Quantum computing leverages the quantum resources of superposition and entanglement to efficiently solve computational problems considered intractable for classical computers. Examples include calculating molecular and nuclear structure, simulating strongly-interacting electron systems, and modeling aspects of material function. While substantial theoretical advances have been made in mapping these problems to quantum algorithms, there remains a large gap between the resource requirements for solving such problems and the capabilities of currently available quantum hardware. Bridging this gap will require a co-design approach, where the expression of algorithms is developed in conjunction with the hardware itself to optimize execution. Here, we describe a scalable co-design framework for solving chemistry problems on a trapped ion quantum computer, and apply it to compute the ground-state energy of the water molecule. The robust operation of the trapped ion quantum computer yields energy estimates with errors approaching the chemical accuracy, which is the target threshold necessary for predicting the rates of chemical reaction dynamics.

1 aNam, Yunseong1 aChen, Jwo-Sy1 aPisenti, Neal, C.1 aWright, Kenneth1 aDelaney, Conor1 aMaslov, Dmitri1 aBrown, Kenneth, R.1 aAllen, Stewart1 aAmini, Jason, M.1 aApisdorf, Joel1 aBeck, Kristin, M.1 aBlinov, Aleksey1 aChaplin, Vandiver1 aChmielewski, Mika1 aCollins, Coleman1 aDebnath, Shantanu1 aDucore, Andrew, M.1 aHudek, Kai, M.1 aKeesan, Matthew1 aKreikemeier, Sarah, M.1 aMizrahi, Jonathan1 aSolomon, Phil1 aWilliams, Mike1 aWong-Campos, Jaime, David1 aMonroe, Christopher1 aKim, Jungsang uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1902.1017101624nas a2200193 4500008004100000245009000041210006900131260001500200520100400215100001701219700002401236700001801260700001601278700002301294700002401317700002401341700002801365856003701393 2019 eng d00aToward convergence of effective field theory simulations on digital quantum computers0 aToward convergence of effective field theory simulations on digi c04/18/20193 aWe report results for simulating an effective field theory to compute the binding energy of the deuteron nucleus using a hybrid algorithm on a trapped-ion quantum computer. Two increasingly complex unitary coupled-cluster ansaetze have been used to compute the binding energy to within a few percent for successively more complex Hamiltonians. By increasing the complexity of the Hamiltonian, allowing more terms in the effective field theory expansion and calculating their expectation values, we present a benchmark for quantum computers based on their ability to scalably calculate the effective field theory with increasing accuracy. Our result of E4=−2.220±0.179MeV may be compared with the exact Deuteron ground-state energy −2.224MeV. We also demonstrate an error mitigation technique using Richardson extrapolation on ion traps for the first time. The error mitigation circuit represents a record for deepest quantum circuit on a trapped-ion quantum computer.

1 aShehab, Omar1 aLandsman, Kevin, A.1 aNam, Yunseong1 aZhu, Daiwei1 aLinke, Norbert, M.1 aKeesan, Matthew, J.1 aPooser, Raphael, C.1 aMonroe, Christopher, R. uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1904.0433801328nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006600041210006200107260001500169520092300184100001801107700001301125700001901138856003701157 2018 eng d00aApproximate Quantum Fourier Transform with O(nlog(n)) T gates0 aApproximate Quantum Fourier Transform with Onlogn T gates c2018/03/133 aThe ability to implement the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) efficiently on a quantum computer enables the advantages offered by a variety of fundamental quantum algorithms, such as those for integer factoring, computing discrete logarithm over Abelian groups, and phase estimation. The standard fault-tolerant implementation of an n-qubit QFT approximates the desired transformation by removing small-angle controlled rotations and synthesizing the remaining ones into Clifford+t gates, incurring the t-count complexity of O(n log2 (n)). In this paper we show how to obtain approximate QFT with the t-count of O(n log(n)). Our approach relies on quantum circuits with measurements and feedforward, and on reusing a special quantum state that induces the phase gradient transformation. We report asymptotic analysis as well as concrete circuits, demonstrating significant advantages in both theory and practice.

