187520059900202100002100801700001900822856003700841 2014 eng d00aA Quantum Network of Silicon Qubits using Mid-Infrared Graphene Plasmons0 aQuantum Network of Silicon Qubits using MidInfrared Graphene Pla c2014/07/253 a We consider a quantum network of mid-infrared, graphene plasmons coupled to the hydrogen-like excited states of group-V donors in silicon. First, we show how to use plasmon-enhanced light-matter interactions to achieve single-shot spin readout of the donor qubits via optical excitation and electrical detection of the emitted plasmons. We then show how plasmons in high mobility graphene nanoribbons can be used to achieve high-fidelity, two-qubit gates and entanglement of distant Si donor qubits. The proposed device is readily compatible with existing technology and fabrication methods. 1 aGullans, Michael1 aTaylor, J., M. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1407.7035v101088nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006400041210006300105260001500168520063800183100002400821700001900845700002000864700002100884856003700905 2014 eng d00aQuipper: Concrete Resource Estimation in Quantum Algorithms0 aQuipper Concrete Resource Estimation in Quantum Algorithms c2014/12/013 aDespite the rich literature on quantum algorithms, there is a surprisingly small amount of coverage of their concrete logical design and implementation. Most resource estimation is done at the level of complexity analysis, but actual concrete numbers (of quantum gates, qubits, etc.) can differ by orders of magnitude. The line of work we present here is a formal framework to write, and reason about, quantum algorithms. Specifically, we designed a language, Quipper, with scalability in mind, and we are able to report actual resource counts for seven non-trivial algorithms found in the quantum computer science literature.

1 aSmith, Jonathan, M.1 aRoss, Neil, J.1 aSelinger, Peter1 aValiron, Benoît uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1412.0625v102134nas a2200133 4500008004100000245008900041210006900130260001400199490000700213520170000220100001901920700002401939856003701963 2013 eng d00aQuadrature interferometry for nonequilibrium ultracold bosons in optical lattices 0 aQuadrature interferometry for nonequilibrium ultracold bosons in c2013/1/220 v873 a We develop an interferometric technique for making time-resolved measurements of field-quadrature operators for nonequilibrium ultracold bosons in optical lattices. The technique exploits the internal state structure of magnetic atoms to create two subsystems of atoms in different spin states and lattice sites. A Feshbach resonance turns off atom-atom interactions in one spin subsystem, making it a well-characterized reference state, while atoms in the other subsystem undergo nonequilibrium dynamics for a variable hold time. Interfering the subsystems via a second beam-splitting operation, time-resolved quadrature measurements on the interacting atoms are obtained by detecting relative spin populations. The technique can provide quadrature measurements for a variety of Hamiltonians and lattice geometries (e.g., cubic, honeycomb, superlattices), including systems with tunneling, spin-orbit couplings using artificial gauge fields, and higher-band effects. Analyzing the special case of a deep lattice with negligible tunneling, we obtain the time evolution of both quadrature observables and their fluctuations. As a second application, we show that the interferometer can be used to measure atom-atom interaction strengths with super-Heisenberg scaling n^(-3/2) in the mean number of atoms per lattice site n, and standard quantum limit scaling M^(-1/2) in the number of lattice sites M. In our analysis, we require M >> 1 and for realistic systems n is small, and therefore the scaling in total atom number N = nM is below the Heisenberg limit; nevertheless, measurements testing the scaling behaviors for interaction-based quantum metrologies should be possible in this system. 1 aTiesinga, Eite1 aJohnson, Philip, R. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1193v200905nas a2200133 4500008004100000245003600041210003400077260001500111300001100126490000700137520057100144100001900715856003700734 2013 eng d00aQuantum Adversary (Upper) Bound0 aQuantum Adversary Upper Bound c2013/04/05 a1 - 140 v193 a We describe a method to upper bound the quantum query complexity of Boolean formula evaluation problems, using fundamental theorems about the general adversary bound. This nonconstructive method can give an upper bound on query complexity without producing an algorithm. For example, we describe an oracle problem which we prove (non-constructively) can be solved in $O(1)$ queries, where the previous best quantum algorithm uses a polylogarithmic number of queries. We then give an explicit $O(1)$-query algorithm for this problem based on span programs. 1 aKimmel, Shelby uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1101.0797v501289nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007500041210006900116260001300185490000800198520067800206100002100884700001900905700002200924700001700946700001500963700001900978700002500997700002401022856003701046 2013 eng d00aQuantum Catalysis of Magnetic Phase Transitions in a Quantum Simulator0 aQuantum Catalysis of Magnetic Phase Transitions in a Quantum Sim c2013/9/50 v1113 a We control quantum fluctuations to create the ground state magnetic phases of a classical Ising model with a tunable longitudinal magnetic field using a system of 6 to 10 atomic ion spins. Due to the long-range Ising interactions, the various ground state spin configurations are separated by multiple first-order phase transitions, which in our zero temperature system cannot be driven by thermal fluctuations. We instead use a transverse magnetic field as a quantum catalyst to observe the first steps of the complete fractal devil's staircase, which emerges in the thermodynamic limit and can be mapped to a large number of many-body and energy-optimization problems. 1 aRicherme, Philip1 aSenko, Crystal1 aKorenblit, Simcha1 aSmith, Jacob1 aLee, Aaron1 aIslam, Rajibul1 aCampbell, Wesley, C.1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1303.6983v201052nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005700041210005600098260001500154490000700169520062400176100002700800700002300827700001900850856003700869 2013 eng d00aQuantum Cherenkov Radiation and Non-contact Friction0 aQuantum Cherenkov Radiation and Noncontact Friction c2013/10/210 v883 a We present a number of arguments to demonstrate that a quantum analog of Cherenkov effect occurs when two dispersive objects are in relative motion. Specifically we show that two semi-infinite plates experience friction beyond a threshold velocity which, in their center-of-mass frame, is the phase speed of light within their medium. The loss in mechanical energy is radiated away through the plates before getting fully absorbed in the form of heat. By deriving various correlation functions inside and outside the two plates, we explicitly compute the radiation, and discuss its dependence on the reference frame. