Cryptography with quantum states exhibits a number of surprising and counterintuitive features. In a 2002 work, Barnum et al. argued informally that these strange features should imply that digital signatures for quantum states are impossible (Barnum et al., FOCS 2002). In this work, we perform the first rigorous study of the problem of signing quantum states. We first show that the intuition of Barnum et al. was correct, by proving an impossibility result which rules out even very weak forms of signing quantum states. Essentially, we show that any non-trivial combination of correctness and security requirements results in negligible security. This rules out all quantum signature schemes except those which simply measure the state and then sign the outcome using a classical scheme. In other words, only classical signature schemes exist. We then show a positive result: it is possible to sign quantum states, provided that they are also encrypted with the public key of the intended recipient. Following classical nomenclature, we call this notion quantum signcryption. Classically, signcryption is only interesting if it provides superior efficiency to simultaneous encryption and signing. Our results imply that, quantumly, it is far more interesting: by the laws of quantum mechanics, it is the only signing method available. We develop security definitions for quantum signcryption, ranging from a simple one-time two-user setting, to a chosen-ciphertext-secure many-time multi-user setting. We also give secure constructions based on post-quantum public-key primitives. Along the way, we show that a natural hybrid method of combining classical and quantum schemes can be used to "upgrade" a secure classical scheme to the fully-quantum setting, in a wide range of cryptographic settings including signcryption, authenticated encryption, and chosen-ciphertext security.

1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aGagliardoni, Tommaso1 aMajenz, Christian uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1811.1185802448nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006700041210006500108520202500173100001902198700002202217700002302239700001502262856003702277 2018 eng d00aQuantum-secure message authentication via blind-unforgeability0 aQuantumsecure message authentication via blindunforgeability3 aFormulating and designing unforgeable authentication of classical messages in the presence of quantum adversaries has been a challenge, as the familiar classical notions of unforgeability do not directly translate into meaningful notions in the quantum setting. A particular difficulty is how to fairly capture the notion of "predicting an unqueried value" when the adversary can query in quantum superposition. In this work, we uncover serious shortcomings in existing approaches, and propose a new definition. We then support its viability by a number of constructions and characterizations. Specifically, we demonstrate a function which is secure according to the existing definition by Boneh and Zhandry, but is clearly vulnerable to a quantum forgery attack, whereby a query supported only on inputs that start with 0 divulges the value of the function on an input that starts with 1. We then propose a new definition, which we call "blind-unforgeability" (or BU.) This notion matches "intuitive unpredictability" in all examples studied thus far. It defines a function to be predictable if there exists an adversary which can use "partially blinded" oracle access to predict values in the blinded region. Our definition (BU) coincides with standard unpredictability (EUF-CMA) in the classical-query setting. We show that quantum-secure pseudorandom functions are BU-secure MACs. In addition, we show that BU satisfies a composition property (Hash-and-MAC) using "Bernoulli-preserving" hash functions, a new notion which may be of independent interest. Finally, we show that BU is amenable to security reductions by giving a precise bound on the extent to which quantum algorithms can deviate from their usual behavior due to the blinding in the BU security experiment.

1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aMajenz, Christian1 aRussell, Alexander1 aSong, Fang uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1803.0376101731nas a2200133 4500008004100000245003500041210003500076260001500111520136800126100001901494700002501513700002201538856003701560 2017 eng d00aUnforgeable Quantum Encryption0 aUnforgeable Quantum Encryption c2017/09/193 aWe study the problem of encrypting and authenticating quantum data in the presence of adversaries making adaptive chosen plaintext and chosen ciphertext queries. Classically, security games use string copying and comparison to detect adversarial cheating in such scenarios. Quantumly, this approach would violate no-cloning. We develop new techniques to overcome this problem: we use entanglement to detect cheating, and rely on recent results for characterizing quantum encryption schemes. We give definitions for (i.) ciphertext unforgeability , (ii.) indistinguishability under adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack, and (iii.) authenticated encryption. The restriction of each definition to the classical setting is at least as strong as the corresponding classical notion: (i) implies INT-CTXT, (ii) implies IND-CCA2, and (iii) implies AE. All of our new notions also imply QIND-CPA privacy. Combining one-time authentication and classical pseudorandomness, we construct schemes for each of these new quantum security notions, and provide several separation examples. Along the way, we also give a new definition of one-time quantum authentication which, unlike all previous approaches, authenticates ciphertexts rather than plaintexts.

1 aAlagic, Gorjan1 aGagliardoni, Tommaso1 aMajenz, Christian uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1709.06539