We use Nielsen's approach to quantify the circuit complexity in the one-dimensional Kitaev model. In equilibrium, we find that the circuit complexity of ground states exhibits a divergent derivative at the critical point, signaling the presence of a topological phase transition. Out of equilibrium, we study the complexity dynamics after a sudden quench, and find that the steady-state complexity exhibits nonanalytical behavior when quenched across critical points. We generalize our results to the long-range interacting case, and demonstrate that the circuit complexity correctly predicts the critical point between regions with different semi-integer topological numbers. Our results establish a connection between circuit complexity and quantum phase transitions both in and out of equilibrium, and can be easily generalized to topological phase transitions in higher dimensions. Our study opens a new avenue to using circuit complexity as a novel quantity to understand many-body systems.

1 aLiu, Fangli1 aLundgren, Rex1 aTitum, Paraj1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1902.1072001697nas a2200169 4500008004100000245008100041210006900122260001500191520115700206100002001363700002301383700001901406700002001425700002001445700002501465856003701490 2019 eng d00aComplexity phase diagram for interacting and long-range bosonic Hamiltonians0 aComplexity phase diagram for interacting and longrange bosonic H c06/10/20193 aRecent years have witnessed a growing interest in topics at the intersection of many-body physics and complexity theory. Many-body physics aims to understand and classify emergent behavior of systems with a large number of particles, while complexity theory aims to classify computational problems based on how the time required to solve the problem scales as the problem size becomes large. In this work, we use insights from complexity theory to classify phases in interacting many-body systems. Specifically, we demonstrate a "complexity phase diagram" for the Bose-Hubbard model with long-range hopping. This shows how the complexity of simulating time evolution varies according to various parameters appearing in the problem, such as the evolution time, the particle density, and the degree of locality. We find that classification of complexity phases is closely related to upper bounds on the spread of quantum correlations, and protocols to transfer quantum information in a controlled manner. Our work motivates future studies of complexity in many-body systems and its interplay with the associated physical phenomena.

1 aMaskara, Nishad1 aDeshpande, Abhinav1 aTran, Minh, C.1 aEhrenberg, Adam1 aFefferman, Bill1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1906.0417801746nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006800041210006700109260001500176490000900191520117800200100001601378700001801394700001701412700001801429700001901447700002401466700002501490856003701515 2019 eng d00aConfined Dynamics in Long-Range Interacting Quantum Spin Chains0 aConfined Dynamics in LongRange Interacting Quantum Spin Chains c04/17/20190 v122 3 aWe study the quasiparticle excitation and quench dynamics of the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model with power-law (1/rα) interactions. We find that long-range interactions give rise to a confining potential, which couples pairs of domain walls (kinks) into bound quasiparticles, analogous to mesonic bound states in high-energy physics. We show that these bound states have dramatic consequences for the non-equilibrium dynamics following a global quantum quench, such as suppressed spreading of quantum information and oscillations of order parameters. The masses of these bound states can be read out from the Fourier spectrum of these oscillating order parameters. We then use a two-kink model to qualitatively explain the phenomenon of long-range-interaction-induced confinement. The masses of the bound states predicted by this model are in good quantitative agreement with exact diagonalization results. Moreover, we illustrate that these bound states lead to weak thermalization of local observables for initial states with energy near the bottom of the many-body energy spectrum. Our work is readily applicable to current trapped-ion experiments.

1 aLiu, Fangli1 aLundgren, Rex1 aTitum, Paraj1 aPagano, Guido1 aZhang, Jiehang1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1810.0236501255nas a2200121 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126520083900195100002101034700002501055700001601080856003701096 2019 eng d00aFluctuation-induced torque on a topological insulator out of thermal equilibrium0 aFluctuationinduced torque on a topological insulator out of ther3 aTopological insulators with the time reversal symmetry broken exhibit strong magnetoelectric and magneto-optic effects. While these effects are well-understood in or near equilibrium, nonequilibrium physics is richer yet less explored. We consider a topological insulator thin film, weakly coupled to a ferromagnet, out of thermal equilibrium with a cold environment (quantum electrodynamics vacuum). We show that the heat flow to the environment is strongly circularly polarized, thus carrying away angular momentum and exerting a purely fluctuation-driven torque on the topological insulator film. Utilizing the Keldysh framework, we investigate the universal nonequilibrium response of the TI to the temperature difference with the environment. Finally, we argue that experimental observation of this effect is within reach.

1 aMaghrebi, M., F.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aSau, J., D. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1811.0608001177nas a2200181 4500008004100000245009600041210006900137260001500206520059500221100001600816700002200832700001600854700001800870700002400888700002100912700002500933856003700958 2019 eng d00aHeisenberg-Scaling Measurement Protocol for Analytic Functions with Quantum Sensor Networks0 aHeisenbergScaling Measurement Protocol for Analytic Functions wi c01/25/20193 aWe generalize past work on quantum sensor networks to show that, for d input parameters, entanglement can yield a factor O(d) improvement in mean squared error when estimating an analytic function of these parameters. We show that the protocol is optimal for qubit sensors, and conjecture an optimal protocol for photons passing through interferometers. Our protocol is also applicable to continuous variable measurements, such as one quadrature of a field operator. We outline a few potential applications, including calibration of laser operations in trapped ion quantum computing.

1 aQian, Kevin1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aGe, Wenchao1 aPagano, Guido1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aPorto, James, V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1901.0904201878nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113260001500182490000800197520135800205100002801563700001801591700001601609700002501625700002201650856003601672 2019 eng d00aInteracting Qubit-Photon Bound States with Superconducting Circuits0 aInteracting QubitPhoton Bound States with Superconducting Circui c2018/01/300 vX 93 aQubits strongly coupled to a photonic crystal give rise to many exotic physical scenarios, beginning with single and multi-excitation qubit-photon dressed bound states comprising induced spatially localized photonic modes, centered around the qubits, and the qubits themselves. The localization of these states changes with qubit detuning from the band-edge, offering an avenue of in situ control of bound state interaction. Here, we present experimental results from a device with two qubits coupled to a superconducting microwave photonic crystal and realize tunable on-site and inter-bound state interactions. We observe a fourth-order two photon virtual process between bound states indicating strong coupling between the photonic crystal and qubits. Due to their localization-dependent interaction, these states offer the ability to create one-dimensional chains of bound states with tunable and potentially long-range interactions that preserve the qubits' spatial organization, a key criterion for realization of certain quantum many-body models. The widely tunable, strong and robust interactions demonstrated with this system are promising benchmarks towards realizing larger, more complex systems of bound states.

1 aSundaresan, Neereja, M.1 aLundgren, Rex1 aZhu, Guanyu1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHouck, Andrew, A. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1801.1016701253nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008900041210006900130260001500199490000800214520078100222100002101003700002501024700002101049856003701070 2019 eng d00aInteraction-induced transition in the quantum chaotic dynamics of a disordered metal0 aInteractioninduced transition in the quantum chaotic dynamics of c03/25/20190 v4053 aWe demonstrate that a weakly disordered metal with short-range interactions exhibits a transition in the quantum chaotic dynamics when changing the temperature or the interaction strength. For weak interactions, the system displays exponential growth of the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) of the current operator. The Lyapunov exponent of this growth is temperature-independent in the limit of vanishing interaction. With increasing the temperature or the interaction strength, the system undergoes a transition to a non-chaotic behaviour, for which the exponential growth of the OTOC is absent. We conjecture that the transition manifests itself in the quasiparticle energy-level statistics and also discuss ways of its explicit observation in cold-atom setups.

1 aSyzranov, S., V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGalitski, V., M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1709.0929601743nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007000041210006900111260001500180490000600195520112800201100002101329700002001350700001301370700002401383700002201407700002301429700002301452700002501475856003701500 2019 eng d00aLocality and digital quantum simulation of power-law interactions0 aLocality and digital quantum simulation of powerlaw interactions c07/10/20190 v93 aThe propagation of information in non-relativistic quantum systems obeys a speed limit known as a Lieb-Robinson bound. We derive a new Lieb-Robinson bound for systems with interactions that decay with distance r as a power law, 1/rα. The bound implies an effective light cone tighter than all previous bounds. Our approach is based on a technique for approximating the time evolution of a system, which was first introduced as part of a quantum simulation algorithm by Haah et al. [arXiv:1801.03922]. To bound the error of the approximation, we use a known Lieb-Robinson bound that is weaker than the bound we establish. This result brings the analysis full circle, suggesting a deep connection between Lieb-Robinson bounds and digital quantum simulation. In addition to the new Lieb-Robinson bound, our analysis also gives an error bound for the Haah et al. quantum simulation algorithm when used to simulate power-law decaying interactions. In particular, we show that the gate count of the algorithm scales with the system size better than existing algorithms when α>3D (where D is the number of dimensions).

1 aTran, Minh, Cong1 aGuo, Andrew, Y.1 aSu, Yuan1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1808.0522502311nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005700041210005600098260001500154520186200169100002202031700002502053700002302078700002702101856003702128 2019 eng d00aNon-equilibrium fixed points of coupled Ising models0 aNonequilibrium fixed points of coupled Ising models c03/06/20193 aDriven-dissipative systems can exhibit non-equilibrium phenomena that are absent in their equilibrium counterparts. However, phase transitions present in these systems generically exhibit an effectively classical equilibrium behavior in spite of their quantum non-equilibrium origin. In this paper, we show that multicritical points in driven-dissipative systems can give rise to genuinely non-equilibrium behavior. We investigate a non-equilibrium driven-dissipative model of interacting bosons that exhibits two distinct phase transitions: one from a high- to a low-density phase---reminiscent of a liquid-gas transition---and another to an antiferromagnetic phase. Each phase transition is described by the Ising universality class characterized by an (emergent or microscopic) Z2 symmetry. They, however, coalesce at a multicritical point giving rise to a non-equilibrium model of coupled Ising-like order parameters described by a Z2×Z2 symmetry. Using a dynamical renormalization-group approach, we show that a pair of non-equilibrium fixed points (NEFPs) emerge that govern the long-distance critical behavior of the system. We elucidate various exotic features of these NEFPs. In particular, we show that a generic continuous scale invariance at criticality is reduced to a discrete scale invariance. This further results in complex-valued critical exponents, spiraling phase boundaries, and a complex Liouvillian gap even close to the phase transition. As direct evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the NEFPs, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is violated at all scales, leading to an effective temperature that becomes "hotter" and "hotter" at longer and longer wavelengths. Finally, we argue that this non-equilibrium behavior can be observed in cavity arrays with cross-Kerr nonlinearities.

1 aYoung, Jeremy, T.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1903.0256902010nas a2200409 4500008004100000245006800041210006600109260001500175520084400190100001901034700002601053700002001079700002001099700002001119700001701139700002501156700002201181700001901203700001701222700002201239700002101261700002501282700001901307700002301326700001801349700001901367700002101386700002101407700001501428700002001443700002401463700001801487700002301505700001901528700001601547856003701563 2019 eng d00aOpportunities for Nuclear Physics & Quantum Information Science0 aOpportunities for Nuclear Physics Quantum Information Science c03/13/20193 ahis whitepaper is an outcome of the workshop Intersections between Nuclear Physics and Quantum Information held at Argonne National Laboratory on 28-30 March 2018 [www.phy.anl.gov/npqi2018/]. The workshop brought together 116 national and international experts in nuclear physics and quantum information science to explore opportunities for the two fields to collaborate on topics of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, and more broadly to U.S. society and industry. The workshop consisted of 22 invited and 10 contributed talks, as well as three panel discussion sessions. Topics discussed included quantum computation, quantum simulation, quantum sensing, nuclear physics detectors, nuclear many-body problem, entanglement at collider energies, and lattice gauge theories.

1 aCloët, I., C.1 aDietrich, Matthew, R.1 aArrington, John1 aBazavov, Alexei1 aBishof, Michael1 aFreese, Adam1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGrassellino, Anna1 aHafidi, Kawtar1 aJacob, Zubin1 aMcGuigan, Michael1 aMeurice, Yannick1 aMeziani, Zein-Eddine1 aMueller, Peter1 aMuschik, Christine1 aOsborn, James1 aOtten, Matthew1 aPetreczky, Peter1 aPolakovic, Tomas1 aPoon, Alan1 aPooser, Raphael1 aRoggero, Alessandro1 aSaffman, Mark1 aVanDevender, Brent1 aZhang, Jiehang1 aZohar, Erez uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1903.0545301611nas a2200205 4500008004100000245008100041210006900122260001500191490000800206520098000214100001701194700001601211700002401227700002201251700002501273700002401298700002101322700002501343856003701368 2019 eng d00aScale-Invariant Continuous Entanglement Renormalization of a Chern Insulator0 aScaleInvariant Continuous Entanglement Renormalization of a Cher c03/27/20190 v1223 aThe multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) postulates the existence of quantum circuits that renormalize entanglement in real space at different length scales. Chern insulators, however, cannot have scale-invariant discrete MERA circuits with finite bond dimension. In this Letter, we show that the continuous MERA (cMERA), a modified version of MERA adapted for field theories, possesses a fixed point wavefunction with nonzero Chern number. Additionally, it is well known that reversed MERA circuits can be used to prepare quantum states efficiently in time that scales logarithmically with the size of the system. However, state preparation via MERA typically requires the advent of a full-fledged universal quantum computer. In this Letter, we demonstrate that our cMERA circuit can potentially be realized in existing analog quantum computers, i.e., an ultracold atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice with light-induced spin-orbit coupling.