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGolestanian, Ramin1 aKardar, Mehran uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1304.4909v201995nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005100041210005100092260001300143490000700156520142000163100002001583700001901603700002301622700002401645700001801669700002301687700001701710700002501727856003701752 2013 eng d00aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers0 aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers c2013/2/60 v873 a We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required to manipulate "dark" spin qubits significantly raise the error threshold for robust operation. Finally, as an example, we demonstrate that eigenmode-mediated state transfer can enable robust long-range logic between spatially separated Nitrogen-Vacancy registers in diamond; numerical simulations confirm that high fidelity gates are achievable even in the presence of moderate disorder. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0014v100594nas a2200205 4500008004100000245006400041210006100105300000800166490000800174100001700182700001400199700001900213700001300232700001300245700001900258700002500277700001400302700001200316856006000328 2013 eng d00aA quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock0 aquantum manybody spin system in an optical lattice clock a6320 v3411 aMartin, M, J1 aBishof, M1 aSwallows, M, D1 aZhang, X1 aBenko, C1 avon-Stecher, J1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, A, M1 aYe, Jun uhttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6146/632.abstract00562nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005900041210005800100300000700158490000700165100001900172700001600191700001600207700001700223700001500240700002500255700001900280700001200299856005700311 2013 eng d00aQuantum Nonlinear Optics: Strongly Interacting Photons0 aQuantum Nonlinear Optics Strongly Interacting Photons a480 v241 aFirstenberg, O1 aLukin, M, D1 aPeyronel, T1 aLiang, Q, -Y1 aVuletic, V1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHofferberth, S1 aPohl, T uhttp://www.osa-opn.org/abstract.cfm?URI=opn-24-12-4801302nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005300041210005200094260001500146300001200161490000700173520078900180100002500969700002900994700001901023700002001042700002101062856003701083 2013 eng d00aQuipper: A Scalable Quantum Programming Language0 aQuipper A Scalable Quantum Programming Language c2013/06/23 a333-3420 v483 aThe field of quantum algorithms is vibrant. Still, there is currently a lack of programming languages for describing quantum computation on a practical scale, i.e., not just at the level of toy problems. We address this issue by introducing Quipper, a scalable, expressive, functional, higher-order quantum programming language. Quipper has been used to program a diverse set of non-trivial quantum algorithms, and can generate quantum gate representations using trillions of gates. It is geared towards a model of computation that uses a classical computer to control a quantum device, but is not dependent on any particular model of quantum hardware. Quipper has proven effective and easy to use, and opens the door towards using formal methods to analyze quantum algorithms.

1 aGreen, Alexander, S.1 aLumsdaine, Peter, LeFanu1 aRoss, Neil, J.1 aSelinger, Peter1 aValiron, Benoît uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1304.3390v101068nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005000041210005000091260001500141300001600156490000800172520062800180100002400808700002200832700001900854856003700873 2012 eng d00aQuantum Algorithms for Quantum Field Theories0 aQuantum Algorithms for Quantum Field Theories c2012/05/31 a1130 - 11330 v3363 a Quantum field theory reconciles quantum mechanics and special relativity, and plays a central role in many areas of physics. We develop a quantum algorithm to compute relativistic scattering probabilities in a massive quantum field theory with quartic self-interactions (phi-fourth theory) in spacetime of four and fewer dimensions. Its run time is polynomial in the number of particles, their energy, and the desired precision, and applies at both weak and strong coupling. In the strong-coupling and high-precision regimes, our quantum algorithm achieves exponential speedup over the fastest known classical algorithm. 1 aJordan, Stephen, P.1 aLee, Keith, S. M.1 aPreskill, John uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1111.3633v201226nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007000041210006900111260001400180490000800194520072500202100001900927700001400946700002000960700002000980700001901000856003701019 2012 eng d00aQuantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single atom0 aQuantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single ato c2012/3/300 v1083 aWe show how to bridge the divide between atomic systems and electronic devices by engineering a coupling between the motion of a single ion and the quantized electric field of a resonant circuit. Our method can be used to couple the internal state of an ion to the quantized circuit with the same speed as the internal-state coupling between two ions. All the well-known quantum information protocols linking ion internal and motional states can be converted to protocols between circuit photons and ion internal states. Our results enable quantum interfaces between solid state qubits, atomic qubits, and light, and lay the groundwork for a direct quantum connection between electrical and atomic metrology standards. 1 aKielpinski, D.1 aKafri, D.1 aWoolley, M., J.1 aMilburn, G., J.1 aTaylor, J., M. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1111.5999v100654nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128300000700197490000800204100002300212700002200235700001700257700002700274700002500301700001700326700002300343700002000366856007400386 2012 eng d00aQuantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms0 aQuantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly a570 v4881 aPeyronel, Thibault1 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aLiang, Qi-Yu1 aHofferberth, Sebastian1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPohl, Thomas1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aVuletic, Vladan uhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7409/full/nature11361.html01823nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005500041210005000096260001500146300001200161490000900173520138500182100002301567700001901590700001901609856003701628 2012 eng d00aThe quantum query complexity of read-many formulas0 aquantum query complexity of readmany formulas c2012/09/10 a337-3480 v75013 a The quantum query complexity of evaluating any read-once formula with n black-box input bits is Theta(sqrt(n)). However, the corresponding problem for read-many formulas (i.e., formulas in which the inputs have fanout) is not