We investigate the topological degeneracy that can be realized in Abelian fractional quantum spin Hall states with multiply connected gapped boundaries. Such a topological degeneracy (also dubbed as "boundary degeneracy") does not require superconducting proximity effect and can be created by simply applying a depletion gate to the quantum spin Hall material and using a generic spin-mixing term (e.g., due to backscattering) to gap out the edge modes. We construct an exactly soluble microscopic model manifesting this topological degeneracy and solve it using the recently developed technique [S. Ganeshan and M. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 93, 075118 (2016)]. The corresponding string operators spanning this degeneracy are explicitly calculated. It is argued that the proposed scheme is experimentally reasonable.

1 aGaneshan, Sriram1 aGorshkov, A, V1 aGurarie, Victor1 aGalitski, Victor, M. uhttp://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.04530901646nas a2200157 4500008004100000245004100041210004100082260001500123490000700138520122200145100002301367700002101390700002001411700002001431856003701451 2010 eng d00aHeavy fermions in an optical lattice0 aHeavy fermions in an optical lattice c2010/11/220 v823 a We employ a mean-field theory to study ground-state properties and transport of a two-dimensional gas of ultracold alklaline-earth metal atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a parabolic confining potential. In a homogenous system this mean-field theory is believed to give a qualitatively correct description of heavy fermion metals and Kondo insulators: it reproduces the Kondo-like scaling of the quasiparticle mass in the former, and the same scaling of the excitation gap in the latter. In order to understand ground-state properties in a trap we extend this mean-field theory via local-density approximation. We find that the Kondo insulator gap manifests as a shell structure in the trapped density profile. In addition, a strong signature of the large Fermi surface expected for heavy fermion systems survives the confinement, and could be probed in time-of-flight experiments. From a full self-consistent diagonalization of the mean-field theory we are able to study dynamics in the trap. We find that the mass enhancement of quasiparticle excitations in the heavy Fermi liquid phase manifests as slowing of the dipole oscillations that result from a sudden displacement of the trap center. 1 aFoss-Feig, Michael1 aHermele, Michael1 aGurarie, Victor1 aRey, Ana, Maria uhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1007.5083v1