1 aChu, Su-Kuan1 aZhu, Guanyu1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aCuriel, Ana, Valdés1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aSpielman, I., B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1807.1148601754nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001500174520126400189100002001453700001901473700002301492700002501515700001901540856003701559 2019 eng d00aSignaling and Scrambling with Strongly Long-Range Interactions0 aSignaling and Scrambling with Strongly LongRange Interactions c06/06/20193 aStrongly long-range interacting quantum systems---those with interactions decaying as a power-law 1/rα in the distance r on a D-dimensional lattice for α≤D---have received significant interest in recent years. They are present in leading experimental platforms for quantum computation and simulation, as well as in theoretical models of quantum information scrambling and fast entanglement creation. Since no notion of locality is expected in such systems, a general understanding of their dynamics is lacking. As a first step towards rectifying this problem, we prove two new Lieb-Robinson-type bounds that constrain the time for signaling and scrambling in strongly long-range interacting systems, for which no tight bounds were previously known. Our first bound applies to systems mappable to free-particle Hamiltonians with long-range hopping, and is saturable for α≤D/2. Our second bound pertains to generic long-range interacting spin Hamiltonians, and leads to a tight lower bound for the signaling time to extensive subsets of the system for all α<D. This result also lower-bounds the scrambling time, and suggests a path towards achieving a tight scrambling bound that can prove the long-standing fast scrambling conjecture.

1 aGuo, Andrew, Y.1 aTran, Minh, C.1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1906.0266201449nas a2200169 4500008004100000245008800041210006900129260001500198490000800213520091700221100001601138700002401154700002001178700001901198700002501217856003701242 2018 eng d00aAsymmetric Particle Transport and Light-Cone Dynamics Induced by Anyonic Statistics0 aAsymmetric Particle Transport and LightCone Dynamics Induced by c2018/12/200 v1213 aWe study the non-equilibrium dynamics of Abelian anyons in a one-dimensional system. We find that the interplay of anyonic statistics and interactions gives rise to spatially asymmetric particle transport together with a novel dynamical symmetry that depends on the anyonic statistical angle and the sign of interactions. Moreover, we show that anyonic statistics induces asymmetric spreading of quantum information, characterized by asymmetric light cones of out-of-time-ordered correlators. Such asymmetric dynamics is in sharp contrast with the dynamics of conventional fermions or bosons, where both the transport and information dynamics are spatially symmetric. We further discuss experiments with cold atoms where the predicted phenomena can be observed using state-of-the-art technologies. Our results pave the way toward experimentally probing anyonic statistics through non-equilibrium dynamics.

1 aLiu, Fangli1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aDeng, Dong-Ling1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.0261401379nas a2200217 4500008004100000245005600041210005400097520077800151100001600929700001800945700001300963700001400976700002200990700001501012700002001027700001401047700002001061700001801081700002501099856003701124 2018 eng d00aCoherent optical nano-tweezers for ultra-cold atoms0 aCoherent optical nanotweezers for ultracold atoms3 aThere has been a recent surge of interest and progress in creating subwavelength free-space optical potentials for ultra-cold atoms. A key open question is whether geometric potentials, which are repulsive and ubiquitous in the creation of subwavelength free-space potentials, forbid the creation of narrow traps with long lifetimes. Here, we show that it is possible to create such traps. We propose two schemes for realizing subwavelength traps and demonstrate their superiority over existing proposals. We analyze the lifetime of atoms in such traps and show that long-lived bound states are possible. This work opens a new frontier for the subwavelength control and manipulation of ultracold matter, with applications in quantum chemistry and quantum simulation.

1 aBienias, P.1 aSubhankar, S.1 aWang, Y.1 aTsui, T-C1 aJendrzejewski, F.1 aTiecke, T.1 aJuzeliūnas, G.1 aJiang, L.1 aRolston, S., L.1 aPorto, J., V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1808.0248704213nas a2200241 4500008004100000245006900041210006800110260001500178300001100193490000800204520348600212100001503698700002303713700002403736700001903760700001903779700002503798700002503823700001803848700002103866700002403887856006003911 2018 eng d00aDark state optical lattice with sub-wavelength spatial structure0 aDark state optical lattice with subwavelength spatial structure c2018/02/20 a0836010 v1203 aWe report on the experimental realization of a conservative optical lattice for cold atoms with a subwavelength spatial structure. The potential is based on the nonlinear optical response of three-level atoms in laser-dressed dark states, which is not constrained by the diffraction limit of the light generating the potential. The lattice consists of a one-dimensional array of ultranarrow barriers with widths less than 10 nm, well below the wavelength of the lattice light, physically realizing a Kronig-Penney potential. We study the band structure and dissipation of this lattice and find good agreement with theoretical predictions. Even on resonance, the observed lifetimes of atoms trapped in the lattice are as long as 44 ms, nearly 105times the excited state lifetime, and could be further improved with more laser intensity. The potential is readily generalizable to higher dimensions and different geometries, allowing, for example, nearly perfect box traps, narrow tunnel junctions for atomtronics applications, and dynamically generated lattices with subwavelength spacings.

1 aWang, Yang1 aSubhankar, Sarthak1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aLacki, Mateusz1 aTsui, Tsz-Chun1 aBaranov, Mikhail, A.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aZoller, Peter1 aPorto, James, V.1 aRolston, Steven, L. uhttps://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.08360103349nas a2200217 4500008004100000245008400041210006900125260001500194300001100209490000700220520266700227100002202894700002002916700001702936700003102953700002102984700002403005700002103029700002503050856005603075 2018 eng d00aDissipation induced dipole blockade and anti-blockade in driven Rydberg systems0 aDissipation induced dipole blockade and antiblockade in driven R c2018/02/28 a0234240 v973 aWe study theoretically and experimentally the competing blockade and antiblockade effects induced by spontaneously generated contaminant Rydberg atoms in driven Rydberg systems. These contaminant atoms provide a source of strong dipole-dipole interactions and play a crucial role in the system's behavior. We study this problem theoretically using two different approaches. The first is a cumulant expansion approximation, in which we ignore third-order and higher connected correlations. Using this approach for the case of resonant drive, a many-body blockade radius picture arises, and we find qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. We further predict that as the atomic density is increased, the Rydberg population's dependence on Rabi frequency will transition from quadratic to linear dependence at lower Rabi frequencies. We study this behavior experimentally by observing this crossover at two different atomic densities. We confirm that the larger density system has a smaller crossover Rabi frequency than the smaller density system. The second theoretical approach is a set of phenomenological inhomogeneous rate equations. We compare the results of our rate-equation model to the experimental observations [E. A. Goldschmidt *et al.*, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 113001 (2016)] and find that these rate equations provide quantitatively good scaling behavior of the steady-state Rydberg population for both resonant and off-resonant drives.

We derive a bound on the ability of a linear optical network to estimate a linear combination of independent phase shifts by using an arbitrary non-classical but unentangled input state, thereby elucidating the quantum resources required to obtain the Heisenberg limit with a multi-port interferometer. Our bound reveals that while linear networks can generate highly entangled states, they cannot effectively combine quantum resources that are well distributed across multiple modes for the purposes of metrology: in this sense linear networks endowed with well-distributed quantum resources behave classically. Conversely, our bound shows that linear networks can achieve the Heisenberg limit for distributed metrology when the input photons are hoarded in a small number of input modes, and we present an explicit scheme for doing so. Our results also have implications for measures of non-classicality.

1 aGe, Wenchao1 aJacobs, Kurt1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aFoss-Feig, Michael uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1707.0665501425nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007800041210006900119260001500188520092400203100001601127700001701143700002201160700002501182700002301207856003701230 2018 eng d00aDistributed Quantum Metrology and the Entangling Power of Linear Networks0 aDistributed Quantum Metrology and the Entangling Power of Linear c2018/07/253 aWe derive a bound on the ability of a linear optical network to estimate a linear combination of independent phase shifts by using an arbitrary non-classical but unentangled input state, thereby elucidating the quantum resources required to obtain the Heisenberg limit with a multi-port interferometer. Our bound reveals that while linear networks can generate highly entangled states, they cannot effectively combine quantum resources that are well distributed across multiple modes for the purposes of metrology: in this sense linear networks endowed with well-distributed quantum resources behave classically. Conversely, our bound shows that linear networks can achieve the Heisenberg limit for distributed metrology when the input photons are hoarded in a small number of input modes, and we present an explicit scheme for doing so. Our results also have implications for measures of non-classicality.

1 aGe, Wenchao1 aJacobs, Kurt1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aFoss-Feig, Michael uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1707.0665512409nas a2200169 45000080041000002450055000412100055000963000047001514900008001985201188600206100002312092700002012115700001912135700002312154700002512177856003712202 2018 eng d00aDynamical phase transitions in sampling complexity0 aDynamical phase transitions in sampling complexity a12 pages, 4 figures. v3: published version0 v1213 aWe make the case for studying the complexity of approximately simulating (sampling) quantum systems for reasons beyond that of quantum computational supremacy, such as diagnosing phase transitions. We consider the sampling complexity as a function of time

We make the case for studying the complexity of approximately simulating (sampling) quantum systems for reasons beyond that of quantum computational supremacy, such as diagnosing phase transitions. We consider the sampling complexity as a function of time

Highly tunable platforms for realizing topological phases of matter are emerging from atomic and photonic systems, and offer the prospect of designing interactions between particles. The shape of the potential, besides playing an important role in the competition between different fractional quantum Hall phases, can also trigger the transition to symmetry-broken phases, or even to phases where topological and symmetry-breaking order coexist. Here, we explore the phase diagram of an interacting bosonic model in the lowest Landau level at half-filling as two-body interactions are tuned. Apart from the well-known Laughlin liquid, Wigner crystal phase, stripe, and bubble phases, we also find evidence of a phase that exhibits crystalline order at fractional filling per crystal site. The Laughlin liquid transits into this phase when pairs of bosons strongly repel each other at relative angular momentum 4ℏ. We show that such interactions can be achieved by dressing ground-state cold atoms with multiple different-parity Rydberg states.

1 aGraß, Tobias1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aGullans, Michael, J.1 aLundgren, Rex1 aMaciejko, Joseph1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.0449302027nas a2200241 4500008004100000245007500041210006900116260001500185300001200200490000800212520128400220100001701504700002901521700002201550700002601572700002501598700002501623700002301648700001601671700002301687700002001710856005501730 2018 eng d00aObservation of three-photon bound states in a quantum nonlinear medium0 aObservation of threephoton bound states in a quantum nonlinear m c2018/02/16 a783-7860 v3593 aBound states of massive particles, such as nuclei, atoms or molecules, are ubiquitous in nature and constitute the bulk of the visible world around us. In contrast, photons typically only weakly influence each other due to their very weak interactions and vanishing mass. We report the observation of traveling three-photon bound states in a quantum nonlinear medium where the interactions between photons are mediated by atomic Rydberg states. In particular, photon correlation and conditional phase measurements reveal the distinct features associated with three-photon and two-photon bound states. Such photonic trimers and dimers can be viewed as quantum solitons with shape-preserving wavefunctions that depend on the constituent photon number. The observed bunching and strongly nonlinear optical phase are quantitatively described by an effective field theory (EFT) of Rydberg-induced photon-photon interactions, which demonstrates the presence of a substantial effective three-body force between the photons. These observations pave the way towards the realization, studies, and control of strongly interacting quantum many-body states of light.

1 aLiang, Qi-Yu1 aVenkatramani, Aditya, V.1 aCantu, Sergio, H.1 aNicholson, Travis, L.1 aGullans, Michael, J.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aThompson, Jeff, D.1 aChin, Cheng1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aVuletic, Vladan uhttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6377/78301192nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001500183520071800198100002200916700002300938700002400961700002500985856003601010 2018 eng d00aOptimal and Secure Measurement Protocols for Quantum Sensor Networks0 aOptimal and Secure Measurement Protocols for Quantum Sensor Netw c2018/03/233 aStudies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared to product states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the quantity to be measured is a linear function of parameters coupled to each qubit individually. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of non-local observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multi-parameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose a protocol that can make use of GHZ states or spin-squeezed states, and show that in the case of GHZ states the procedure is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound.

1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aRolston, Steven, L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1607.0464601686nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006900041210006900110260001500179490000700194520113900201100002001340700002401360700002201384700001801406700002501424700001801449856003701467 2018 eng d00aOptimization of photon storage fidelity in ordered atomic arrays0 aOptimization of photon storage fidelity in ordered atomic arrays c2018/08/310 v203 aA major application for atomic ensembles consists of a quantum memory for light, in which an optical state can be reversibly converted to a collective atomic excitation on demand. There exists a well-known fundamental bound on the storage error, when the ensemble is describable by a continuous medium governed by the Maxwell-Bloch equations. The validity of this model can break down, however, in systems such as dense, ordered atomic arrays, where strong interference in emission can give rise to phenomena such as subradiance and "selective" radiance. Here, we develop a general formalism that finds the maximum storage efficiency for a collection of atoms with discrete, known positions, and a given spatial mode in which an optical field is sent. As an example, we apply this technique to study a finite two-dimensional square array of atoms. We show that such a system enables a storage error that scales with atom number Na like ∼(logNa)2/N2a, and that, remarkably, an array of just 4×4 atoms in principle allows for an efficiency comparable to a disordered ensemble with optical depth of around 600.

1 aManzoni, M., T.1 aMoreno-Cardoner, M.1 aAsenjo-Garcia, A.1 aPorto, J., V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aChang, D., E. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1710.0631202080nas a2200229 4500008004100000245007800041210006900119520136400188100002401552700001901576700002401595700001701619700002301636700002101659700001801680700002501698700001901723700002701742700001901769700002501788856003701813 2018 eng d00aPhoton propagation through dissipative Rydberg media at large input rates0 aPhoton propagation through dissipative Rydberg media at large in3 aWe study the dissipative propagation of quantized light in interacting Rydberg media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. The regime of high incoming photon flux constitutes a challenging many-body dissipative problem. We experimentally study in detail for the first time the pulse shapes and the second-order correlation function of the outgoing field and compare our data with simulations based on two novel theoretical approaches well-suited to treat this many-photon limit. At low incoming flux, we report good agreement between both theories and the experiment. For higher input flux, the intensity of the outgoing light is lower than that obtained from theoretical predictions. We explain this discrepancy using a simple phenomenological model taking into account pollutants, which are nearly-stationary Rydberg excitations coming from the reabsorption of scattered probe photons. At high incoming photon rates, the blockade physics results in unconventional shapes of measured correlation functions.