well understood. Although the optimal read-once formula evaluation algorithm can be applied to any formula, it can be suboptimal if the inputs have large fanout. We give an algorithm for evaluating any formula with n inputs, size S, and G gates using O(min{n, sqrt{S}, n^{1/2} G^{1/4}}) quantum queries. Furthermore, we show that this algorithm is optimal, since for any n,S,G there exists a formula with n inputs, size at most S, and at most G gates that requires Omega(min{n, sqrt{S}, n^{1/2} G^{1/4}}) queries. We also show that the algorithm remains nearly optimal for circuits of any particular depth k >= 3, and we give a linear-size circuit of depth 2 that requires Omega (n^{5/9}) queries. Applications of these results include a Omega (n^{19/18}) lower bound for Boolean matrix product verification, a nearly tight characterization of the quantum query complexity of evaluating constant-depth circuits with bounded fanout, new formula gate count lower bounds for several functions including PARITY, and a construction of an AC^0 circuit of linear size that can only be evaluated by a formula with Omega(n^{2-epsilon}) gates. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aKimmel, Shelby1 aKothari, Robin uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1112.0548v101417nas a2200253 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001500193300001100208490000700219520068500226100002200911700001600933700002300949700001900972700002300991700001901014700001801033700001701051700001801068700001601086700002401102856003701126 2012 eng d00aQuantum Simulation of Spin Models on an Arbitrary Lattice with Trapped Ions 0 aQuantum Simulation of Spin Models on an Arbitrary Lattice with T c2012/09/27 a0950240 v143 a A collection of trapped atomic ions represents one of the most attractive platforms for the quantum simulation of interacting spin networks and quantum magnetism. Spin-dependent optical dipole forces applied to an ion crystal create long-range effective spin-spin interactions and allow the simulation of spin Hamiltonians that possess nontrivial phases and dynamics. Here we show how appropriate design of laser fields can provide for arbitrary multidimensional spin-spin interaction graphs even for the case of a linear spatial array of ions. This scheme uses currently existing trap technology and is scalable to levels where classical methods of simulation are intractable. 1 aKorenblit, Simcha1 aKafri, Dvir1 aCampbell, Wess, C.1 aIslam, Rajibul1 aEdwards, Emily, E.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLin, Guin-Dar1 aDuan, Luming1 aKim, Jungsang1 aKim, Kihwan1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1201.0776v102431nas a2200169 4500008004100000245010800041210006900149260001500218300001100233490000700244520189900251100002402150700001702174700001602191700001702207856003702224 2012 eng d00aQuantum Tomography via Compressed Sensing: Error Bounds, Sample Complexity, and Efficient Estimators 0 aQuantum Tomography via Compressed Sensing Error Bounds Sample Co c2012/09/27 a0950220 v143 a Intuitively, if a density operator has small rank, then it should be easier to estimate from experimental data, since in this case only a few eigenvectors need to be learned. We prove two complementary results that confirm this intuition. First, we show that a low-rank density matrix can be estimated using fewer copies of the state, i.e., the sample complexity of tomography decreases with the rank. Second, we show that unknown low-rank states can be reconstructed from an incomplete set of measurements, using techniques from compressed sensing and matrix completion. These techniques use simple Pauli measurements, and their output can be certified without making any assumptions about the unknown state. We give a new theoretical analysis of compressed tomography, based on the restricted isometry property (RIP) for low-rank matrices. Using these tools, we obtain near-optimal error bounds, for the realistic situation where the data contains noise due to finite statistics, and the density matrix is full-rank with decaying eigenvalues. We also obtain upper-bounds on the sample complexity of compressed tomography, and almost-matching lower bounds on the sample complexity of any procedure using adaptive sequences of Pauli measurements. Using numerical simulations, we compare the performance of two compressed sensing estimators with standard maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE). We find that, given comparable experimental resources, the compressed sensing estimators consistently produce higher-fidelity state reconstructions than MLE. In addition, the use of an incomplete set of measurements leads to faster classical processing with no loss of accuracy. Finally, we show how to certify the accuracy of a low rank estimate using direct fidelity estimation and we describe a method for compressed quantum process tomography that works for processes with small Kraus rank. 1 aFlammia, Steven, T.1 aGross, David1 aLiu, Yi-Kai1 aEisert, Jens uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1205.2300v201573nas a2200181 4500008004100000245004700041210004700088260001400135490000700149520106900156100002501225700002701250700001501277700001901292700002301311700002001334856003701354 2011 eng d00aQuantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers0 aQuantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers c2011/9/150 v843 a We show that dipolar interactions between ultracold polar alkali dimers in optical lattices can be used to realize a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. The model features long-range spin-spin interactions J_z and J_perp of XXZ type, long-range density-density interaction V, and long-range density-spin interaction W, all of which can be controlled in both magnitude and sign independently of each other and of the tunneling t. The "spin" is encoded in the rotational degree of freedom of the molecules, while the interactions are controlled by applied static electric and continuous-wave microwave fields. Furthermore, we show that nuclear spins of the molecules can be used to implement an additional (orbital) degree of freedom that is coupled to the original rotational degree of freedom in a tunable way. The presented system is expected to exhibit exotic physics and to provide insights into strongly correlated phenomena in condensed matter systems. Realistic experimental imperfections are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aChen, Gang1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1655v100483nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005300041210005200094300001100146490000700157100002500164700001800189700001200207700001400219700001600233700001400249856005000263 2011 eng d00aQuantum magnetism with polar alkali-metal dimers0 aQuantum magnetism with polar alkalimetal dimers a0336190 v841 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, S, R1 aChen, G1 aDemler, E1 