We apply and extend the theory of universal recovery channels from quantum information theory to address the problem of entanglement wedge reconstruction in AdS/CFT. It has recently been proposed that any low-energy local bulk operators in a CFT boundary region's entanglement wedge can be reconstructed on that boundary region itself. Existing work arguing for this proposal relies on algebraic consequences of the exact equivalence between bulk and boundary relative entropies, namely the theory of operator algebra quantum error correction. However, bulk and boundary relative entropies are only approximately equal in bulk effective field theory, and in similar situations it is known that predictions from exact entropic equalities can be qualitatively incorrect. The framework of universal recovery channels provides a robust demonstration of the entanglement wedge reconstruction conjecture in addition to new physical insights. Most notably, we find that a bulk operator acting in a given boundary region's entanglement wedge can be expressed as the response of the boundary region's modular Hamiltonian to a perturbation of the bulk state in the direction of the bulk operator. This formula can be interpreted as a noncommutative version of Bayes' rule that attempts to undo the noise induced by restricting to only a portion of the boundary, and has an integral representation in terms of modular flows. To reach these conclusions, we extend the theory of universal recovery channels to finite-dimensional operator algebras and demonstrate that recovery channels approximately preserve the multiplicative structure of the operator algebra

1 aCotler, Jordan1 aHayden, Patrick1 aPenington, Geoffrey1 aSalton, Grant1 aSwingle, Brian1 aWalter, Michael uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1704.05839