1 aBienias, Przemyslaw1 aDouglas, James1 aParis-Mandoki, Asaf1 aTitum, Paraj1 aMirgorodskiy, Ivan1 aTresp, Christoph1 aZeuthen, Emil1 aGullans, Michael, J.1 aManzoni, Marco1 aHofferberth, Sebastian1 aChang, Darrick1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1807.0758601386nas a2200193 4500008004100000245004800041210004700089260001500136520082300151100002300974700002300997700002101020700002101041700002401062700002501086700002701111700001701138856003701155 2018 eng d00aPhoton Subtraction by Many-Body Decoherence0 aPhoton Subtraction by ManyBody Decoherence c2018/03/133 aWe present an experimental and theoretical investigation of the scattering-induced decoherence of multiple photons stored in a strongly interacting atomic ensemble. We derive an exact solution to this many-body problem, allowing for a rigorous understanding of the underlying dissipative quantum dynamics. Combined with our experiments, this analysis demonstrates a correlated coherence-protection process, in which the induced decoherence of one photon can preserve the spatial coherence of all others. We discuss how this effect can be used to manipulate light at the quantum level, providing a robust mechanism for single-photon subtraction, and experimentally demonstrate this capability.

1 aMurray, Callum, R.1 aMirgorodskiy, Ivan1 aTresp, Christoph1 aBraun, Christoph1 aParis-Mandoki, Asaf1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHofferberth, Sebastian1 aPohl, Thomas uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1710.1004701768nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108520130400174100001701478700002201495700002401517700002501541700001901566856003701585 2018 eng d00aProbing ground-state phase transitions through quench dynamics0 aProbing groundstate phase transitions through quench dynamics3 aThe study of quantum phase transitions requires the preparation of a many-body system near its ground state, a challenging task for many experimental systems. The measurement of quench dynamics, on the other hand, is now a routine practice in most cold atom platforms. Here we show that quintessential ingredients of quantum phase transitions can be probed directly with quench dynamics in integrable and nearly integrable systems. As a paradigmatic example, we study global quench dynamics in a transverse-field Ising model with either short-range or long-range interactions. When the model is integrable, we discover a new dynamical critical point with a non-analytic signature in the short-range correlators. The location of the dynamical critical point matches that of the quantum critical point and can be identified using a finite-time scaling method. We extend this scaling picture to systems near integrability and demonstrate the continued existence of a dynamical critical point detectable at prethermal time scales. Therefore, our method can be used to approximately locate the quantum critical point. The scaling method is also relevant to experiments with finite time and system size, and our predictions are testable in near-term experiments with trapped ions and Rydberg atoms.

1 aTitum, Paraj1 aIosue, Joseph, T.1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.0637701242nas a2200157 4500008004100000245005100041210005000092520077600142100001600918700002500934700002200959700001800981700002300999700002501022856003701047 2018 eng d00aSingle-photon bound states in atomic ensembles0 aSinglephoton bound states in atomic ensembles3 aWe illustrate the existence of single-excitation bound states for propagating photons interacting with N two-level atoms. These bound states can be calculated from an effective spin model, and their existence relies on dissipation in the system. The appearance of these bound states is in a one-to-one correspondence with zeros in the single-photon transmission and with divergent bunching in the second-order photon-photon correlation function. We also formulate a dissipative version of Levinson's theorem for this system by looking at the relation between the number of bound states and the winding number of the transmission phases. This theorem allows a direct experimental measurement of the number of bound states using the measured transmission phases.

1 aWang, Yidan1 aGullans, Michael, J.1 aBrowaeys, Antoine1 aPorto, J., V.1 aChang, Darrick, E.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1809.0114701204nas a2200181 4500008004100000245007100041210006900112260001500181490000800196520064500204100002700849700001900876700001900895700002700914700002000941700002500961856003600986 2018 eng d00aSpectrum estimation of density operators with alkaline-earth atoms0 aSpectrum estimation of density operators with alkalineearth atom c2018/01/090 v1203 aWe show that Ramsey spectroscopy of fermionic alkaline-earth atoms in a square-well trap provides an efficient and accurate estimate for the eigenspectrum of a density matrix whose *n *copies are stored in the nuclear spins of *n *such atoms. This spectrum estimation is enabled by the high symmetry of the interaction Hamiltonian, dictated, in turn, by the decoupling of the nuclear spin from the electrons and by the shape of the square-well trap. Practical performance of this procedure and its potential applications to quantum computing, quantum simulation, and time-keeping with alkalineearth atoms are discussed.

The construction of large-scale quantum computers will require modular architectures that allow physical resources to be localized in easy-to-manage packages. In this work, we examine the impact of different graph structures on the preparation of entangled states. We begin by explaining a formal framework, the hierarchical product, in which modular graphs can be easily constructed. This framework naturally leads us to suggest a class of graphs, which we dub hierarchies. We argue that such graphs have favorable properties for quantum information processing, such as a small diameter and small total edge weight, and use the concept of Pareto efficiency to identify promising quantum graph architectures. We present numerical and analytical results on the speed at which large entangled states can be created on nearest-neighbor grids and hierarchy graphs. We also present a scheme for performing circuit placement--the translation from circuit diagrams to machine qubits--on quantum systems whose connectivity is described by hierarchies.

1 aBapat, Aniruddha1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aDesphande, Abhinav1 aChong, Frederic, T.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1808.0787605805nas a2200145 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090260001500139520537700154100002305531700002005554700002305574700002505597856003705622 2017 eng d00aComplexity of sampling as an order parameter0 aComplexity of sampling as an order parameter c2017/03/153 aWe consider the classical complexity of approximately simulating time evolution under spatially local quadratic bosonic Hamiltonians for time

Rydberg blockade physics in optically dense atomic media under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to strong dissipative interactions between single photons. We introduce a new approach to analyzing this challenging many-body problem in the limit of large optical depth per blockade radius. In our approach, we separate the single-polariton EIT physics from Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in a serialized manner while using a hard-sphere model for the latter, thus capturing the dualistic particle-wave nature of light as it manifests itself in dissipative Rydberg-EIT media. Using this approach, we analyze the saturation behavior of the transmission through one-dimensional Rydberg-EIT media in the regime of non-perturbative dissipative interactions relevant to current experiments. Our model is in good agreement with experimental data. We also analyze a scheme for generating regular trains of single photons from continuous-wave input and derive its scaling behavior in the presence of imperfect single-photon EIT.

1 aZeuthen, Emil1 aGullans, Michael1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1608.0606801217nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006400041210006200105260001500167300001100182490000800193520070900201100001900910700002300929700003300952700002500985856003701010 2017 eng d00a{E}ntanglement area laws for long-range interacting systems0 aE ntanglement area laws for longrange interacting systems c2017/07/31 a0505010 v1193 aWe prove that the entanglement entropy of any state evolved under an arbitrary 1/rα long-range-interacting D-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonian cannot change faster than a rate proportional to the boundary area for any α > D + 1. We also prove that for any α > 2D + 2, the ground state of such a Hamiltonian satisfies the entanglement area law if it can be transformed along a gapped adiabatic path into a ground state known to satisfy the area law. These results significantly generalize their existing counterparts for short-range interacting systems, and are useful for identifying dynamical phase transitions and quantum phase transitions in the presence of long-range interactions.

1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aBrandão, Fernando, G. S. L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1702.0536801804nas a2200217 4500008004100000245005000041210005000091260001500141300001100156490000800167520121700175100002001392700001401412700002401426700001801450700002001468700001701488700002501505700001901530856003701549 2017 eng d00aEfimov States of Strongly Interacting Photons0 aEfimov States of Strongly Interacting Photons c2017/12/04 a2336010 v1193 aWe demonstrate the emergence of universal Efimov physics for interacting photons in cold gases of Rydberg atoms. We consider the behavior of three photons injected into the gas in their propagating frame, where a paraxial approximation allows us to consider them as massive particles. In contrast to atoms and nuclei, the photons have a large anisotropy between their longitudinal mass, arising from dispersion, and their transverse mass, arising from diffraction. Nevertheless, we show that in suitably rescaled coordinates the effective interactions become dominated by s-wave scattering near threshold and, as a result, give rise to an Efimov effect near unitarity, but with spatially anisotropic wavefunctions in the original coordinates. We show that the three-body loss of these Efimov trimers can be strongly suppressed and determine conditions under which these states are observable in current experiments. These effects can be naturally extended to probe few-body universality beyond three bodies, as well as the role of Efimov physics in the non-equilbrium, many-body regime.

1 aGullans, M., J.1 aDiehl, S.1 aRittenhouse, S., T.1 aRuzic, B., P.1 aD'Incao, J., P.1 aJulienne, P.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aTaylor, J., M. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1709.0195502145nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005800041210005700099260001500156300001100171490000700182520152100189100002301710700002101733700002201754700002101776700002501797700002101822700002701843856006901870 2017 eng d00aEmergent equilibrium in many-body optical bistability0 aEmergent equilibrium in manybody optical bistability c2017/04/17 a0438260 v953 aMany-body systems constructed of quantum-optical building blocks can now be realized in experimental platforms ranging from exciton-polariton fluids to ultracold gases of Rydberg atoms, establishing a fascinating interface between traditional many-body physics and the driven-dissipative, non-equilibrium setting of cavity-QED. At this interface, the standard techniques and intuitions of both fields are called into question, obscuring issues as fundamental as the role of fluctuations, dimensionality, and symmetry on the nature of collective behavior and phase transitions. Here, we study the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model, a minimal description of numerous atomic, optical, and solid-state systems in which particle loss is countered by coherent driving. Despite being a lattice version of optical bistability---a foundational and patently non-equilibrium model of cavity-QED---the steady state possesses an emergent equilibrium description in terms of a classical Ising model. We establish this picture by identifying a limit in which the quantum dynamics is asymptotically equivalent to non-equilibrium Langevin equations, which support a phase transition described by model A of the Hohenberg-Halperin classification. Numerical simulations of the Langevin equations corroborate this picture, producing results consistent with the behavior of a finite-temperature Ising model.

1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aNiroula, Pradeep1 aYoung, Jeremy, T.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWilson, Ryan, M.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F. uhttps://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.04382602985nas a2200157 4500008004100000245004900041210004900090260001500139300001100154490000700165520255000172100002002722700002302742700002502765856003702790 2017 eng d00aExact sampling hardness of Ising spin models0 aExact sampling hardness of Ising spin models c2017/09/14 a0323240 v963 aWe study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of *exact* classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in *Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)*, Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl–Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

We investigate the topological degeneracy that can be realized in Abelian fractional quantum spin Hall states with multiply connected gapped boundaries. Such a topological degeneracy (also dubbed as "boundary degeneracy") does not require superconducting proximity effect and can be created by simply applying a depletion gate to the quantum spin Hall material and using a generic spin-mixing term (e.g., due to backscattering) to gap out the edge modes. We construct an exactly soluble microscopic model manifesting this topological degeneracy and solve it using the recently developed technique [S. Ganeshan and M. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 93, 075118 (2016)]. The corresponding string operators spanning this degeneracy are explicitly calculated. It is argued that the proposed scheme is experimentally reasonable.

1 aGaneshan, Sriram1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGurarie, Victor1 aGalitski, Victor, M. uhttp://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.04530927528nas a2200181 45000080041000002450087000412100069001282600015001973000011002124900008002235202696300231100002227194700001927216700002627235700002327261700002527284856003727309 2017 eng d00aFast State Transfer and Entanglement Renormalization Using Long-Range Interactions0 aFast State Transfer and Entanglement Renormalization Using LongR c2017/10/25 a1705030 v1193 aIn short-range interacting systems, the speed at which entanglement can be established between two separated points is limited by a constant Lieb-Robinson velocity. Long-range interacting systems are capable of faster entanglement generation, but the degree of the speed-up possible is an open question. In this paper, we present a protocol capable of transferring a quantum state across a distance

Lieb and Robinson provided bounds on how fast bipartite connected correlations can arise in systems with only short-range interactions. We generalize Lieb-Robinson bounds on bipartite connected correlators to multipartite connected correlators. The bounds imply that an n-partite connected correlator can reach unit value in constant time. Remarkably, the bounds also allow for an n-partite connected correlator to reach a value that is exponentially large with system size in constant time, a feature which stands in contrast to bipartite connected correlations. We provide explicit examples of such systems.

1 aTran, Minh, Cong1 aGarrison, James, R.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1705.0435504239nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006100041210005900102260001500161490000700176520377200183100002103955700002403976700001904000700002504019856003704044 2017 eng d00aLieb-Robinson bounds on n-partite connected correlations0 aLiebRobinson bounds on npartite connected correlations c2017/11/270 v963 aLieb and Robinson provided bounds on how fast bipartite connected correlations can arise in systems with only short-range interactions. We generalize Lieb-Robinson bounds on bipartite connected correlators to multipartite connected correlators. The bounds imply that an

We analyze theoretically the many-body dynamics of a dissipative Ising model in a transverse field using a variational approach. We find that the steady state phase diagram is substantially modified compared to its equilibrium counterpart, including the appearance of a multicritical point belonging to a different universality class. Building on our variational analysis, we establish a field-theoretical treatment corresponding to a dissipative variant of a Ginzburg-Landau theory, which allows us to compute the upper critical dimension of the system. Finally, we present a possible experimental realization of the dissipative Ising model using ultracold Rydberg gases.

