Applications of randomness such as private key generation and public randomness beacons require small blocks of certified random bits on demand. Device-independent quantum random number generators can produce such random bits, but existing quantum-proof protocols and loophole-free implementations suffer from high latency, requiring many hours to produce any random bits. We demonstrate device-independent quantum randomness generation from a loophole-free Bell test with a more efficient quantum-proof protocol, obtaining multiple blocks of 512 bits with an average experiment time of less than 5 min per block and with certified error bounded by 2−64≈5.42×10−20.

1 aZhang, Yanbao1 aShalm, Lynden, K.1 aBienfang, Joshua, C.1 aStevens, Martin, J.1 aMazurek, Michael, D.1 aNam, Sae, Woo1 aAbellĂˇn, Carlos1 aAmaya, Waldimar1 aMitchell, Morgan, W.1 aFu, Honghao1 aMiller, Carl, A.1 aMink, Alan1 aKnill, Emanuel uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1812.0778601933nas a2200277 4500008004100000245007200041210006900113260001500182300001100197490000700208520116900215100001301384700001901397700001401416700001801430700001401448700002501462700002301487700001701510700001701527700002101544700001801565700001401583700002201597856003601619 2016 eng d00aPure-state tomography with the expectation value of Pauli operators0 aPurestate tomography with the expectation value of Pauli operato c2016/03/31 a0321400 v933 aWe examine the problem of finding the minimum number of Pauli measurements needed to uniquely determine an arbitrary n-qubit pure state among all quantum states. We show that only 11 Pauli measurements are needed to determine an arbitrary two-qubit pure state compared to the full quantum state tomography with 16 measurements, and only 31 Pauli measurements are needed to determine an arbitrary three-qubit pure state compared to the full quantum state tomography with 64 measurements. We demonstrate that our protocol is robust under depolarizing error with simulated random pure states. We experimentally test the protocol on two- and three-qubit systems with nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. We show that the pure state tomography protocol saves us a number of measurements without considerable loss of fidelity. We compare our protocol with same-size sets of randomly selected Pauli operators and find that our selected set of Pauli measurements significantly outperforms those random sampling sets. As a direct application, our scheme can also be used to reduce the number of settings needed for pure-state tomography in quantum optical systems.

1 aMa, Xian1 aJackson, Tyler1 aZhou, Hui1 aChen, Jianxin1 aLu, Dawei1 aMazurek, Michael, D.1 aFisher, Kent, A.G.1 aPeng, Xinhua1 aKribs, David1 aResch, Kevin, J.1 aJi, Zhengfeng1 aZeng, Bei1 aLaflamme, Raymond uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1601.05379