aLukin, M, D1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033619/01380nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006200041210006100103260001500164300001200179490000600191520095800197100002301155700001901178856003701197 2011 eng d00aQuantum query complexity of minor-closed graph properties0 aQuantum query complexity of minorclosed graph properties c2011/01/01 a661-6720 v93 a We study the quantum query complexity of minor-closed graph properties, which include such problems as determining whether an $n$-vertex graph is planar, is a forest, or does not contain a path of a given length. We show that most minor-closed properties---those that cannot be characterized by a finite set of forbidden subgraphs---have quantum query complexity \Theta(n^{3/2}). To establish this, we prove an adversary lower bound using a detailed analysis of the structure of minor-closed properties with respect to forbidden topological minors and forbidden subgraphs. On the other hand, we show that minor-closed properties (and more generally, sparse graph properties) that can be characterized by finitely many forbidden subgraphs can be solved strictly faster, in o(n^{3/2}) queries. Our algorithms are a novel application of the quantum walk search framework and give improved upper bounds for several subgraph-finding problems. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aKothari, Robin uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1011.1443v201051nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001400184490000700198520060100205100002400806700001800830700002000848856003700868 2010 eng d00aQMA-complete problems for stoquastic Hamiltonians and Markov matrices0 aQMAcomplete problems for stoquastic Hamiltonians and Markov matr c2010/3/290 v813 a We show that finding the lowest eigenvalue of a 3-local symmetric stochastic matrix is QMA-complete. We also show that finding the highest energy of a stoquastic Hamiltonian is QMA-complete and that adiabatic quantum computation using certain excited states of a stoquastic Hamiltonian is universal. We also show that adiabatic evolution in the ground state of a stochastic frustration free Hamiltonian is universal. Our results give a new QMA-complete problem arising in the classical setting of Markov chains, and new adiabatically universal Hamiltonians that arise in many physical systems. 1 aJordan, Stephen, P.1 aGosset, David1 aLove, Peter, J. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0905.4755v201122nas a2200145 4500008004100000245004600041210004600087260001400133300001100147490000700158520073400165100002300899700001700922856003700939 2010 eng d00aQuantum algorithms for algebraic problems0 aQuantum algorithms for algebraic problems c2010/1/15 a1 - 520 v823 a Quantum computers can execute algorithms that dramatically outperform classical computation. As the best-known example, Shor discovered an efficient quantum algorithm for factoring integers, whereas factoring appears to be difficult for classical computers. Understanding what other computational problems can be solved significantly faster using quantum algorithms is one of the major challenges in the theory of quantum computation, and such algorithms motivate the formidable task of building a large-scale quantum computer. This article reviews the current state of quantum algorithms, focusing on algorithms with superpolynomial speedup over classical computation, and in particular, on problems with an algebraic flavor. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 avan Dam, Wim uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0812.0380v101335nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005200041210005100093260001500144300001200159490000700171520096900178100001701147856003701164 2010 eng d00aQuantum computation and pseudo-telepathic games0 aQuantum computation and pseudotelepathic games c2010/05/14 a458-4720 v753 a A quantum algorithm succeeds not because the superposition principle allows 'the computation of all values of a function at once' via 'quantum parallelism,' but rather because the structure of a quantum state space allows new sorts of correlations associated with entanglement, with new possibilities for information-processing transformations between correlations, that are not possible in a classical state space. I illustrate this with an elementary example of a problem for which a quantum algorithm is more efficient than any classical algorithm. I also introduce the notion of 'pseudo-telepathic' games and show how the difference between classical and quantum correlations plays a similar role here for games that can be won by quantum players exploiting entanglement, but not by classical players whose only allowed common resource consists of shared strings of random numbers (common causes of the players' correlated responses in a game). 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1005.2449v102052nas a2200193 4500008004100000245002200041210002200063260001300085300001200098490000800110520156800118100002301686700001901709700002201728700002301750700002401773700002401797856003701821 2010 eng d00aQuantum Computing0 aQuantum Computing c2010/3/4 a45 - 530 v4643 a Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusual phenomena leave little doubt as to its fundamental correctness. In fact, without quantum mechanics we could not explain the workings of a laser, nor indeed how a fridge magnet operates. Over the last several decades quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit these unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes. Many research groups around the world are working towards one of the most ambitious goals humankind has ever embarked upon: a quantum computer that promises to exponentially improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for this task---ranging from single particles of light to superconducting circuits---and it is not yet clear which, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain what the major challenges are for the future. 1 aLadd, Thaddeus, D.1 aJelezko, Fedor1 aLaflamme, Raymond1 aNakamura, Yasunobu1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aO'Brien, Jeremy, L. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1009.2267v101818nas a2200109 4500008004100000245006700041210006500108260001500173520146600188100001701654856003701671 2010 eng d00aQuantum probabilities: an information-theoretic interpretation0 aQuantum probabilities an informationtheoretic interpretation c2010/05/143 a This Chapter develops a realist information-theoretic interpretation of the nonclassical features of quantum probabilities. On this view, what is fundamental in the transition from classical to quantum physics is the recognition that \emph{information in the physical sense has new structural features}, just as the transition from classical to relativistic physics rests on the recognition that space-time is structurally different than we thought. Hilbert space, the event space of quantum systems, is interpreted as a kinematic (i.e., pre-dynamic) framework for an indeterministic physics, in the sense that the geometric structure of Hilbert space imposes objective probabilistic or information-theoretic constraints on correlations between events, just as the geometric structure of Minkowski space in special relativity imposes spatio-temporal kinematic constraints on events. The interpretation of quantum probabilities is more subjectivist in spirit than other discussions in this book (e.g., the chapter by Timpson), insofar as the quantum state is interpreted as a credence function---a bookkeeping device for keeping track of probabilities---but it is also objective (or intersubjective), insofar as the credences specified by the quantum state are understood as uniquely determined, via Gleason's theorem, by objective correlational constraints on events in the nonclassical quantum event space defined by the subspace structure of Hilbert space. 