1 aOverbeck, Vincent, R.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeimer, Hendrik uhttps://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.95.04213301952nas a2200229 4500008004100000245009200041210006900133260001500202300001200217490000800229520128300237100001401520700001501534700001701549700002001566700001501586700001501601700002501616700001801641700001501659856004801674 2017 eng d00aObservation of a Many-Body Dynamical Phase Transition with a 53-Qubit Quantum Simulator0 aObservation of a ManyBody Dynamical Phase Transition with a 53Qu c2017/11/29 a601-6040 v5513 aA quantum simulator is a restricted class of quantum computer that controls the interactions between quantum bits in a way that can be mapped to certain difficult quantum many-body problems. As more control is exerted over larger numbers of qubits, the simulator can tackle a wider range of problems, with the ultimate limit being a universal quantum computer that can solve general classes of hard problems. We use a quantum simulator composed of up to 53 qubits to study a non-equilibrium phase transition in the transverse field Ising model of magnetism, in a regime where conventional statistical mechanics does not apply. The qubits are represented by trapped ion spins that can be prepared in a variety of initial pure states. We apply a global long-range Ising interaction with controllable strength and range, and measure each individual qubit with near 99% efficiency. This allows the single-shot measurement of arbitrary many-body correlations for the direct probing of the dynamical phase transition and the uncovering of computationally intractable features that rely on the long-range interactions and high connectivity between the qubits.

1 aZhang, J.1 aPagano, G.1 aHess, P., W.1 aKyprianidis, A.1 aBecker, P.1 aKaplan, H.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGong, Z., -X.1 aMonroe, C. uhttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature2465401571nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005700041210005400098260001500152520117000167100002101337700002501358700001701383856003701400 2017 eng d00aOut-of-time-order correlators in finite open systems0 aOutoftimeorder correlators in finite open systems c2017/04/273 aWe study out-of-time order correlators (OTOCs) of the form hAˆ(t)Bˆ(0)Cˆ(t)Dˆ(0)i for a quantum system weakly coupled to a dissipative environment. Such an open system may serve as a model of, e.g., a small region in a disordered interacting medium coupled to the rest of this medium considered as an environment. We demonstrate that for a system with discrete energy levels the OTOC saturates exponentially ∝ Paie −t/τi + const to a constant value at t → ∞, in contrast with quantum-chaotic systems which exhibit exponential growth of OTOCs. Focussing on the case of a two-level system, we calculate microscopically the decay times τi and the value of the saturation constant. Because some OTOCs are immune to dephasing processes and some are not, such correlators may decay on two sets of parametrically different time scales related to inelastic transitions between the system levels and to pure dephasing processes, respectively. In the case of a classical environment, the evolution of the OTOC can be mapped onto the evolution of the density matrix of two systems coupled to the same dissipative environment.

1 aSyzranov, S., V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGalitski, V. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1704.0844201534nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006200041210005800103260001500161490000800176520102300184100002301207700002201230700002301252700002501275700002701300856003701327 2017 eng d00aA solvable family of driven-dissipative many-body systems0 asolvable family of drivendissipative manybody systems c2017/11/100 v1193 aExactly solvable models have played an important role in establishing the sophisticated modern understanding of equilibrium many-body physics. And conversely, the relative scarcity of solutions for non-equilibrium models greatly limits our understanding of systems away from thermal equilibrium. We study a family of nonequilibrium models, some of which can be viewed as dissipative analogues of the transverse-field Ising model, in that an effectively classical Hamiltonian is frustrated by dissipative processes that drive the system toward states that do not commute with the Hamiltonian. Surprisingly, a broad and experimentally relevant subset of these models can be solved efficiently in any number of spatial dimensions. We leverage these solutions to prove a no-go theorem on steady-state phase transitions in a many-body model that can be realized naturally with Rydberg atoms or trapped ions, and to compute the effects of decoherence on a canonical trapped-ion-based quantum computation architecture.

1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aYoung, Jeremy, T.1 aAlbert, Victor, V.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1703.0462601556nas a2200217 4500008004100000245006300041210006300104260001500167300001100182490000800193520094300201100002401144700001601168700001801184700001901202700001801221700002501239700002001264700001801284856003601302 2016 eng d00aAnomalous broadening in driven dissipative Rydberg systems0 aAnomalous broadening in driven dissipative Rydberg systems c2016/03/16 a1130010 v1163 aWe observe interaction-induced broadening of the two-photon 5s-18s transition in 87Rb atoms trapped in a 3D optical lattice. The measured linewidth increases by nearly two orders of magnitude with increasing atomic density and excitation strength, with corresponding suppression of resonant scattering and enhancement of off-resonant scattering. We attribute the increased linewidth to resonant dipole-dipole interactions of 18s atoms with spontaneously created populations of nearby np states. Over a range of initial atomic densities and excitation strengths, the transition width is described by a single function of the steady-state density of Rydberg atoms, and the observed resonant excitation rate corresponds to that of a two-level system with the measured, rather than natural, linewidth. The broadening mechanism observed here is likely to have negative implications for many proposals with coherently interacting Rydberg atoms.1 aGoldschmidt, E., A.1 aBoulier, T.1 aBrown, R., C.1 aKoller, S., B.1 aYoung, J., T.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRolston, S., L.1 aPorto, J., V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0871000514nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001500174300001100189490000700200100002700207700001900234700002300253700002500276856005500301 2016 eng d00aCausality and quantum criticality in long-range lattice models0 aCausality and quantum criticality in longrange lattice models c2016/03/17 a1251280 v931 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.12512801582nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001500174300001100189490000700200520107500207100002701282700001901309700002301328700002501351856003601376 2016 eng d00aCausality and quantum criticality with long-range interactions0 aCausality and quantum criticality with longrange interactions c2016/03/17 a1251280 v923 a Quantum lattice systems with long-range interactions often exhibit drastically different behavior than their short-range counterparts. In particular, because they do not satisfy the conditions for the Lieb-Robinson theorem, they need not have an emergent relativistic structure in the form of a light cone. Adopting a field-theoretic approach, we study the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model and a fermionic model with long-range interactions, explore their critical and near-critical behavior, and characterize their response to local perturbations. We deduce the dynamic critical exponent, up to the two-loop order within the renormalization group theory, which we then use to characterize the emergent causal behavior. We show that beyond a critical value of the power-law exponent of long-range interactions, the dynamics effectively becomes relativistic. Various other critical exponents describing correlations in the ground state, as well as deviations from a linear causal cone, are deduced for a wide range of the power-law exponent. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1508.0090601682nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001500163300001100178490000700189520113200196100002101328700002101349700001301370700002501383700002101408700002301429856003601452 2016 eng d00aCollective phases of strongly interacting cavity photons0 aCollective phases of strongly interacting cavity photons c2016/09/01 a0338010 v943 aWe study a coupled array of coherently driven photonic cavities, which maps onto a driven-dissipative XY spin-12 model with ferromagnetic couplings in the limit of strong optical nonlinearities. Using a site-decoupled mean-field approximation, we identify steady state phases with canted antiferromagnetic order, in addition to limit cycle phases, where oscillatory dynamics persist indefinitely. We also identify collective bistable phases, where the system supports two steady states among spatially uniform, antiferromagnetic, and limit cycle phases. We compare these mean-field results to exact quantum trajectories simulations for finite one-dimensional arrays. The exact results exhibit short-range antiferromagnetic order for parameters that have significant overlap with the mean-field phase diagram. In the mean-field bistable regime, the exact quantum dynamics exhibits real-time collective switching between macroscopically distinguishable states. We present a clear physical picture for this dynamics, and establish a simple relationship between the switching times and properties of the quantum Liouvillian.

1 aWilson, Ryan, M.1 aMahmud, Khan, W.1 aHu, Anzi1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aFoss-Feig, Michael uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1601.0685701280nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005000041210005000091260001500141300001100156490000800167520073000175100002100905700002100926700001300947700001900960700001600979700001800995700002501013856003601038 2016 eng d00aEffective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons0 aEffective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons c2016/09/09 a1136010 v1173 aWe study non-perturbative effects in N-body scattering of Rydberg polaritons using effective field theory (EFT). We develop an EFT in one dimension and show how a suitably long medium can be used to prepare shallow N-body bound states. We then derive the effective N-body interaction potential for Rydberg polaritons and the associated N-body contact force that arises in the EFT. We use the contact force to find the leading order corrections to the binding energy of the N-body bound states and determine the photon number at which the EFT description breaks down. We find good agreement throughout between the predictions of EFT and numerical simulations of the exact two and three photon wavefunction transmission.

1 aGullans, Michael1 aThompson, J., D.1 aWang, Y.1 aLiang, Q., -Y.1 aVuletic, V.1 aLukin, M., D.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1605.0565101507nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113260001500182520103700197100002301234700001901257700002501276700002301301856003701324 2016 eng d00aEntanglement and spin-squeezing without infinite-range interactions0 aEntanglement and spinsqueezing without infiniterange interaction c2016/12/223 aInfinite-range interactions are known to facilitate the production of highly entangled states with applications in quantum information and metrology. However, many experimental systems have interactions that decay with distance, and the achievable benefits in this context are much less clear. Combining recent exact solutions with a controlled expansion in the system size, we analyze quench dynamics in Ising models with power-law (1/r α ) interactions in D dimensions, thereby expanding the understanding of spin squeezing into a broad and experimentally relevant context. In spatially homogeneous systems, we show that for small α the scaling of squeezing with system size is identical to the infinite-range (α = 0) case. This indifference to the interaction range persists up to a critical value α = 2D/3, above which squeezing degrades continuously. Boundaryinduced inhomogeneities present in most experimental systems modify this picture, but it nevertheless remains qualitatively correct for finite-sized systems.

1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aClark, Charles, W. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1612.0780501814nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007600041210006900117260001500186300001100201490000700212520120100219100001901420700002701439700001301466700002301479700002101502700002401523700002501547856003601572 2016 eng d00aKaleidoscope of quantum phases in a long-range interacting spin-1 chain0 aKaleidoscope of quantum phases in a longrange interacting spin1 c2016/05/11 a2051150 v933 aMotivated by recent trapped-ion quantum simulation experiments, we carry out a comprehensive study of the phase diagram of a spin-1 chain with XXZ-type interactions that decay as 1/rα, using a combination of finite and infinite-size DMRG calculations, spin-wave analysis, and field theory. In the absence of long-range interactions, varying the spin-coupling anisotropy leads to four distinct phases: a ferromagnetic Ising phase, a disordered XY phase, a topological Haldane phase, and an antiferromagnetic Ising phase. If long-range interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus frustrated, we find primarily a quantitative change of the phase boundaries. On the other hand, ferromagnetic (non-frustrated) long-range interactions qualitatively impact the entire phase diagram. Importantly, for α≲3, long-range interactions destroy the Haldane phase, break the conformal symmetry of the XY phase, give rise to a new phase that spontaneously breaks a U(1) continuous symmetry, and introduce an exotic tricritical point with no direct parallel in short-range interacting spin chains. We show that the main signatures of all five phases found could be observed experimentally in the near future. 1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aHu, Anzi1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aRicherme, Philip1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0210801559nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008500041210006900126260001500195300001100210490000700221520104000228100002301268700002501291700001701316856006801333 2016 eng d00aMany-body decoherence dynamics and optimised operation of a single-photon switch0 aManybody decoherence dynamics and optimised operation of a singl c2016/09/13 a0920010 v183 aWe develop a theoretical framework to characterize the decoherence dynamics due to multi-photon scattering in an all-optical switch based on Rydberg atom induced nonlinearities. By incorporating the knowledge of this decoherence process into optimal photon storage and retrieval strategies, we establish optimised switching protocols for experimentally relevant conditions, and evaluate the corresponding limits in the achievable fidelities. Based on these results we work out a simplified description that reproduces recent experiments [arXiv:1511.09445] and provides a new interpretation in terms of many-body decoherence involving multiple incident photons and multiple gate excitations forming the switch. Aside from offering insights into the operational capacity of realistic photon switching capabilities, our work provides a complete description of spin wave decoherence in a Rydberg quantum optics setting, and has immediate relevance to a number of further applications employing photon storage in Rydberg media.

1 aMurray, Callum, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPohl, Thomas uhttp://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/18/9/09200101599nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006500041210006400106260001500170300001100185490000700196520116200203100002701365700002501392856003601417 2016 eng d00aNonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism0 aNonequilibrium manybody steady states via Keldysh formalism c2016/01/27 a0143070 v933 a Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean field theory, the validity of the mean field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1507.0193902050nas a2200205 4500008004100000245008900041210006900130260001500199520143900214100001801653700001401671700001601685700001401701700001701715700001701732700001801749700002501767700001501792856003701807 2016 eng d00a{O}bservation of {P}rethermalization in {L}ong-{R}ange {I}nteracting {S}pin {C}hains0 aO bservation of P rethermalization in L ong R ange I nteracting c2016/08/023 aStatistical mechanics can predict thermal equilibrium states for most classical systems, but for an isolated quantum system there is no general understanding on how equilibrium states dynamically emerge from the microscopic Hamiltonian. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale and, instead, relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics when approximately conserved quantities are appropriately included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). Here we experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-ranged interactions the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. In this case, the prethermal state cannot be described by a GGE, but rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a significantly broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions.