1 aNam, Yunseong1 aSu, Yuan1 aMaslov, Dmitri uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1803.0493301295nas a2200169 4500008004100000245008000041210006900121260001500190490000600205520078500211100001800996700001901014700001301033700002301046700001901069856003701088 2018 eng d00aAutomated optimization of large quantum circuits with continuous parameters0 aAutomated optimization of large quantum circuits with continuous c2017/10/190 v43 aWe develop and implement automated methods for optimizing quantum circuits of the size and type expected in quantum computations that outperform classical computers. We show how to handle continuous gate parameters and report a collection of fast algorithms capable of optimizing large-scale quantum circuits. For the suite of benchmarks considered, we obtain substantial reductions in gate counts. In particular, we provide better optimization in significantly less time than previous approaches, while making minimal structural changes so as to preserve the basic layout of the underlying quantum algorithms. Our results help bridge the gap between the computations that can be run on existing hardware and those that are expected to outperform classical computers.

1 aNam, Yunseong1 aRoss, Neil, J.1 aSu, Yuan1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aMaslov, Dmitri uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1710.0734501648nas a2200169 4500008004100000245006100041210006100102300001400163490000900177520116300186100002301349700001901372700001801391700001901409700001301428856003701441 2018 eng d00aToward the first quantum simulation with quantum speedup0 aToward the first quantum simulation with quantum speedup a9456-94610 v115 3 aWith quantum computers of significant size now on the horizon, we should understand how to best exploit their initially limited abilities. To this end, we aim to identify a practical problem that is beyond the reach of current classical computers, but that requires the fewest resources for a quantum computer. We consider quantum simulation of spin systems, which could be applied to understand condensed matter phenomena. We synthesize explicit circuits for three leading quantum simulation algorithms, using diverse techniques to tighten error bounds and optimize circuit implementations. Quantum signal processing appears to be preferred among algorithms with rigorous performance guarantees, whereas higher-order product formulas prevail if empirical error estimates suffice. Our circuits are orders of magnitude smaller than those for the simplest classically infeasible instances of factoring and quantum chemistry, bringing practical quantum computation closer to reality.

1 aChilds, Andrew, M.1 aMaslov, Dmitri1 aNam, Yunseong1 aRoss, Neil, J.1 aSu, Yuan uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1711.1098014878nas a2200157 45000080041000000220014000412450074000552100069001292600015001983000008002134900007002215201439400228100001814622700001614640856006414656 2017 eng d a1573-133200aOptimal length of decomposition sequences composed of imperfect gates0 aOptimal length of decomposition sequences composed of imperfect c2017/03/24 a1230 v163 aQuantum error correcting circuitry is both a resource for correcting errors and a source for generating errors. A balance has to be struck between these two aspects. Perfect quantum gates do not exist in nature. Therefore, it is important to investigate how flaws in the quantum hardware affect quantum computing performance. We do this in two steps. First, in the presence of realistic, faulty quantum hardware, we establish how quantum error correction circuitry achieves reduction in the extent of quantum information corruption. Then, we investigate fault-tolerant gate sequence techniques that result in an approximate phase rotation gate, and establish the existence of an optimal length of the length *L* of the decomposition sequence. The existence of is due to the competition between the increase in gate accuracy with increasing *L*, but the decrease in gate performance due to the diffusive proliferation of gate errors due to faulty basis gates. We present an analytical formula for the gate fidelity as a function of *L* that is in satisfactory agreement with the results of our simulations and allows the determination of via the solution of a transcendental equation. Our result is universally applicable since gate sequence approximations also play an important role, e.g., in atomic and molecular physics and in nuclear magnetic resonance.

In this paper we study the ways to use a global entangling operator to efficiently implement circuitry common to a selection of important quantum algorithms. In particular, we focus on the circuits composed with global Ising entangling gates and arbitrary addressable single-qubit gates. We show that under certain circumstances the use of global operations can substantially improve the entangling gate count.

1 aMaslov, Dmitri1 aNam, Yunseong uhttp://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/aaa398