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1005.2448v101146nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005500041210005400096260001500150300001200165520072600177100002100903700002300924700001600947856003700963 2010 eng d00aQuantum property testing for bounded-degree graphs0 aQuantum property testing for boundeddegree graphs c2010/12/14 a365-3763 a We study quantum algorithms for testing bipartiteness and expansion of bounded-degree graphs. We give quantum algorithms that solve these problems in time O(N^(1/3)), beating the Omega(sqrt(N)) classical lower bound. For testing expansion, we also prove an Omega(N^(1/4)) quantum query lower bound, thus ruling out the possibility of an exponential quantum speedup. Our quantum algorithms follow from a combination of classical property testing techniques due to Goldreich and Ron, derandomization, and the quantum algorithm for element distinctness. The quantum lower bound is obtained by the polynomial method, using novel algebraic techniques and combinatorial analysis to accommodate the graph structure. 1 aAmbainis, Andris1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aLiu, Yi-Kai uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1012.3174v301338nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005200041210005200093260001400145490000800159520087000167100001701037700001601054700002401070700002001094700001701114856003701131 2010 eng d00aQuantum state tomography via compressed sensing0 aQuantum state tomography via compressed sensing c2010/10/40 v1053 a We establish methods for quantum state tomography based on compressed sensing. These methods are specialized for quantum states that are fairly pure, and they offer a significant performance improvement on large quantum systems. In particular, they are able to reconstruct an unknown density matrix of dimension d and rank r using O(rd log^2 d) measurement settings, compared to standard methods that require d^2 settings. Our methods have several features that make them amenable to experimental implementation: they require only simple Pauli measurements, use fast convex optimization, are stable against noise, and can be applied to states that are only approximately low-rank. The acquired data can be used to certify that the state is indeed close to pure, so no a priori assumptions are needed. We present both theoretical bounds and numerical simulations. 1 aGross, David1 aLiu, Yi-Kai1 aFlammia, Steven, T.1 aBecker, Stephen1 aEisert, Jens uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0909.3304v401260nas a2200133 4500008004100000245010100041210006900142260001400211490000700225520080900232100002401041700002401065856003701089 2009 eng d00aQuadratic fermionic interactions yield effective Hamiltonians for adiabatic quantum computing 0 aQuadratic fermionic interactions yield effective Hamiltonians fo c2009/3/240 v793 a Polynomially-large ground-state energy gaps are rare in many-body quantum systems, but useful for adiabatic quantum computing. We show analytically that the gap is generically polynomially-large for quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians. We then prove that adiabatic quantum computing can realize the ground states of Hamiltonians with certain random interactions, as well as the ground states of one, two, and three-dimensional fermionic interaction lattices, in polynomial time. Finally, we use the Jordan-Wigner transformation and a related transformation for spin-3/2 particles to show that our results can be restated using spin operators in a surprisingly simple manner. A direct consequence is that the one-dimensional cluster state can be found in polynomial time using adiabatic quantum computing. 1 aO'Hara, Michael, J.1 aO'Leary, Dianne, P. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0808.1768v101371nas a2200121 4500008004100000245005200041210005200093260001500145300001200160520102400172100001601196856003701212 2009 eng d00aQuantum Algorithms Using the Curvelet Transform0 aQuantum Algorithms Using the Curvelet Transform c2009/10/28 a391-4003 a The curvelet transform is a directional wavelet transform over R^n, which is used to analyze functions that have singularities along smooth surfaces (Candes and Donoho, 2002). I demonstrate how this can lead to new quantum algorithms. I give an efficient implementation of a quantum curvelet transform, together with two applications: a single-shot measurement procedure for approximately finding the center of a ball in R^n, given a quantum-sample over the ball; and, a quantum algorithm for finding the center of a radial function over R^n, given oracle access to the function. I conjecture that these algorithms succeed with constant probability, using one quantum-sample and O(1) oracle queries, respectively, independent of the dimension n -- this can be interpreted as a quantum speed-up. To support this conjecture, I prove rigorous bounds on the distribution of probability mass for the continuous curvelet transform. This shows that the above algorithms work in an idealized "continuous" model. 1 aLiu, Yi-Kai uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0810.4968v201274nas a2200181 4500008004100000245011400041210006900155260001400224490000800238520068400246100001700930700002000947700002500967700002400992700001901016700002001035856003701055 2009 eng d00aQuantum Phase Transitions and Continuous Observation of Spinor Dynamics in an Antiferromagnetic Condensate 0 aQuantum Phase Transitions and Continuous Observation of Spinor D c2009/3/230 v1023 a Condensates of spin-1 sodium display rich spin dynamics due to the antiferromagnetic nature of the interactions in this system. We use Faraday rotation spectroscopy to make a continuous and minimally destructive measurement of the dynamics over multiple spin oscillations on a single evolving condensate. This method provides a sharp signature to locate a magnetically tuned separatrix in phase space which depends on the net magnetization. We also observe a phase transition from a two- to a three-component condensate at a low but finite temperature using a Stern-Gerlach imaging technique. This transition should be preserved as a zero-temperature quantum phase transition. 