1 aNeyenhuis, B.1 aSmith, J.1 aLee, A., C.1 aZhang, J.1 aRicherme, P.1 aHess, P., W.1 aGong, Z., -X.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMonroe, C. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1608.0068101353nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006400041210006200105260001500167490000700182520077900189100002700968700001900995700002401014700002301038700001701061700002501078856006801103 2016 eng d00aRealizing Exactly Solvable SU(N) Magnets with Thermal Atoms0 aRealizing Exactly Solvable SUN Magnets with Thermal Atoms c2016/05/060 v933 aWe show that n thermal fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in a flat-bottom trap allow one to robustly implement a spin model displaying two symmetries: the Sn symmetry that permutes atoms occupying different vibrational levels of the trap and the SU(N) symmetry associated with N nuclear spin states. The symmetries make the model exactly solvable, which, in turn, enables the analytic study of dynamical processes such as spin diffusion in this SU(N) system. We also show how to use this system to generate entangled states that allow for Heisenberg-limited metrology. This highly symmetric spin model should be experimentally realizable even when the vibrational levels are occupied according to a high-temperature thermal or an arbitrary nonthermal distribution.

1 aBeverland, Michael, E.1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aMartin, Michael, J.1 aKoller, Andrew, P.1 aRey, Ana, M.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.05160101444nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006100041210006000102260001500162300001100177490000700188520092700195100002201122700001801144700001901162700002501181856006801206 2016 eng d00aSelf-organization of atoms coupled to a chiral reservoir0 aSelforganization of atoms coupled to a chiral reservoir c2016/11/29 a0538550 v943 aTightly confined modes of light, as in optical nanofibers or photonic crystal waveguides, can lead to large optical coupling in atomic systems, which mediates long-range interactions between atoms. These one-dimensional systems can naturally possess couplings that are asymmetric between modes propagating in different directions. Strong long-range interaction among atoms via these modes can drive them to a self-organized periodic distribution. In this paper, we examine the self-organizing behavior of atoms in one dimension coupled to a chiral reservoir. We determine the solution to the equations of motion in different parameter regimes, relative to both the detuning of the pump laser that initializes the atomic dipole-dipole interactions and the degree of reservoir chirality. In addition, we calculate possible experimental signatures such as reflectivity from self-organized atoms and motional sidebands.

1 aEldredge, Zachary1 aSolano, Pablo1 aChang, Darrick1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.05385509346nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005500041210005400096260001500150520881500165100001908980700001608999700002309015700002409038700002009062700002009082700002509102856003709127 2016 eng d00aSteady-state superradiance with Rydberg polaritons0 aSteadystate superradiance with Rydberg polaritons c2016/11/023 aA steady-state superradiant laser can be used to generate ultranarrow-linewidth light, and thus has important applications in the fields of quantum information and precision metrology. However, the light produced by such a laser is still essentially classical. Here, we show that the introduction of a Rydberg medium into a cavity containing atoms with a narrow optical transition can lead to the steady-state superradiant emission of ultranarrow-linewidth

We propose a method for creating far-field optical barrier potentials for ultracold atoms with widths that are narrower than the diffraction limit and can approach tens of nanometers. The reduced widths stem from the nonlinear atomic response to control fields that create spatially varying dark resonances. The subwavelength barrier is the result of the geometric scalar potential experienced by an atom prepared in such a spatially varying dark state. The performance of this technique, as well as its applications to the study of many-body physics and to the implementation of quantum-information protocols with ultracold atoms, are discussed, with a focus on the implementation of tunnel junctions.

1 aJendrzejewski, F.1 aEckel, S.1 aTiecke, T., G.1 aJuzeliūnas, G.1 aCampbell, G., K.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.06342201535nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005200041210005100093260001500144300001100159490000700170520099900177100001901176700002701195700001301222700002201235700002301257700002501280856003601305 2016 eng d00aTopological phases with long-range interactions0 aTopological phases with longrange interactions c2016/01/08 a0411020 v933 a Topological phases of matter are primarily studied in quantum many-body systems with short-range interactions. Whether various topological phases can survive in the presence of long-range interactions, however, is largely unknown. Here we show that a paradigmatic example of a symmetry-protected topological phase, the Haldane phase of an antiferromagnetic spin-1 chain, surprisingly remains intact in the presence of arbitrarily slowly decaying power-law interactions. The influence of long-range interactions on the topological order is largely quantitative, and we expect similar results for more general systems. Our conclusions are based on large-scale matrix-product-state simulations and two complementary effective-field-theory calculations. The striking agreement between the numerical and analytical results rules out finite-size effects. The topological phase considered here should be experimentally observable in a recently developed trapped-ion quantum simulator. 1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aHu, Anzi1 aWall, Michael, L.1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1505.0314601548nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010700041210006900148260001500217520099200232100001801224700001601242700002501258700001701283700001601300856007401316 2015 eng d00aAtom induced cavities and tunable long-range interactions between atoms trapped near photonic crystals0 aAtom induced cavities and tunable longrange interactions between c2015/03/033 aUsing cold atoms to simulate strongly interacting quantum systems represents an exciting frontier of physics. However, achieving tunable, coherent long-range interactions between atoms is an outstanding challenge, which currently leaves a large class of models inaccessible to quantum simulation. Here, we propose a solution exploiting the powerful new platform of cold atoms trapped near nano-photonic systems. We show that the dielectric contrast of an atom trapped near a photonic crystal can seed a localized cavity mode around the atomic position. In a dynamic form of “all-atomic” cavity QED, the length of these cavity modes can be tuned, and atoms separated by the order of the e↵ective cavity length can interact coherently with each other. Considering realistic conditions such as fabrication disorder and photon losses, coherent long-range potentials or spin interactions can be dominant in the system over length scales up to hundreds of wavelengths.

1 aDouglas, J, S1 aHabibian, H1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKimble, H, J1 aChang, D, E uhttp://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v9/n5/full/nphoton.2015.57.html01527nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006900041210006900110260001500179300001100194490000700205520098100212100002001193700002401213700002301237700002201260700002501282856003801307 2015 eng d00aBilayer fractional quantum Hall states with ultracold dysprosium0 aBilayer fractional quantum Hall states with ultracold dysprosium c2015/09/10 a0336090 v923 a We show how dipolar interactions between dysprosium atoms in an optical lattice can be used to obtain fractional quantum Hall states. In our approach, dysprosium atoms are trapped one atom per site in a deep optical lattice with negligible tunneling. Microwave and spatially dependent optical dressing fields are used to define an effective spin-1/2 or spin-1 degree of freedom in each atom. Thinking of spin-1/2 particles as hardcore bosons, dipole-dipole interactions give rise to boson hopping, topological flat bands with Chern number 1, and the \nu = 1/2 Laughlin state. Thinking of spin-1 particles as two-component hardcore bosons, dipole-dipole interactions again give rise to boson hopping, topological flat bands with Chern number 2, and the bilayer Halperin (2,2,1) state. By adjusting the optical fields, we find a phase diagram, in which the (2,2,1) state competes with superfluidity. Generalizations to solid-state magnetic dipoles are discussed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aLev, Benjamin, L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03099v101576nas a2200133 4500008004100000245010700041210006900148260001500217520110300232100002701335700001901362700002501381856003601406 2015 eng d00aContinuous symmetry breaking and a new universality class in 1D long-range interacting quantum systems0 aContinuous symmetry breaking and a new universality class in 1D c2015/10/053 aContinuous symmetry breaking (CSB) in low-dimensional systems, forbidden by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for short-range interactions, may take place in the presence of slowly decaying long-range interactions. Nevertheless, there is no stringent bound on how slowly interactions should decay to give rise to CSB in 1D quantum systems at zero temperature. Here, we study a long-range interacting spin chain with U(1) symmetry and power-law interactions V(r)∼1/rα, directly relevant to ion-trap experiments. Using bosonization and renormalization group theory, we find CSB for α smaller than a critical exponent αc(≤3) depending on the microscopic parameters of the model. Furthermore, the transition from the gapless XY phase to the gapless CSB phase is mediated by the breaking of conformal symmetry due to long-range interactions, and is described by a new universality class akin to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Our analytical findings are in good agreement with a numerical calculation. Signatures of the CSB phase should be accessible in existing trapped-ion experiments.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1510.0132501507nas a2200229 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001500155300001100170490000800181520087400189100002701063700002101090700001601111700001301127700001501140700002001155700001801175700002101193700002501214856003801239 2015 eng d00aCoulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons0 aCoulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons c2015/09/16 a1236010 v1153 a We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGullans, Michael1 aBienias, P.1 aChoi, S.1 aMartin, I.1 aFirstenberg, O.1 aLukin, M., D.1 aBüchler, H., P.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1505.03859v101270nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001500155300001100170490000700181520071900188100002700907700002000934700002100954700001700975700002200992700002501014856003701039 2015 eng d00aFractional Quantum Hall States of Rydberg Polaritons0 aFractional Quantum Hall States of Rydberg Polaritons c2015/03/31 a0338380 v913 a We propose a scheme for realizing fractional quantum Hall states of light. In our scheme, photons of two polarizations are coupled to different atomic Rydberg states to form two flavors of Rydberg polaritons that behave as an effective spin. An array of optical cavity modes overlapping with the atomic cloud enables the realization of an effective spin-1/2 lattice. We show that the dipolar interaction between such polaritons, inherited from the Rydberg states, can be exploited to create a flat, topological band for a single spin-flip excitation. At half filling, this gives rise to a photonic (or polaritonic) fractional Chern insulator -- a lattice-based, fractional quantum Hall state of light. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aPohl, Thomas1 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1411.6624v101522nas a2200169 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113260001500182300001100197490000800208520100900216100002301225700001901248700002301267700002501290856003701315 2015 eng d00aNearly-linear light cones in long-range interacting quantum systems0 aNearlylinear light cones in longrange interacting quantum system c2015/04/13 a1572010 v1143 a In non-relativistic quantum theories with short-range Hamiltonians, a velocity $v$ can be chosen such that the influence of any local perturbation is approximately confined to within a distance $r$ until a time $t \sim r/v$, thereby defining a linear light cone and giving rise to an emergent notion of locality. In systems with power-law ($1/r^{\alpha}$) interactions, when $\alpha$ exceeds the dimension $D$, an analogous bound confines influences to within a distance $r$ only until a time $t\sim(\alpha/v)\log r$, suggesting that the velocity, as calculated from the slope of the light cone, may grow exponentially in time. We rule out this possibility; light cones of power-law interacting systems are algebraic for $\alpha>2D$, becoming linear as $\alpha\rightarrow\infty$. Our results impose strong new constraints on the growth of correlations and the production of entangled states in a variety of rapidly emerging, long-range interacting atomic, molecular, and optical systems. 1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aClark, Charles, W.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1410.3466v101362nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005800041210005800099260001500157300001100172490000800183520083900191100002701030700002101057700002201078700002501100700001701125856003801142 2015 eng d00aParafermionic zero modes in ultracold bosonic systems0 aParafermionic zero modes in ultracold bosonic systems c2015/08/06 a0653010 v1153 a Exotic topologically protected zero modes with parafermionic statistics (also called fractionalized Majorana modes) have been proposed to emerge in devices fabricated from a fractional quantum Hall system and a superconductor. The fractionalized statistics of these modes takes them an important step beyond the simplest non-Abelian anyons, Majorana fermions. Building on recent advances towards the realization of fractional quantum Hall states of bosonic ultracold atoms, we propose a realization of parafermions in a system consisting of Bose-Einstein-condensate trenches within a bosonic fractional quantum Hall state. We show that parafermionic zero modes emerge at the endpoints of the trenches and give rise to a topologically protected degeneracy. We also discuss methods for preparing and detecting these modes. 1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGaneshan, Sriram1 aClarke, David, J.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aSau, Jay, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1504.04012v200602nas a2200193 4500008004100000022001400041245007400055210006900129260001500198300001400213490000600227100002000233700001700253700001600270700002500286700001900311700001800330856006000348 2015 eng d a1749-488500aQuantum many-body models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crystals0 aQuantum manybody models with cold atoms coupled to photonic crys c2015/04/04 a326 - 3310 v91 aDouglas, J., S.1 aHabibian, H.1 aHung, C.-L.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKimble, H., J.1 aChang, D., E. uhttp://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nphoton.2015.5700466nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006400041210006400105300001100169490000800180100001700188700001700205700002500222700001400247856005900261 2014 eng d00aBeyond the spin model approximation for Ramsey spectroscopy0 aBeyond the spin model approximation for Ramsey spectroscopy a1230010 v1121 aKoller, A, P1 aBeverland, M1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.12300101319nas a2200169 4500008004100000245004200041210004100083260001400124490000800138520086500146100001901011700001701030700002101047700002501068700001901093856003701112 2014 eng d00aKitaev chains with long-range pairing0 aKitaev chains with longrange pairing c2014/10/90 v1133 a We propose and analyze a generalization of the Kitaev chain for fermions with long-range $p$-wave pairing, which decays with distance as a power-law with exponent $\alpha$. Using the integrability of the model, we demonstrate the existence of two types of gapped regimes, where correlation functions decay exponentially at short range and algebraically at long range ($\alpha > 1$) or purely algebraically ($\alpha < 1$). Most interestingly, along the critical lines, long-range pairing is found to break conformal symmetry for sufficiently small $\alpha$. This is accompanied by a violation of the area law for the entanglement entropy in large parts of the phase diagram in the presence of a gap, and can be detected via the dynamics of entanglement following a quench. Some of these features may be relevant for current experiments with cold atomic ions. 1 aVodola, Davide1 aLepori, Luca1 aErcolessi, Elisa1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPupillo, Guido uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1405.5440v202028nas a2200229 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128260001300197300001400210490000800224520134100232100002101573700001901594700001501613700001901628700001701647700002301664700002501687700002501712700002401737856003701761 2014 eng d00aNon-local propagation of correlations in long-range interacting quantum systems 0 aNonlocal propagation of correlations in longrange interacting qu c2014/7/9 a198 - 2010 v5113 a The maximum speed with which information can propagate in a quantum many-body system directly affects how quickly disparate parts of the system can become correlated and how difficult the system will be to describe numerically. For systems with only short-range interactions, Lieb and Robinson derived a constant-velocity bound that limits correlations to within a linear effective light cone. However, little is known about the propagation speed in systems with long-range interactions, since the best long-range bound is too loose to give the correct light-cone shape for any known spin model and since analytic solutions rarely exist. In this work, we experimentally determine the spatial and time-dependent correlations of a far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body system evolving under a long-range Ising- or XY-model Hamiltonian. For several different interaction ranges, we extract the shape of the light cone and measure the velocity with which correlations propagate through the system. In many cases we find increasing propagation velocities, which violate the Lieb-Robinson prediction, and in one instance cannot be explained by any existing theory. Our results demonstrate that even modestly-sized quantum simulators are well-poised for studying complicated many-body systems that are intractable to classical computation. 1 aRicherme, Philip1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLee, Aaron1 aSenko, Crystal1 aSmith, Jacob1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aMichalakis, Spyridon1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMonroe, Christopher uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1401.5088v101399nas a2200157 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001400174490000800188520091600196100001901112700002301131700002501154700002501179856003701204 2014 eng d00aPersistence of locality in systems with power-law interactions0 aPersistence of locality in systems with powerlaw interactions c2014/7/160 v1133 a Motivated by recent experiments with ultra-cold matter, we derive a new bound on the propagation of information in $D$-dimensional lattice models exhibiting $1/r^{\alpha}$ interactions with $\alpha>D$. The bound contains two terms: One accounts for the short-ranged part of the interactions, giving rise to a bounded velocity and reflecting the persistence of locality out to intermediate distances, while the other contributes a power-law decay at longer distances. We demonstrate that these two contributions not only bound but, except at long times, \emph{qualitatively reproduce} the short- and long-distance dynamical behavior following a local quench in an $XY$ chain and a transverse-field Ising chain. In addition to describing dynamics in numerous intractable long-range interacting lattice models, our results can be experimentally verified in a variety of ultracold-atomic and solid-state systems. 1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aMichalakis, Spyridon1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1401.6174v200657nas a2200229 4500008004100000245006300041210006200104300000800166490000800174100001400182700002500196700001600221700001700237700001400254700001900268700001300287700001300300700001000313700001600323700001700339856007100356 2014 eng d00aProbing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock0 aProbing manybody interactions in an optical lattice clock a3110 v3401 aRey, A, M1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKraus, C, V1 aMartin, M, J1 aBishof, M1 aSwallows, M, D1 aZhang, X1 aBenko, C1 aYe, J1 aLemke, N, D1 aLudlow, A, D uhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000349161300254601278nas a2200205 4500008004100000245009000041210006900131260001400200490000700214520065300221100001600874700001300890700002000903700002700923700002100950700001800971700002500989700002101014856003701035 2014 eng d00aScattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons 0 aScattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting c2014/11/30 v903 a We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. We use a diagrammatic method to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments. 1 aBienias, P.1 aChoi, S.1 aFirstenberg, O.1 aMaghrebi, Mohammad, F.1 aGullans, Michael1 aLukin, M., D.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aBüchler, H., P. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1402.7333v100504nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005300041210005300094300000700147490000800154100002200162700002300184700001700207700002500224700002300249700002000272856004200292 2013 eng d00aAttractive Photons in a Quantum Nonlinear Medium0 aAttractive Photons in a Quantum Nonlinear Medium a710 v5021 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aPeyronel, Thibault1 aLiang, Qi-Yu1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aVuletic, Vladan uhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature1251201262nas a2200193 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134260001400203490000700217520064800224100002200872700002000894700002500914700002000939700002400959700002100983700002701004856003701031 2013 eng d00aControllable quantum spin glasses with magnetic impurities embedded in quantum solids 0 aControllable quantum spin glasses with magnetic impurities embed c2013/7/240 v883 a Magnetic impurities embedded in inert solids can exhibit long coherence times and interact with one another via their intrinsic anisotropic dipolar interaction. We argue that, as a consequence of these properties, disordered ensembles of magnetic impurities provide an effective platform for realizing a controllable, tunable version of the dipolar quantum spin glass seen in LiHo$_x$Y$_{1-x}$F$_4$. Specifically, we propose and analyze a system composed of dysprosium atoms embedded in solid helium. We describe the phase diagram of the system and discuss the realizability and detectability of the quantum spin glass and antiglass phases. 1 aLemeshko, Mikhail1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeimer, Hendrik1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aMomose, Takamasa1 aGopalakrishnan, Sarang uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1307.1130v101151nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005800041210005700099260001300156490000800169520073200177100002500909700001700934700001700951856003700968 2013 eng d00aDissipative Many-body Quantum Optics in Rydberg Media0 aDissipative Manybody Quantum Optics in Rydberg Media c2013/4/90 v1103 a We develop a theoretical framework for the dissipative propagation of quantized light in interacting optical media under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The theory allows us to determine the peculiar spatiotemporal structure of the output of two complementary Rydberg-EIT-based light-processing modules: the recently demonstrated single-photon filter and the recently proposed single-photon subtractor, which, respectively, let through and absorb a single photon. In addition to being crucial for applications of these and other optical quantum devices, the theory opens the door to the study of exotic dissipative many-body dynamics of strongly interacting photons in nonlinear nonlocal media. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNath, Rejish1 aPohl, Thomas uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7060v101632nas a2200157 4500008004100000245007100041210006900112260001500181300001600196490000800212520114600220100002501366700002601391700002001417856003701437 2013 eng d00aKitaev honeycomb and other exotic spin models with polar molecules0 aKitaev honeycomb and other exotic spin models with polar molecul c2013/01/01 a1908 - 19160 v1113 a We show that ultracold polar molecules pinned in an optical lattice can be used to access a variety of exotic spin models, including the Kitaev honeycomb model. Treating each molecule as a rigid rotor, we use DC electric and microwave fields to define superpositions of rotational levels as effective spin degrees of freedom, while dipole-dipole interactions give rise to interactions between the spins. In particular, we show that, with sufficient microwave control, the interaction between two spins can be written as a sum of five independently controllable Hamiltonian terms proportional to the five rank-2 spherical harmonics Y_{2,q}(theta,phi), where (theta,phi) are the spherical coordinates of the vector connecting the two molecules. To demonstrate the potential of this approach beyond the simplest examples studied in [S. R. Manmana et al., arXiv:1210.5518v2], we focus on the realization of the Kitaev honeycomb model, which can support exotic non-Abelian anyonic excitations. We also discuss the possibility of generating spin Hamiltonians with arbitrary spin S, including those exhibiting SU(N=2S+1) symmetry. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1301.5636v101995nas a2200205 4500008004100000245005100041210005100092260001300143490000700156520142000163100002001583700001901603700002301622700002401645700001801669700002301687700001701710700002501727856003701752 2013 eng d00aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers0 aQuantum Logic between Remote Quantum Registers c2013/2/60 v873 a We analyze two approaches to quantum state transfer in solid-state spin systems. First, we consider unpolarized spin-chains and extend previous analysis to various experimentally relevant imperfections, including quenched disorder, dynamical decoherence, and uncompensated long range coupling. In finite-length chains, the interplay between disorder-induced localization and decoherence yields a natural optimal channel fidelity, which we calculate. Long-range dipolar couplings induce a finite intrinsic lifetime for the mediating eigenmode; extensive numerical simulations of dipolar chains of lengths up to L=12 show remarkably high fidelity despite these decay processes. We further consider the extension of the protocol to bosonic systems of coupled oscillators. Second, we introduce a quantum mirror based architecture for universal quantum computing which exploits all of the spins in the system as potential qubits. While this dramatically increases the number of qubits available, the composite operations required to manipulate "dark" spin qubits significantly raise the error threshold for robust operation. Finally, as an example, we demonstrate that eigenmode-mediated state transfer can enable robust long-range logic between spatially separated Nitrogen-Vacancy registers in diamond; numerical simulations confirm that high fidelity gates are achievable even in the presence of moderate disorder. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0014v100594nas a2200205 4500008004100000245006400041210006100105300000800166490000800174100001700182700001400199700001900213700001300232700001300245700001900258700002500277700001400302700001200316856006000328 2013 eng d00aA quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock0 aquantum manybody spin system in an optical lattice clock a6320 v3411 aMartin, M, J1 aBishof, M1 aSwallows, M, D1 aZhang, X1 aBenko, C1 avon-Stecher, J1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, A, M1 aYe, Jun uhttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6146/632.abstract00562nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005900041210005800100300000700158490000700165100001900172700001600191700001600207700001700223700001500240700002500255700001900280700001200299856005700311 2013 eng d00aQuantum Nonlinear Optics: Strongly Interacting Photons0 aQuantum Nonlinear Optics Strongly Interacting Photons a480 v241 aFirstenberg, O1 aLukin, M, D1 aPeyronel, T1 aLiang, Q, -Y1 aVuletic, V1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHofferberth, S1 aPohl, T uhttp://www.osa-opn.org/abstract.cfm?URI=opn-24-12-4801351nas a2200181 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102260001400163490000800177520081800185100002001003700002501023700002301048700002601071700001201097700002301109856003701132 2013 eng d00aRealizing Fractional Chern Insulators with Dipolar Spins0 aRealizing Fractional Chern Insulators with Dipolar Spins c2013/4/290 v1103 a Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior controlled by topology. We predict that the \nu=1/2 fractional Chern insulator arises naturally in a two-dimensional array of driven, dipolar-interacting spins. As a specific implementation, we analyze how to prepare and detect synthetic gauge potentials for the rotational excitations of ultra-cold polar molecules trapped in a deep optical lattice. While the orbital motion of the molecules is pinned, at finite densities, the rotational excitations form a fractional Chern insulator. We present a detailed experimental blueprint for KRb, and demonstrate that the energetics are consistent with near-term capabilities. Prospects for the realization of such phases in solid-state dipolar systems are discussed as are their possible applications. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aLäuchli, Andreas, M.1 aYe, Jun1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1212.4839v101446nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006600108260001400174490000700188520092200195100002701117700002401144700002601168700002001194700002501214856003701239 2013 eng d00aTopological phases in ultracold polar-molecule quantum magnets0 aTopological phases in ultracold polarmolecule quantum magnets c2013/2/260 v873 a We show how to use polar molecules in an optical lattice to engineer quantum spin models with arbitrary spin S >= 1/2 and with interactions featuring a direction-dependent spin anisotropy. This is achieved by encoding the effective spin degrees of freedom in microwave-dressed rotational states of the molecules and by coupling the spins through dipolar interactions. We demonstrate how one of the experimentally most accessible anisotropies stabilizes symmetry protected topological phases in spin ladders. Using the numerically exact density matrix renormalization group method, we find that these interacting phases -- previously studied only in the nearest-neighbor case -- survive in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions. We also show how to use our approach to realize the bilinear-biquadratic spin-1 and the Kitaev honeycomb models. Experimental detection schemes and imperfections are discussed. 1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aStoudenmire, E., M.1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 aRey, Ana, Maria1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1210.5518v201443nas a2200217 4500008004100000245007500041210006900116260001400185300000900199490000600208520080900214100002001023700002301043700002501066700002001091700001701111700001901128700001801147700002301165856003701188 2013 eng d00aTopologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin Liquid0 aTopologically Protected Quantum State Transfer in a Chiral Spin c2013/3/12 a15850 v43 a Topology plays a central role in ensuring the robustness of a wide variety of physical phenomena. Notable examples range from the robust current carrying edge states associated with the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects to proposals involving topologically protected quantum memory and quantum logic operations. Here, we propose and analyze a topologically protected channel for the transfer of quantum states between remote quantum nodes. In our approach, state transfer is mediated by the edge mode of a chiral spin liquid. We demonstrate that the proposed method is intrinsically robust to realistic imperfections associated with disorder and decoherence. Possible experimental implementations and applications to the detection and characterization of spin liquid phases are discussed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeimer, Hendrik1 aJiang, Liang1 aCirac, Ignacio1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1110.3788v100399nas a2200145 4500008004100000245003500041210003500076300001100111490000700122100001600129700001300145700002500158700001700183856005300200 2012 eng d00aCavity QED with atomic mirrors0 aCavity QED with atomic mirrors a0630030 v141 aChang, D, E1 aJiang, L1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aKimble, H, J uhttp://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/14/6/063003/00654nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128300000700197490000800204100002300212700002200235700001700257700002700274700002500301700001700326700002300343700002000366856007400386 2012 eng d00aQuantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms0 aQuantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly a570 v4881 aPeyronel, Thibault1 aFirstenberg, Ofer1 aLiang, Qi-Yu1 aHofferberth, Sebastian1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPohl, Thomas1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aVuletic, Vladan uhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v488/n7409/full/nature11361.html01927nas a2200205 4500008004100000245009400041210006900135260001400204300000800218490000600226520130900232100002001541700001701561700002501578700002201603700001701625700001901642700002301661856003701684 2012 eng d00aScalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor 0 aScalable Architecture for a Room Temperature SolidState Quantum c2012/4/24 a8000 v33 a The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems. Additionally, the proposed architecture may greatly alleviate the stringent constraints, currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aMaurer, Peter, C.1 aGiedke, Geza1 aCirac, Ignacio1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1012.2864v101339nas a2200193 4500008004100000245005300041210005300094260001500147490000800162520078600170100002000956700002300976700002500999700002401024700001901048700001801067700002301085856003701108 2012 eng d00aTopological Flat Bands from Dipolar Spin Systems0 aTopological Flat Bands from Dipolar Spin Systems c2012/12/260 v1093 a We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S = 1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hardcore bosons, namely, the dressed spin-flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose bandgap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultra-cold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aLaumann, Chris, R.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aBennett, Steven, D.1 aDemler, Eugene1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1207.4479v301352nas a2200145 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001500184490000700199520089800206100002001104700002001124700002501144856003701169 2011 eng d00ad-Wave Superfluidity in Optical Lattices of Ultracold Polar Molecules0 adWave Superfluidity in Optical Lattices of Ultracold Polar Molec c2011/12/290 v843 a Recent work on ultracold polar molecules, governed by a generalization of the t-J Hamiltonian, suggests that molecules may be better suited than atoms for studying d-wave superfluidity due to stronger interactions and larger tunability of the system. We compute the phase diagram for polar molecules in a checkerboard lattice consisting of weakly coupled square plaquettes. In the simplest experimentally realizable case where there is only tunneling and an XX-type spin-spin interaction, we identify the parameter regime where d-wave superfluidity occurs. We also find that the inclusion of a density-density interaction destroys the superfluid phase and that the inclusion of a spin-density or an Ising-type spin-spin interaction can enhance the superfluid phase. We also propose schemes for experimentally realizing the perturbative calculations exhibiting enhanced d-wave superfluidity. 1 aKuns, Kevin, A.1 aRey, Ana, Maria1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1110.5330v201416nas a2200145 4500008004100000245014100041210006900182260001400251490000700265520088800272100002801160700002501188700002001213856003701233 2011 eng d00aLight storage in an optically thick atomic ensemble under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing 0 aLight storage in an optically thick atomic ensemble under condit c2011/6/200 v833 a We study the modification of a traditional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) stored light technique that includes both EIT and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an ensemble of hot Rb atoms. The standard treatment of light storage involves the coherent and reversible mapping of one photonic mode onto a collective spin coherence. It has been shown that unwanted, competing processes such as four-wave mixing are enhanced by EIT and can significantly modify the signal optical pulse propagation. We present theoretical and experimental evidence to indicate that while a Stokes field is indeed detected upon retrieval of the signal field, any information originally encoded in a seeded Stokes field is not independently preserved during the storage process. We present a simple model that describes the propagation dynamics of the fields and the impact of FWM on the spin wave. 1 aPhillips, Nathaniel, B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNovikova, Irina uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1103.2131v101088nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005200041210005100093260001400144490000800158520060000166100002500766700002400791700002600815700001700841700002300858856003700881 2011 eng d00aPhoton-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade0 aPhotonPhoton Interactions via Rydberg Blockade c2011/9/220 v1073 a We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aOtterbach, Johannes1 aFleischhauer, Michael1 aPohl, Thomas1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1103.3700v101573nas a2200181 4500008004100000245004700041210004700088260001400135490000700149520106900156100002501225700002701250700001501277700001901292700002301311700002001334856003701354 2011 eng d00aQuantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers0 aQuantum Magnetism with Polar Alkali Dimers c2011/9/150 v843 a We show that dipolar interactions between ultracold polar alkali dimers in optical lattices can be used to realize a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. The model features long-range spin-spin interactions J_z and J_perp of XXZ type, long-range density-density interaction V, and long-range density-spin interaction W, all of which can be controlled in both magnitude and sign independently of each other and of the tunneling t. The "spin" is encoded in the rotational degree of freedom of the molecules, while the interactions are controlled by applied static electric and continuous-wave microwave fields. Furthermore, we show that nuclear spins of the molecules can be used to implement an additional (orbital) degree of freedom that is coupled to the original rotational degree of freedom in a tunable way. The presented system is expected to exhibit exotic physics and to provide insights into strongly correlated phenomena in condensed matter systems. Realistic experimental imperfections are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aChen, Gang1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1655v100483nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005300041210005200094300001100146490000700157100002500164700001800189700001200207700001400219700001600233700001400249856005000263 2011 eng d00aQuantum magnetism with polar alkali-metal dimers0 aQuantum magnetism with polar alkalimetal dimers a0336190 v841 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, S, R1 aChen, G1 aDemler, E1 aLukin, M, D1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033619/01287nas a2200181 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001400183490000800197520074600205100002000951700001400971700002600985700002501011700001201036700002001048856003701068 2011 eng d00aResolved atomic interaction sidebands in an optical clock transition0 aResolved atomic interaction sidebands in an optical clock transi c2011/6/220 v1063 a We report the observation of resolved atomic interaction sidebands (ISB) in the ${}^{87}$Sr optical clock transition when atoms at microkelvin temperatures are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice. The ISB are a manifestation of the strong interactions that occur between atoms confined in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry and disappear when the confinement is relaxed along one dimension. The emergence of ISB is linked to the recently observed suppression of collisional frequency shifts in [1]. At the current temperatures, the ISB can be resolved but are broad. At lower temperatures, ISB are predicted to be substantially narrower and usable as powerful spectroscopic tools in strongly interacting alkaline-earth gases. 1 aBishof, Michael1 aLin, Yige1 aSwallows, Matthew, D.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aYe, Jun1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1102.1016v201404nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109260001400177490000800191520083700199100002001036700001701056700002501073700001901098700001501117700001801132700002301150856003701173 2011 eng d00aRobust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains0 aRobust Quantum State Transfer in Random Unpolarized Spin Chains c2011/1/270 v1063 a We propose and analyze a new approach for quantum state transfer between remote spin qubits. Specifically, we demonstrate that coherent quantum coupling between remote qubits can be achieved via certain classes of random, unpolarized (infinite temperature) spin chains. Our method is robust to coupling strength disorder and does not require manipulation or control over individual spins. In principle, it can be used to attain perfect state transfer over arbitrarily long range via purely Hamiltonian evolution and may be particularly applicable in a solid-state quantum information processor. As an example, we demonstrate that it can be used to attain strong coherent coupling between Nitrogen-Vacancy centers separated by micrometer distances at room temperature. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed. 1 aYao, Norman, Y.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aGong, Zhe-Xuan1 aZhai, Alex1 aDuan, L., -M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1011.2762v201707nas a2200145 4500008004100000245006800041210006800109260001300177490000700190520125600197100002601453700002501479700002001504856003701524 2011 eng d00aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in 2D pancakes and 3D lattices0 aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in 2D pancakes and 3D lattices c2011/9/60 v843 a Motivated by ongoing measurements at JILA, we calculate the recoil-free spectra of dipolar interacting fermions, for example ultracold heteronuclear molecules, in a one-dimensional lattice of two-dimensional pancakes, spectroscopically probing transitions between different internal (e.g., rotational) states. We additionally incorporate p-wave interactions and losses, which are important for reactive molecules such as KRb. Moreover, we consider other sources of spectral broadening: interaction-induced quasiparticle lifetimes and the different polarizabilities of the different rotational states used for the spectroscopy. Although our main focus is molecules, some of the calculations are also useful for optical lattice atomic clocks. For example, understanding the p-wave shifts between identical fermions and small dipolar interactions coming from the excited clock state are necessary to reach future precision goals. Finally, we consider the spectra in a deep 3D lattice and show how they give a great deal of information about static correlation functions, including \textit{all} the moments of the density correlations between nearby sites. The range of correlations measurable depends on spectroscopic resolution and the dipole moment. 1 aHazzard, Kaden, R. A.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1718v100466nas a2200133 4500008004100000245009500041210006900136300001100205490000700216100002000223700002500243700001400268856005000282 2011 eng d00aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices0 aSpectroscopy of dipolar fermions in layered twodimensional and t a0336080 v841 aHazzard, K, R A1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, A, M uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v84/e033608/01551nas a2200193 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123260001300192490000800205520096600213100002501179700002701204700001501231700001201246700001901258700002301277700002001300856003701320 2011 eng d00aTunable Superfluidity and Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar Molecules 0 aTunable Superfluidity and Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Polar c2011/9/80 v1073 a By selecting two dressed rotational states of ultracold polar molecules in an optical lattice, we obtain a highly tunable generalization of the t-J model, which we refer to as the t-J-V-W model. In addition to XXZ spin exchange, the model features density-density interactions and novel density-spin interactions; all interactions are dipolar. We show that full control of all interaction parameters in both magnitude and sign can be achieved independently of each other and of the tunneling. As a first step towards demonstrating the potential of the system, we apply the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG) to obtain the 1D phase diagram of the simplest experimentally realizable case. Specifically, we show that the tunability and the long-range nature of the interactions in the t-J-V-W model enable enhanced superfluidity. Finally, we show that Bloch oscillations in a tilted lattice can be used to probe the phase diagram experimentally. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aManmana, Salvatore, R.1 aChen, Gang1 aYe, Jun1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1106.1644v100782nas a2200265 4500008004100000245009300041210006900134300000800203490000600211100001700217700001500234700001800249700001300267700002500280700001700305700001300322700001700335700001700352700001400369700001600383700001500399700002000414700001600434856006600450 2010 eng d00aFar-field optical imaging and manipulation of individual spins with nanoscale resolution0 aFarfield optical imaging and manipulation of individual spins wi a9120 v61 aMaurer, P, C1 aMaze, J, R1 aStanwix, P, L1 aJiang, L1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aZibrov, A, A1 aHarke, B1 aHodges, J, S1 aZibrov, A, S1 aYacoby, A1 aTwitchen, D1 aHell, S, W1 aWalsworth, R, L1 aLukin, M, D uhttp://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v6/n11/abs/nphys1774.html01226nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008600041210006900127260001400196490000700210520065700217100002300874700001700897700002500914700002000939700002500959700002300984856003701007 2010 eng d00aFast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluorescent Detection 0 aFast Entanglement Distribution with Atomic Ensembles and Fluores c2010/2/120 v813 a Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensemble quantum memories are promising candidates for achieving scalable distribution of entanglement over long distances. Recently, important experimental progress has been made towards their implementation. However, the entanglement rates and scalability of current approaches are limited by relatively low retrieval and single-photon detector efficiencies. We propose a scheme, which makes use of fluorescent detection of stored excitations to significantly increase the efficiency of connection and hence the rate. Practical performance and possible experimental realizations of the new protocol are discussed. 1 aBrask, Jonatan, B.