1 aLiu, Yingmei1 aJung, Sebastian1 aMaxwell, Stephen, E.1 aTurner, Lincoln, D.1 aTiesinga, Eite1 aLett, Paul., D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0902.3189v100937nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005000041210004600091260001500137520051500152100002100667700002300688700002300711700002000734856003700754 2009 eng d00aThe quantum query complexity of certification0 aquantum query complexity of certification c2009/03/063 a We study the quantum query complexity of finding a certificate for a d-regular, k-level balanced NAND formula. Up to logarithmic factors, we show that the query complexity is Theta(d^{(k+1)/2}) for 0-certificates, and Theta(d^{k/2}) for 1-certificates. In particular, this shows that the zero-error quantum query complexity of evaluating such formulas is O(d^{(k+1)/2}) (again neglecting a logarithmic factor). Our lower bound relies on the fact that the quantum adversary method obeys a direct sum theorem. 1 aAmbainis, Andris1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aLe Gall, François1 aTani, Seiichiro uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0903.1291v201333nas a2200181 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090260001400139490000700153520083600160100001900996700002001015700001701035700002101052700002201073700001901095856003701114 2008 eng d00aQuantum behavior of the dc SQUID phase qubit0 aQuantum behavior of the dc SQUID phase qubit c2008/6/130 v773 a We analyze the behavior of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) phase qubit in which one junction acts as a phase qubit and the rest of the device provides isolation from dissipation and noise in the bias leads. Ignoring dissipation, we find the two-dimensional Hamiltonian of the system and use numerical methods and a cubic approximation to solve Schrodinger's equation for the eigenstates, energy levels, tunneling rates, and expectation value of the currents in the junctions. Using these results, we investigate how well this design provides isolation while preserving the characteristics of a phase qubit. In addition, we show that the expectation value of current flowing through the isolation junction depends on the state of the qubit and can be used for non-destructive read out of the qubit state. 1 aMitra, Kaushik1 aStrauch, F., W.1 aLobb, C., J.1 aAnderson, J., R.1 aWellstood, F., C.1 aTiesinga, Eite uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.3680v101534nas a2200109 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090260001500139520120900154100002401363856003701387 2008 eng d00aQuantum Computation Beyond the Circuit Model0 aQuantum Computation Beyond the Circuit Model c2008/09/133 a The quantum circuit model is the most widely used model of quantum computation. It provides both a framework for formulating quantum algorithms and an architecture for the physical construction of quantum computers. However, several other models of quantum computation exist which provide useful alternative frameworks for both discovering new quantum algorithms and devising new physical implementations of quantum computers. In this thesis, I first present necessary background material for a general physics audience and discuss existing models of quantum computation. Then, I present three results relating to various models of quantum computation: a scheme for improving the intrinsic fault tolerance of adiabatic quantum computers using quantum error detecting codes, a proof that a certain problem of estimating Jones polynomials is complete for the one clean qubit complexity class, and a generalization of perturbative gadgets which allows k-body interactions to be directly simulated using 2-body interactions. Lastly, I discuss general principles regarding quantum computation that I learned in the course of my research, and using these principles I propose directions for future research. 1 aJordan, Stephen, P. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0809.2307v100989nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005500041210005500096260001500151520057900166100002300745700002600768700002400794856003700818 2007 eng d00aQuantum algorithms for hidden nonlinear structures0 aQuantum algorithms for hidden nonlinear structures c2007/05/213 a Attempts to find new quantum algorithms that outperform classical computation have focused primarily on the nonabelian hidden subgroup problem, which generalizes the central problem solved by Shor's factoring algorithm. We suggest an alternative generalization, namely to problems of finding hidden nonlinear structures over finite fields. We give examples of two such problems that can be solved efficiently by a quantum computer, but not by a classical computer. We also give some positive results on the quantum query complexity of finding hidden nonlinear structures. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aSchulman, Leonard, J.1 aVazirani, Umesh, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0705.2784v100956nas a2200109 4500008004100000245006300041210006100104260001500165520061000180100001900790856003700809 2007 eng d00aA quantum dot implementation of the quantum NAND algorithm0 aquantum dot implementation of the quantum NAND algorithm c2007/08/103 aWe propose a physical implementation of the quantum NAND tree evaluation algorithm. Our approach, based on continuous time quantum walks, uses the wave interference of a single electron in a heirarchical set of tunnel coupled quantum dots. We find that the query complexity of the NAND tree evaluation does not suffer strongly from disorder and dephasing, nor is it directly limited by temperature or restricted dimensionality for 2-d structures. Finally, we suggest a potential application of this algorithm to the efficient determination of high-order correlation functions of complex quantum systems. 1 aTaylor, J., M. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0708.1484v101544nas a2200109 4500008004100000245005900041210005900100260001500159520119900174100001701373856004401390 2006 eng d00aQuantum computation from a quantum logical perspective0 aQuantum computation from a quantum logical perspective c2006/05/293 a It is well-known that Shor's factorization algorithm, Simon's period-finding algorithm, and Deutsch's original XOR algorithm can all be formulated as solutions to a hidden subgroup problem. Here the salient features of the information-processing in the three algorithms are presented from a different perspective, in terms of the way in which the algorithms exploit the non-Boolean quantum logic represented by the projective geometry of Hilbert space. From this quantum logical perspective, the XOR algorithm appears directly as a special case of Simon's algorithm, and all three algorithms can be seen as exploiting the non-Boolean logic represented by the subspace structure of Hilbert space in a similar way. Essentially, a global property of a function (such as a period, or a disjunctive property) is encoded as a subspace in Hilbert space representing a quantum proposition, which can then be efficiently distinguished from alternative propositions, corresponding to alternative global properties, by a measurement (or sequence of measurements) that identifies the target proposition as the proposition represented by the subspace containing the final state produced by the algorithm. 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0605243v201321nas a2200157 4500008004100000022001400041245005800055210005800113260001500171300001000186490000700196520083300203100002401036700002501060856007801085 2005 eng d a1068-961300aQR Factorizations Using a Restricted Set of Rotations0 aQR Factorizations Using a Restricted Set of Rotations c2005/07/11 a20-270 v213 aAny matrix A of dimension m × n (m ≥ n) can be reduced to upper triangular form by multiplying by a sequence of mn − n(n + 1)/2 appropriately chosen rotation matrices. In this work, we address the question of whether such a factorization exists when the set of allowed rotation planes is restricted. We introduce the rotation graph as a tool to devise elimination orderings in QR factorizations. Properties of this graph characterize sets of rotation planes that are sufficient (or sufficient under permutation) and identify rotation planes to add to complete a deficient set. We also devise a constructive way to determine all feasible rotation sequences for performing the QR factorization using a restricted set of rotation planes. We present applications to quantum circuit design and parallel QR factorization.1 aO'Leary, Dianne, P.1 aBullock, Stephen, S. uhttp://www.emis.ams.org/journals/ETNA/vol.21.2005/pp20-27.dir/pp20-27.pdf01092nas a2200121 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001500163520070800178100002300886700001700909856004400926 2005 eng d00aQuantum algorithm for a generalized hidden shift problem0 aQuantum algorithm for a generalized hidden shift problem c2005/07/193 a Consider the following generalized hidden shift problem: given a function f on {0,...,M-1} x Z_N satisfying f(b,x)=f(b+1,x+s) for b=0,1,...,M-2, find the unknown shift s in Z_N. For M=N, this problem is an instance of the abelian hidden subgroup problem, which can be solved efficiently on a quantum computer, whereas for M=2, it is equivalent to the dihedral hidden subgroup problem, for which no efficient algorithm is known. For any fixed positive epsilon, we give an efficient (i.e., poly(log N)) quantum algorithm for this problem provided M > N^epsilon. The algorithm is based on the "pretty good measurement" and uses H. Lenstra's (classical) algorithm for integer programming as a subroutine. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 avan Dam, Wim uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0507190v101105nas a2200121 4500008004100000245009900041210006900140260001500209520067400224100002300898700001800921856004400939 2005 eng d00aOn the quantum hardness of solving isomorphism problems as nonabelian hidden shift problems 0 aquantum hardness of solving isomorphism problems as nonabelian h c2005/10/253 a We consider an approach to deciding isomorphism of rigid n-vertex graphs (and related isomorphism problems) by solving a nonabelian hidden shift problem on a quantum computer using the standard method. Such an approach is arguably more natural than viewing the problem as a hidden subgroup problem. We prove that the hidden shift approach to rigid graph isomorphism is hard in two senses. First, we prove that Omega(n) copies of the hidden shift states are necessary to solve the problem (whereas O(n log n) copies are sufficient). Second, we prove that if one is restricted to single-register measurements, an exponential number of hidden shift states are required. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aWocjan, Pawel uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0510185v100763nas a2200109 4500008004100000245004000041210004000081260001500121520045600136100001700592856004400609 2005 eng d00aQuantum information and computation0 aQuantum information and computation c2005/12/153 a This article deals with theoretical developments in the subject of quantum information and quantum computation, and includes an overview of classical information and some relevant quantum mechanics. The discussion covers topics in quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, and concludes by considering whether a perspective in terms of quantum information sheds new light on the conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0512125v200876nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005100041210005100092260001500143300001400158490000700172520050200179100001700681856004400698 2005 eng d00aQuantum mechanics is about quantum information0 aQuantum mechanics is about quantum information c2005/04/01 a541 - 5600 v353 a I argue that quantum mechanics is fundamentally a theory about the representation and manipulation of information, not a theory about the mechanics of nonclassical waves or particles. The notion of quantum information is to be understood as a new physical primitive -- just as, following Einstein's special theory of relativity, a field is no longer regarded as the physical manifestation of vibrations in a mechanical medium, but recognized as a new physical primitive in its own right. 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0408020v201230nas a2200193 4500008004100000245007800041210006900119260001500188520065600203100001900859700001500878700001500893700001600908700001800924700001500942700001800957700001700975856004400992 2004 eng d00aQuantum information processing using localized ensembles of nuclear spins0 aQuantum information processing using localized ensembles of nucl c2004/07/233 aWe describe a technique for quantum information processing based on localized en sembles of nuclear spins. A qubit is identified as the presence or absence of a collective excitation of a mesoscopic ensemble of nuclear spins surrounding a single quantum dot. All single and two-qubit operations can be effected using hyperfine interactions and single-electron spin rotations, hence the proposed scheme avoids gate errors arising from entanglement between spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Ultra-long coherence times of nuclear spins suggest that this scheme could be particularly well suited for applications where long lived memory is essential. 1 aTaylor, J., M.1 aGiedke, G.1 aChrist, H.1 aParedes, B.1 aCirac, J., I.1 aZoller, P.1 aLukin, M., D.1 aImamoglu, A. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0407640v201386nas a2200265 4500008004100000245006600041210006500107260001500172300000900187490000700196520066500203100002100868700001800889700001300907700002100920700001700941700001300958700001100971700001500982700002200997700002301019700001901042700001501061856004401076 2004 eng d00aQuantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization0 aQuantum key distribution with 125 Gbps clock synchronization c2004/05/17 a20110 v123 a We have demonstrated the exchange of sifted quantum cryptographic key over a 730 meter free-space link at rates of up to 1.0 Mbps, two orders of magnitude faster than previously reported results. A classical channel at 1550 nm operates in parallel with a quantum channel at 845 nm. Clock recovery techniques on the classical channel at 1.25 Gbps enable quantum transmission at up to the clock rate. System performance is currently limited by the timing resolution of our silicon avalanche photodiode detectors. With improved detector resolution, our technique will yield another order of magnitude increase in performance, with existing technology. 1 aBienfang, J., C.1 aGross, A., J.1 aMink, A.1 aHershman, B., J.1 aNakassis, A.1 aTang, X.1 aLu, R.1 aSu, D., H.1 aClark, Charles, W1 aWilliams, Carl, J.1 aHagley, E., W.1 aWen, Jesse uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0405097v101268nas a2200121 4500008004100000245004200041210004200083260001500125520091400140100002301054700002501077856004401102 2003 eng d00aQuantum algorithms for subset finding0 aQuantum algorithms for subset finding c2003/11/063 a Recently, Ambainis gave an O(N^(2/3))-query quantum walk algorithm for element distinctness, and more generally, an O(N^(L/(L+1)))-query algorithm for finding L equal numbers. We point out that this algorithm actually solves a much more general problem, the problem of finding a subset of size L that satisfies any given property. We review the algorithm and give a considerably simplified analysis of its query complexity. We present several applications, including two algorithms for the problem of finding an L-clique in an N-vertex graph. One of these algorithms uses O(N^(2L/(L+1))) edge queries, and the other uses \tilde{O}(N^((5L-2)/(2L+4))), which is an improvement for L <= 5. The latter algorithm generalizes a recent result of Magniez, Santha, and Szegedy, who considered the case L=3 (finding a triangle). We also pose two open problems regarding continuous time quantum walk and lower bounds. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aEisenberg, Jason, M. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0311038v201194nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006400041210006200105260001400167490000700181520075200188100002300940700001800963700002300981856004401004 2003 eng d00aA Quantum Computer Architecture using Nonlocal Interactions0 aQuantum Computer Architecture using Nonlocal Interactions c2003/5/270 v673 a Several authors have described the basic requirements essential to build a scalable quantum computer. Because many physical implementation schemes for quantum computing rely on nearest neighbor interactions, there is a hidden quantum communication overhead to connect distant nodes of the computer. In this paper we propose a physical solution to this problem which, together with the key building blocks, provides a pathway to a scalable quantum architecture using nonlocal interactions. Our solution involves the concept of a quantum bus that acts as a refreshable entanglement resource to connect distant memory nodes providing an architectural concept for quantum computers analogous to the von Neumann architecture for classical computers. 1 aBrennen, Gavin, K.1 aSong, Daegene1 aWilliams, Carl, J. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0301012v201071nas a2200181 4500008004100000245003400041210003400075260001400109490000700123520059100130100002300721700001900744700001800763700002300781700001700804700002400821856004400845 2002 eng d00aQuantum search by measurement0 aQuantum search by measurement c2002/9/230 v663 a We propose a quantum algorithm for solving combinatorial search problems that uses only a sequence of measurements. The algorithm is similar in spirit to quantum computation by adiabatic evolution, in that the goal is to remain in the ground state of a time-varying Hamiltonian. Indeed, we show that the running times of the two algorithms are closely related. We also show how to achieve the quadratic speedup for Grover's unstructured search problem with only two measurements. Finally, we discuss some similarities and differences between the adiabatic and measurement algorithms. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aDeotto, Enrico1 aFarhi, Edward1 aGoldstone, Jeffrey1 aGutmann, Sam1 aLandahl, Andrew, J. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0204013v100978nas a2200109 4500008004100000245003900041210003500080260001500115520067700130100001700807856004400824 2000 eng d00aThe quantum bit commitment theorem0 aquantum bit commitment theorem c2000/07/253 a Unconditionally secure two-party bit commitment based solely on the principles of quantum mechanics (without exploiting special relativistic signalling constraints, or principles of general relativity or thermodynamics) has been shown to be impossible, but the claim is repeatedly challenged. The quantum bit commitment theorem is reviewed here and the central conceptual point, that an `Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen' attack or cheating strategy can always be applied, is clarified. The question of whether following such a cheating strategy can ever be disadvantageous to the cheater is considered and answered in the negative. There is, indeed, no loophole in the theorem. 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0007090v401129nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005000041210005000091260001500141300001400156490000700170520069000177100002300867700001900890700001800909856004400927 2000 eng d00aQuantum information and precision measurement0 aQuantum information and precision measurement c1999/04/07 a155 - 1760 v473 a We describe some applications of quantum information theory to the analysis of quantum limits on measurement sensitivity. A measurement of a weak force acting on a quantum system is a determination of a classical parameter appearing in the master equation that governs the evolution of the system; limitations on measurement accuracy arise because it is not possible to distinguish perfectly among the different possible values of this parameter. Tools developed in the study of quantum information and computation can be exploited to improve the precision of physics experiments; examples include superdense coding, fast database search, and the quantum Fourier transform. 1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aPreskill, John1 aRenes, Joseph uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9904021v200624nas a2200109 4500008004100000245004400041210004400085260001500129520030900144100001700453856004400470 1999 eng d00aQuantum Mechanics as a Principle Theory0 aQuantum Mechanics as a Principle Theory c1999/10/223 a I show how quantum mechanics, like the theory of relativity, can be understood as a 'principle theory' in Einstein's sense, and I use this notion to explore the approach to the problem of interpretation developed in my book Interpreting the Quantum World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). 1 aBub, Jeffrey uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9910096v1