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aVuletic, Vladan1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0907.3839v201038nas a2200169 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001300193490000800206520050000214100002500714700002400739700001900763700002600782700002300808856003700831 2010 eng d00aPhotonic Phase Gate via an Exchange of Fermionic Spin Waves in a Spin Chain 0 aPhotonic Phase Gate via an Exchange of Fermionic Spin Waves in a c2010/8/50 v1053 a We propose a new protocol for implementing the two-qubit photonic phase gate. In our approach, the pi phase is acquired by mapping two single photons into atomic excitations with fermionic character and exchanging their positions. The fermionic excitations are realized as spin waves in a spin chain, while photon storage techniques provide the interface between the photons and the spin waves. Possible imperfections and experimental systems suitable for implementing the gate are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aOtterbach, Johannes1 aDemler, Eugene1 aFleischhauer, Michael1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1001.0968v300485nas a2200097 4500008004100000245010900041210006900150490001700219100002500236856012600261 2010 eng d00aThesis: Novel Systems and Methods for Quantum Communication, Quantum Computation, and Quantum Simulation0 aThesis Novel Systems and Methods for Quantum Communication Quant0 vPh.D. Thesis1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttps://quics.umd.edu/publications/thesis-novel-systems-and-methods-quantum-communication-quantum-computation-and-quantum00622nas a2200217 4500008004100000245006800041210006400109300000800173490000600181100002500187700001500212700001500227700001000242700001900252700001000271700001400281700001400295700001600309700001400325856006500339 2010 eng d00aTwo-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms0 aTwoorbital SUN magnetism with ultracold alkalineearth atoms a2890 v61 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHermele, M1 aGurarie, V1 aXu, C1 aJulienne, P, S1 aYe, J1 aZoller, P1 aDemler, E1 aLukin, M, D1 aRey, A, M uhttp://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v6/n4/abs/nphys1535.html01223nas a2200193 4500008004100000245006200041210005900103260001400162490000800176520066700184100002500851700002000876700002200896700002100918700001200939700001800951700002300969856003700992 2009 eng d00aAlkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms as Few-Qubit Quantum Registers0 aAlkalineEarthMetal Atoms as FewQubit Quantum Registers c2009/3/180 v1023 a We propose and analyze a novel approach to quantum information processing, in which multiple qubits can be encoded and manipulated using electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom associated with individual alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Specifically, we describe how the qubits within each register can be individually manipulated and measured with sub-wavelength optical resolution. We also show how such few-qubit registers can be coupled to each other in optical superlattices via conditional tunneling to form a scalable quantum network. Finally, potential applications to quantum computation and precision measurements are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRey, Ana, Maria1 aDaley, Andrew, J.1 aBoyd, Martin, M.1 aYe, Jun1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0812.3660v200444nas a2200133 4500008004100000245007800041210006900119300001100188490000800199100001400207700002500221700001300246856005100259 2009 eng d00aMany-Body Treatment of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Fermionic Atoms0 aManyBody Treatment of the Collisional Frequency Shift in Fermion a2604020 v1031 aRey, A, M1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRubbo, C uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v103/e260402/01343nas a2200193 4500008004100000245007300041210006900114260001300183490000700196520075700203100001400960700002500974700002100999700002601020700002001046700002301066700002301089856003701112 2009 eng d00aRealization of Coherent Optically Dense Media via Buffer-Gas Cooling0 aRealization of Coherent Optically Dense Media via BufferGas Cool c2009/1/60 v793 a We demonstrate that buffer-gas cooling combined with laser ablation can be used to create coherent optical media with high optical depth and low Doppler broadening that offers metastable states with low collisional and motional decoherence. Demonstration of this generic technique opens pathways to coherent optics with a large variety of atoms and molecules. We use helium buffer gas to cool 87Rb atoms to below 7 K and slow atom diffusion to the walls. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in this medium allows for 50% transmission in a medium with initial OD >70 and for slow pulse propagation with large delay-bandwidth products. In the high-OD regime, we observe high-contrast spectrum oscillations due to efficient four-wave mixing. 1 aHong, Tao1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPatterson, David1 aZibrov, Alexander, S.1 aDoyle, John, M.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aPrentiss, Mara, G. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1416v200539nas a2200133 4500008004100000245014600041210006900187300000900256490000700265100001900272700002500291700001600316856007300332 2009 eng d00aSlow light propagation and amplification via electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing in an optically dense atomic vapor0 aSlow light propagation and amplification via electromagnetically a19160 v561 aPhillips, N, B1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNovikova, I uhttp://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content db=all content=a91354540501661nas a2200217 4500008004100000245007400041210006900115260001400184300001400198490000600212520102000218100001701238700002301255700002501278700002201303700002101325700001901346700002301365700001801388856003701406 2008 eng d00aAnyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lattices0 aAnyonic interferometry and protected memories in atomic spin lat c2008/4/20 a482 - 4880 v43 a Strongly correlated quantum systems can exhibit exotic behavior called topological order which is characterized by non-local correlations that depend on the system topology. Such systems can exhibit remarkable phenomena such as quasi-particles with anyonic statistics and have been proposed as candidates for naturally fault-tolerant quantum computation. Despite these remarkable properties, anyons have never been observed in nature directly. Here we describe how to unambiguously detect and characterize such states in recently proposed spin lattice realizations using ultra-cold atoms or molecules trapped in an optical lattice. We propose an experimentally feasible technique to access non-local degrees of freedom by performing global operations on trapped spins mediated by an optical cavity mode. We show how to reliably read and write topologically protected quantum memory using an atomic or photonic qubit. Furthermore, our technique can be used to probe statistics and dynamics of anyonic excitations. 1 aJiang, Liang1 aBrennen, Gavin, K.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHammerer, Klemens1 aHafezi, Mohammad1 aDemler, Eugene1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aZoller, Peter uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0711.1365v101158nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006700041210006700108260001300175490000800188520065200196100002500848700001700873700002000890700001800910700002300928856003700951 2008 eng d00aCoherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution0 aCoherent Quantum Optical Control with Subwavelength Resolution c2008/3/70 v1003 a We suggest a new method for quantum optical control with nanoscale resolution. Our method allows for coherent far-field manipulation of individual quantum systems with spatial selectivity that is not limited by the wavelength of radiation and can, in principle, approach a few nanometers. The selectivity is enabled by the nonlinear atomic response, under the conditions of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, to a control beam with intensity vanishing at a certain location. Practical performance of this technique and its potential applications to quantum information science with cold atoms, ions, and solid-state qubits are discussed. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aJiang, Liang1 aGreiner, Markus1 aZoller, Peter1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0706.3879v201341nas a2200145 4500008004100000245004200041210004200083260001300125490000700138520094000145100002801085700002501113700002001138856003701158 2008 eng d00aOptimal light storage in atomic vapor0 aOptimal light storage in atomic vapor c2008/8/10 v783 a We study procedures for the optimization of efficiency of light storage and retrieval based on the dynamic form of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in warm Rb vapor. We present a detailed analysis of two recently demonstrated optimization protocols: a time-reversal-based iteration procedure, which finds the optimal input signal pulse shape for any given control field, and a procedure based on the calculation of an optimal control field for any given signal pulse shape. We verify that the two procedures are consistent with each other, and that they both independently achieve the maximum memory efficiency for any given optical depth. We observe good agreement with theoretical predictions for moderate optical depths (<25), while at higher optical depths the experimental efficiency falls below the theoretically predicted values. We identify possible effects responsible for this reduction in memory efficiency. 1 aPhillips, Nathaniel, B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aNovikova, Irina uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.3348v100956nas a2200145 4500008004100000245005600041210005600097260001400153490000700167520052600174100002000700700002800720700002500748856003700773 2008 eng d00aOptimal light storage with full pulse shape control0 aOptimal light storage with full pulse shape control c2008/8/200 v783 a We experimentally demonstrate optimal storage and retrieval of light pulses of arbitrary shape in atomic ensembles. By shaping auxiliary control pulses, we attain efficiencies approaching the fundamental limit and achieve precise retrieval into any predetermined temporal profile. Our techniques, demonstrated in warm Rb vapor, are applicable to a wide range of systems and protocols. As an example, we present their potential application to the creation of optical time-bin qubits and to controlled partial retrieval. 1 aNovikova, Irina1 aPhillips, Nathaniel, B.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0805.1927v100417nas a2200133 4500008004100000245005600041210005500097300001400152490000700166100001600173700001900189700002500208856005000233 2008 eng d00aOptimal light storage with full pulse-shape control0 aOptimal light storage with full pulseshape control a021802(R)0 v781 aNovikova, I1 aPhillips, N, B1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V. uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v78/e021802/00824nas a2200205 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113300001100182490000900193100001300202700001200215700002500227700001600252700001600268700001900284700001900303700001600322700002000338856026000358 2008 eng d00aOptimizing Slow and Stored Light for Multidisciplinary Applications0 aOptimizing Slow and Stored Light for Multidisciplinary Applicati a69040C0 v69041 aKlein, M1 aXiao, Y1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aHohensee, M1 aLeung, C, D1 aBrowning, M, R1 aPhillips, D, F1 aNovikova, I1 aWalsworth, R, L uhttp://spie.org/x648.xml?product_id=772216&Search_Origin=QuickSearch&Search_Results_URL=http://spie.org/x1636.xml&Alternate_URL=http://spie.org/x18509.xml&Alternate_URL_Name=timeframe&Alternate_URL_Value=Exhibitors&UseJavascript=1&Please_Wait_URL=http://s01383nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010900041210006900150260001300219490000700232520085500239100002501094700002101119700002301140700002501163856003701188 2008 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media IV Opt c2008/4/40 v773 a We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in Lambda-type media to previously inaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical control pulses used to mediate photon storage, we open up the possibility of high efficiency photon storage in the non-adiabatic limit, in which analytical solutions to the equations of motion do not exist. This control shaping technique enables an order-of-magnitude increase in the bandwidth of the memory. We also demonstrate that the often discussed connection between time reversal and optimality in photon storage follows naturally from gradient ascent. Finally, we discuss the optimization of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aCalarco, Tommaso1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0710.2698v200566nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008800041210006900129300001100198490000800209100002500217700001200242700001500254700001500269700001400284700001600298700001900314856005100333 2008 eng d00aSuppression of Inelastic Collisions Between Polar Molecules With a Repulsive Shield0 aSuppression of Inelastic Collisions Between Polar Molecules With a0732010 v1011 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aRabl, P1 aPupillo, G1 aMicheli, A1 aZoller, P1 aLukin, M, D1 aBüchler, H, P uhttp://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v101/e073201/00706nas a2200181 4500008004100000245009700041210006900138300001100207490000900218100001500227700001800242700001700260700002500277700001700302700001700319700001600336856017200352 2007 eng d00aMulti-photon Entanglement: From Quantum Curiosity to Quantum Computing and Quantum Repeaters0 aMultiphoton Entanglement From Quantum Curiosity to Quantum Compu a66640G0 v66641 aWalther, P1 aEisaman, M, D1 aNemiroski, A1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aZibrov, A, S1 aZeilinger, A1 aLukin, M, D uhttp://spiedigitallibrary.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG00666400000166640G000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes&bproc=volrange&scode=6600%20-%20669900984nas a2200181 4500008004100000245005700041210005700098260001400155490000700169520043900176100002000615700002500635700002400660700002500684700002300709700002600732856004400758 2007 eng d00aOptimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval0 aOptimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval c2007/6/150 v983 a We demonstrate experimentally a procedure to obtain the maximum efficiency for the storage and retrieval of light pulses in atomic media. The procedure uses time reversal to obtain optimal input signal pulse-shapes. Experimental results in warm Rb vapor are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate a substantial improvement of efficiency. This optimization procedure is applicable to a wide range of systems. 1 aNovikova, Irina1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPhillips, David, F.1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aWalsworth, Ronald, L. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0702266v100624nas a2200169 4500008004100000245005800041210005800099300001100157490000900168100001600177700002500193700001900218700001200237700001300249700002000262856017200282 2007 eng d00aOptimization of slow and stored light in atomic vapor0 aOptimization of slow and stored light in atomic vapor a64820M0 v64821 aNovikova, I1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aPhillips, D, F1 aXiao, Y1 aKlein, M1 aWalsworth, R, L uhttp://spiedigitallibrary.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PSISDG00648200000164820M000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=Yes&bproc=volrange&scode=6400%20-%20649901698nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001300193490000700206520119400213100002501407700001601432700002301448700002501471856004401496 2007 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. I. Cavity model 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media I Cavi c2007/9/70 v763 a In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we perform the same analysis for the cavity model. In particular, we show that the retrieval efficiency is equal to C/(1+C) independent of the retrieval technique, where C is the cooperativity parameter. We also derive the optimal strategy for storage and, in particular, demonstrate that at any detuning one can store, with the optimal efficiency of C/(1+C), any smooth input mode satisfying T C gamma >> 1 and a certain class of resonant input modes satisfying T C gamma ~ 1, where T is the duration of the input mode and 2 gamma is the transition linewidth. In the two subsequent papers of the series, we present the full analysis of the free-space model and discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening on photon storage. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612082v201505nas a2200157 4500008004100000245008800041210006900129260001300198490000700211520099600218100002501214700001601239700002301255700002501278856004401303 2007 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. II. Free-space model 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media II Fre c2007/9/70 v763 a In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)], we presented a universal physical picture for describing a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in Lambda-type atomic media in free space, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo based techniques. This universal picture produced an optimal control strategy for photon storage and retrieval applicable to all approaches and yielded identical maximum efficiencies for all of them. In the present paper, we present the full details of this analysis as well some of its extensions, including the discussion of the effects of non-degeneracy of the two lower levels of the Lambda system. The analysis in the present paper is based on the intuition obtained from the study of photon storage in the cavity model in the preceding paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007)]. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612083v201814nas a2200157 4500008004100000245010800041210006900149260001300218490000700231520128500238100002501523700001601548700002301564700002501587856004401612 2007 eng d00aPhoton storage in Lambda-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening 0 aPhoton storage in Lambdatype optically dense atomic media III Ef c2007/9/70 v763 a In a recent paper [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123601 (2007)] and in the two preceding papers [Gorshkov et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007); 76, 033805 (2007)], we used a universal physical picture to optimize and demonstrate equivalence between a wide range of techniques for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in homogeneously broadened Lambda-type atomic media, including the adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity, pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman techniques, and photon-echo-based techniques. In the present paper, we generalize this treatment to include inhomogeneous broadening. In particular, we consider the case of Doppler-broadened atoms and assume that there is a negligible difference between the Doppler shifts of the two optical transitions. In this situation, we show that, at high enough optical depth, all atoms contribute coherently to the storage process as if the medium were homogeneously broadened. We also discuss the effects of inhomogeneous broadening in solid state samples. In this context, we discuss the advantages and limitations of reversing the inhomogeneous broadening during the storage time, as well as suggest a way for achieving high efficiencies with a nonreversible inhomogeneous profile. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aLukin, Mikhail, D.1 aSorensen, Anders, S. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612084v201734nas a2200229 4500008004100000245006500041210006500106260001500171520102700186100002301213700002501236700002601261700002201287700002001309700002101329700002501350700003001375700002301405700001901428700002001447856003701467 2007 eng d00aSignatures of incoherence in a quantum information processor0 aSignatures of incoherence in a quantum information processor c2007/05/243 a Incoherent noise is manifest in measurements of expectation values when the underlying ensemble evolves under a classical distribution of unitary processes. While many incoherent processes appear decoherent, there are important differences. The distribution functions underlying incoherent processes are either static or slowly varying with respect to control operations and so the errors introduced by these distributions are refocusable. The observation and control of incoherence in small Hilbert spaces is well known. Here we explore incoherence during an entangling operation, such as is relevant in quantum information processing. As expected, it is more difficult to separate incoherence and decoherence over such processes. However, by studying the fidelity decay under a cyclic entangling map we are able to identify distinctive experimental signatures of incoherence. This result is demonstrated both through numerical simulations and experimentally in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance implementation. 1 aHenry, Michael, K.1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aWeinstein, Yaakov, S.1 aCappellaro, Paola1 aEmerson, Joseph1 aBoulant, Nicolas1 aHodges, Jonathan, S.1 aRamanathan, Chandrasekhar1 aHavel, Timothy, F.1 aMartinez, Rudy1 aCory, David, G. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/0705.3666v201151nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006500041210006500106260001400171490000700185520063000192100002500822700001600847700002600863700002500889700002300914856004400937 2007 eng d00aUniversal Approach to Optimal Photon Storage in Atomic Media0 aUniversal Approach to Optimal Photon Storage in Atomic Media c2007/3/190 v983 a We present a universal physical picture for describing storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in a Lambda-type atomic medium. This physical picture encompasses a variety of different approaches to pulse storage ranging from adiabatic reduction of the photon group velocity and pulse-propagation control via off-resonant Raman fields to photon-echo based techniques. Furthermore, we derive an optimal control strategy for storage and retrieval of a photon wave packet of any given shape. All these approaches, when optimized, yield identical maximum efficiencies, which only depend on the optical depth of the medium. 1 aGorshkov, Alexey, V.1 aAndre, Axel1 aFleischhauer, Michael1 aSorensen, Anders, S.1 aLukin, Mikhail, D. uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0604037v3